# 【OpenCV 4】图像直方图计算与绘制

### 一、编程环境：

 OpenCV 4.1.0 IDE Visual Studio 2017 Enterprise (15.9.13) 操作系统 Windows 10 x64 中文专业版 (1903)

### 二、示例代码：

#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>
#include <iostream>

using namespace cv;
using namespace std;

const int bins = 256;
Mat src;
const char* winTitle = "图像";

void drawHistogram(Mat &image);

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
if (src.empty()) {
printf("不能加载图像！\n");
return 0;
}
namedWindow(winTitle, WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
imshow(winTitle, src);

drawHistogram(src);
waitKey(0);
return 0;
}

// 绘制直方图
void drawHistogram(Mat &image) {
// 定义参数变量
const int channels[1] = { 0 };
const int bins[1] = { 256 };
float hranges[2] = { 0,255 };
const float* ranges[1] = { hranges };

int dims = image.channels();
if (dims == 3) {
vector<Mat> bgr_plane;
split(src, bgr_plane);

Mat b_hist;
Mat g_hist;
Mat r_hist;
// 计算Blue, Green, Red通道的直方图
calcHist(&bgr_plane[0], 1, 0, Mat(), b_hist, 1, bins, ranges);
calcHist(&bgr_plane[1], 1, 0, Mat(), g_hist, 1, bins, ranges);
calcHist(&bgr_plane[2], 1, 0, Mat(), r_hist, 1, bins, ranges);

// 直方图大小
int hist_w = 512;
int hist_h = 400;
int bin_w = cvRound((double)hist_w / bins[0]);
Mat histImage = Mat::zeros(hist_h, hist_w, CV_8UC3);

// 归一化直方图数据
normalize(b_hist, b_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
normalize(g_hist, g_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
normalize(r_hist, r_hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());

// 绘制直方图曲线
for (int i = 1; i < bins[0]; i++) {
line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(b_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(b_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(255, 0, 0), 2, 8, 0);
line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(g_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(g_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 255, 0), 2, 8, 0);
line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(r_hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(r_hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 0, 255), 2, 8, 0);
}
// 显示直方图
namedWindow("直方图（Histogram）", WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
imshow("直方图（Histogram）", histImage);
}
else {
Mat hist;
// 计算Blue, Green, Red通道的直方图
calcHist(&image, 1, 0, Mat(), hist, 1, bins, ranges);
// 显示直方图
int hist_w = 512;
int hist_h = 400;
int bin_w = cvRound((double)hist_w / bins[0]);
Mat histImage = Mat::zeros(hist_h, hist_w, CV_8UC3);
// 归一化直方图数据
normalize(hist, hist, 0, histImage.rows, NORM_MINMAX, -1, Mat());
// 绘制直方图曲线
for (int i = 1; i < bins[0]; i++) {
line(histImage, Point(bin_w*(i - 1), hist_h - cvRound(hist.at<float>(i - 1))),
Point(bin_w*(i), hist_h - cvRound(hist.at<float>(i))), Scalar(0, 255, 0), 2, 8, 0);
}
// 显示直方图
namedWindow("直方图（Histogram）", WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
imshow("直方图（Histogram）", histImage);
}
}

### 三、运行效果：

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