【OpenCV 4】图像直方图计算与绘制

一、编程环境:

OpenCV  4.1.0
IDE Visual Studio 2017 Enterprise (15.9.13)
操作系统 Windows 10 x64 中文专业版 (1903)

二、示例代码:

#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>
#include <iostream>

using namespace cv;
using namespace std;

const int bins = 256;
Mat src;
const char* winTitle = "图像";

void drawHistogram(Mat &image);

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
	src = imread("../images/test.png", IMREAD_GRAYSCALE);
	if (src.empty()) {
		printf("不能加载图像!\n");
		return 0;
	}
	namedWindow(winTitle, WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
	imshow(winTitle, src);

	drawHistogram(src);
	waitKey(0);
	return 0;
}

// 绘制直方图
void drawHistogram(Mat &image) {
	// 定义参数变量
	const int channels[1] = { 0 };
	const int bins[1] = { 256 };
	float hranges[2] = { 0,255 };
	const float* ranges[1] = { hranges };

	int dims = image.channels();
	if (dims == 3) {
		vector<Mat> bgr_plane;
		split(src, bgr_plane);

		Mat b_hist;
		Mat g_hist;
		Mat r_hist;
		// 计算Blue, Green, Red通道的直方图
		calcHist(&bgr_plane[0], 1, 0, Mat(), b_hist, 1, bins, ranges);
		calcHist(&bgr_plane[1], 1, 0, Mat(), g_hist, 1, bins, ranges);
		calcHist(&bgr_plane[2], 1, 0, Mat(), r_hist, 1, bins, ranges);

		// 直方图大小
		int hist_w = 512;
		int hist_h = 400;
		int bin_w = cvRound((double)hist_w / bins[0]);
		Mat histImage = Mat::zeros(hist_h, hist_w, CV_8UC3);

		// 归一化直方图数据
		normalize(b_hist, b_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
		normalize(g_hist, g_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
		normalize(r_hist, r_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());

		// 绘制直方图曲线
		for (int i = 1; i < bins[0]; i++) {
			line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(b_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
				Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(b_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(255, 0, 0), 2, 8, 0);
			line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(g_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
				Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(g_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 255, 0), 2, 8, 0);
			line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(r_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
				Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(r_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 0, 255), 2, 8, 0);
		}
		// 显示直方图
		namedWindow("直方图(Histogram)", WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
		imshow("直方图(Histogram)", histImage);
	}
	else {
		Mat hist;
		// 计算Blue, Green, Red通道的直方图
		calcHist(&image, 1, 0, Mat(), hist, 1, bins, ranges);
		// 显示直方图
		int hist_w = 512;
		int hist_h = 400;
		int bin_w = cvRound((double)hist_w / bins[0]);
		Mat histImage = Mat::zeros(hist_h, hist_w, CV_8UC3);
		// 归一化直方图数据
		normalize(hist, hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
		// 绘制直方图曲线
		for (int i = 1; i < bins[0]; i++) {
			line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
				Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 255, 0), 2, 8, 0);
		}
		// 显示直方图
		namedWindow("直方图(Histogram)", WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
		imshow("直方图(Histogram)", histImage);
	}
}

三、运行效果:

 

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