Anroid ListView分组和悬浮Header实现

之前在使用iOS时,看到过一种分组的View,每一组都有一个Header,在上下滑动的时候,会有一个悬浮的Header,这种体验觉得很不错,请看下图:


上图中标红的1,2,3,4四张图中,当向上滑动时,仔细观察灰色条的Header变化,当第二组向上滑动时,会把第一组的悬浮Header挤上去。

这种效果在Android是没有的,iOS的SDK就自带这种效果。这篇文章就介绍如何在Android实现这种效果。

1、悬浮Header的实现

其实Android自带的联系人的App中就有这样的效果,我也是把他的类直接拿过来的,实现了PinnedHeaderListView这么一个类,扩展于ListView,核心原理就是在ListView的最顶部绘制一个调用者设置的Header View,在滑动的时候,根据一些状态来决定是否向上或向下移动Header View(其实就是调用其layout方法,理论上在绘制那里作一些平移也是可以的)。下面说一下具体的实现:
1.1、PinnedHeaderAdapter接口
这个接口需要ListView的Adapter来实现,它定义了两个方法,一个是让Adapter告诉ListView当前指定的position的数据的状态,比如指定position的数据可能是组的header;另一个方法就是设置Header View,比如设置Header View的文本,图片等,这个方法是由调用者去实现的。
    /**
     * Adapter interface.  The list adapter must implement this interface.
     */
    public interface PinnedHeaderAdapter {

        /**
         * Pinned header state: don't show the header.
         */
        public static final int PINNED_HEADER_GONE = 0;

        /**
         * Pinned header state: show the header at the top of the list.
         */
        public static final int PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE = 1;

        /**
         * Pinned header state: show the header. If the header extends beyond
         * the bottom of the first shown element, push it up and clip.
         */
        public static final int PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP = 2;

        /**
         * Computes the desired state of the pinned header for the given
         * position of the first visible list item. Allowed return values are
         * {@link #PINNED_HEADER_GONE}, {@link #PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE} or
         * {@link #PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP}.
         */
        int getPinnedHeaderState(int position);

        /**
         * Configures the pinned header view to match the first visible list item.
         *
         * @param header pinned header view.
         * @param position position of the first visible list item.
         * @param alpha fading of the header view, between 0 and 255.
         */
        void configurePinnedHeader(View header, int position, int alpha);
    }
1.2、如何绘制Header View
这是在dispatchDraw方法中绘制的:
    @Override
    protected void dispatchDraw(Canvas canvas) {
        super.dispatchDraw(canvas);
        if (mHeaderViewVisible) {
            drawChild(canvas, mHeaderView, getDrawingTime());
        }
    }
1.3、配置Header View
核心就是根据不同的状态值来控制Header View的状态,比如PINNED_HEADER_GONE(隐藏)的情况,可能需要设置一个flag标记,不绘制Header View,那么就达到隐藏的效果。当PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP状态时,可能需要根据不同的位移来计算Header View的移动位移。下面是具体的实现:
    public void configureHeaderView(int position) {
        if (mHeaderView == null || null == mAdapter) {
            return;
        }
        
        int state = mAdapter.getPinnedHeaderState(position);
        switch (state) {
            case PinnedHeaderAdapter.PINNED_HEADER_GONE: {
                mHeaderViewVisible = false;
                break;
            }

            case PinnedHeaderAdapter.PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE: {
                mAdapter.configurePinnedHeader(mHeaderView, position, MAX_ALPHA);
                if (mHeaderView.getTop() != 0) {
                    mHeaderView.layout(0, 0, mHeaderViewWidth, mHeaderViewHeight);
                }
                mHeaderViewVisible = true;
                break;
            }

            case PinnedHeaderAdapter.PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP: {
                View firstView = getChildAt(0);
                int bottom = firstView.getBottom();
//                int itemHeight = firstView.getHeight();
                int headerHeight = mHeaderView.getHeight();
                int y;
                int alpha;
                if (bottom < headerHeight) {
                    y = (bottom - headerHeight);
                    alpha = MAX_ALPHA * (headerHeight + y) / headerHeight;
                } else {
                    y = 0;
                    alpha = MAX_ALPHA;
                }
                mAdapter.configurePinnedHeader(mHeaderView, position, alpha);
                if (mHeaderView.getTop() != y) {
                    mHeaderView.layout(0, y, mHeaderViewWidth, mHeaderViewHeight + y);
                }
                mHeaderViewVisible = true;
                break;
            }
        }
    }
1.4、onLayout和onMeasure
在这两个方法中,控制Header View的位置及大小
    @Override
    protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        super.onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
        if (mHeaderView != null) {
            measureChild(mHeaderView, widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
            mHeaderViewWidth = mHeaderView.getMeasuredWidth();
            mHeaderViewHeight = mHeaderView.getMeasuredHeight();
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onLayout(boolean changed, int left, int top, int right, int bottom) {
        super.onLayout(changed, left, top, right, bottom);
        if (mHeaderView != null) {
            mHeaderView.layout(0, 0, mHeaderViewWidth, mHeaderViewHeight);
            configureHeaderView(getFirstVisiblePosition());
        }
    }
好了,到这里,悬浮Header View就完了,各位可能看不到完整的代码,只要明白这几个核心的方法,自己写出来,也差不多了。

2、ListView Section实现

有两种方法实现ListView Section效果,请参考http://cyrilmottier.com/2011/07/05/listview-tips-tricks-2-section-your-listview/
方法一:
每一个ItemView中包含Header,通过数据来控制其显示或隐藏,实现原理如下图:

优点:
1,实现简单,在Adapter.getView的实现中,只需要根据数据来判断是否是header,不是的话,隐藏Item view中的header部分,否则显示。
2,Adapter.getItem(int n)始终返回的数据是在数据列表中对应的第n个数据,这样容易理解。
3,控制header的点击事件更加容易
缺点:
1、使用更多的内存,第一个Item view中都包含一个header view,这样会费更多的内存,多数时候都可能header都是隐藏的。

方法二:
使用不同类型的View:重写getItemViewType(int)和getViewTypeCount()方法。

优点:
1,允许多个不同类型的item
2,理解更加简单
缺点:
1,实现比较复杂
2,得到指定位置的数据变得复杂一些

到这里,我的实现方式是选择第二种方案,尽管它的实现方式要复杂一些,但优点比较明显。

3、Adapter的实现

这里主要就是说一下getPinnedHeaderState和configurePinnedHeader这两个方法的实现
    private class ListViewAdapter extends BaseAdapter implements PinnedHeaderAdapter {
        
        private ArrayList<Contact> mDatas;
        private static final int TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM = 0;  
        private static final int TYPE_ITEM = 1;  
        
        public ListViewAdapter(ArrayList<Contact> datas) {
            mDatas = datas;
        }
        
        @Override
        public boolean areAllItemsEnabled() {
            return false;
        }
        
        @Override
        public boolean isEnabled(int position) {
            // 异常情况处理  
            if (null == mDatas || position <  0|| position > getCount()) {
                return true;
            } 
            
            Contact item = mDatas.get(position);
            if (item.isSection) {
                return false;
            }
            
            return true;
        }
        
        @Override
        public int getCount() {
            return mDatas.size();
        }
        
        @Override
        public int getItemViewType(int position) {
            // 异常情况处理  
            if (null == mDatas || position <  0|| position > getCount()) {
                return TYPE_ITEM;
            } 
            
            Contact item = mDatas.get(position);
            if (item.isSection) {
                return TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM;
            }
            
            return TYPE_ITEM;
        }

        @Override
        public int getViewTypeCount() {
            return 2;
        }

        @Override
        public Object getItem(int position) {
            return (position >= 0 && position < mDatas.size()) ? mDatas.get(position) : 0;
        }

        @Override
        public long getItemId(int position) {
            return 0;
        }

        @Override
        public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
            int itemViewType = getItemViewType(position);
            Contact data = (Contact) getItem(position);
            TextView itemView;
            
            switch (itemViewType) {
            case TYPE_ITEM:
                if (null == convertView) {
                    itemView = new TextView(SectionListView.this);
                    itemView.setLayoutParams(new AbsListView.LayoutParams(ViewGroup.LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT,
                            mItemHeight));
                    itemView.setTextSize(16);
                    itemView.setPadding(10, 0, 0, 0);
                    itemView.setGravity(Gravity.CENTER_VERTICAL);
                    //itemView.setBackgroundColor(Color.argb(255, 20, 20, 20));
                    convertView = itemView;
                }
                
                itemView = (TextView) convertView;
                itemView.setText(data.toString());
                break;
                
            case TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM:
                if (null == convertView) {
                    convertView = getHeaderView();
                }
                itemView = (TextView) convertView;
                itemView.setText(data.toString());
                break;
            }
            
            return convertView;
        }

        @Override
        public int getPinnedHeaderState(int position) {
            if (position < 0) {
                return PINNED_HEADER_GONE;
            }
            
            Contact item = (Contact) getItem(position);
            Contact itemNext = (Contact) getItem(position + 1);
            boolean isSection = item.isSection;
            boolean isNextSection = (null != itemNext) ? itemNext.isSection : false;
            if (!isSection && isNextSection) {
                return PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP;
            }
            
            return PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE;
        }

        @Override
        public void configurePinnedHeader(View header, int position, int alpha) {
            Contact item = (Contact) getItem(position);
            if (null != item) {
                if (header instanceof TextView) {
                    ((TextView) header).setText(item.sectionStr);
                }
            }
        }
    }
getPinnedHeaderState方法中,如果第一个item不是section,第二个itemsection的话,就返回状态PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP,否则返回PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE。
configurePinnedHeader方法中,就是将item的section字符串设置到header view上面去。

【重要说明】
Adapter中的数据里面已经包含了section(header)的数据,数据结构中有一个方法来标识它是否是section。那么,在点击事件就要注意了,通过position可能返回的是section数据结构。

数据结构Contact的定义如下:
public class Contact {
    int id;
    String name;
    String pinyin;
    String sortLetter = "#";
    String sectionStr;
    String phoneNumber;
    boolean isSection;
    static CharacterParser sParser = CharacterParser.getInstance();
    
    Contact() {
        
    }
    
    Contact(int id, String name) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.pinyin = sParser.getSpelling(name);
        if (!TextUtils.isEmpty(pinyin)) {
            String sortString = this.pinyin.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase();
            if (sortString.matches("[A-Z]")) {
                this.sortLetter = sortString.toUpperCase();
            } else {
                this.sortLetter = "#";
            }
        }
    }
    
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        if (isSection) {
            return name;
        } else {
            //return name + " (" + sortLetter + ", " + pinyin + ")";
            return name + " (" + phoneNumber + ")";
        }
    }
}  

完整的代码
package com.lee.sdk.test.section;

import java.util.ArrayList;

import android.graphics.Color;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Gravity;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.AbsListView;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemClickListener;
import android.widget.BaseAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.lee.sdk.test.GABaseActivity;
import com.lee.sdk.test.R;
import com.lee.sdk.widget.PinnedHeaderListView;
import com.lee.sdk.widget.PinnedHeaderListView.PinnedHeaderAdapter;

public class SectionListView extends GABaseActivity {

    private int mItemHeight = 55;
    private int mSecHeight = 25;
    
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        
        float density = getResources().getDisplayMetrics().density;
        mItemHeight = (int) (density * mItemHeight);
        mSecHeight = (int) (density * mSecHeight);
        
        PinnedHeaderListView mListView = new PinnedHeaderListView(this);
        mListView.setAdapter(new ListViewAdapter(ContactLoader.getInstance().getContacts(this)));
        mListView.setPinnedHeaderView(getHeaderView());
        mListView.setBackgroundColor(Color.argb(255, 20, 20, 20));
        mListView.setOnItemClickListener(new OnItemClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id) {
                ListViewAdapter adapter = ((ListViewAdapter) parent.getAdapter());
                Contact data = (Contact) adapter.getItem(position);
                Toast.makeText(SectionListView.this, data.toString(), Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });

        setContentView(mListView);
    }
    
    private View getHeaderView() {
        TextView itemView = new TextView(SectionListView.this);
        itemView.setLayoutParams(new AbsListView.LayoutParams(ViewGroup.LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT,
                mSecHeight));
        itemView.setGravity(Gravity.CENTER_VERTICAL);
        itemView.setBackgroundColor(Color.WHITE);
        itemView.setTextSize(20);
        itemView.setTextColor(Color.GRAY);
        itemView.setBackgroundResource(R.drawable.section_listview_header_bg);
        itemView.setPadding(10, 0, 0, itemView.getPaddingBottom());
        
        return itemView;
    }

    private class ListViewAdapter extends BaseAdapter implements PinnedHeaderAdapter {
        
        private ArrayList<Contact> mDatas;
        private static final int TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM = 0;  
        private static final int TYPE_ITEM = 1;  
        
        public ListViewAdapter(ArrayList<Contact> datas) {
            mDatas = datas;
        }
        
        @Override
        public boolean areAllItemsEnabled() {
            return false;
        }
        
        @Override
        public boolean isEnabled(int position) {
            // 异常情况处理  
            if (null == mDatas || position <  0|| position > getCount()) {
                return true;
            } 
            
            Contact item = mDatas.get(position);
            if (item.isSection) {
                return false;
            }
            
            return true;
        }
        
        @Override
        public int getCount() {
            return mDatas.size();
        }
        
        @Override
        public int getItemViewType(int position) {
            // 异常情况处理  
            if (null == mDatas || position <  0|| position > getCount()) {
                return TYPE_ITEM;
            } 
            
            Contact item = mDatas.get(position);
            if (item.isSection) {
                return TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM;
            }
            
            return TYPE_ITEM;
        }

        @Override
        public int getViewTypeCount() {
            return 2;
        }

        @Override
        public Object getItem(int position) {
            return (position >= 0 && position < mDatas.size()) ? mDatas.get(position) : 0;
        }

        @Override
        public long getItemId(int position) {
            return 0;
        }

        @Override
        public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
            int itemViewType = getItemViewType(position);
            Contact data = (Contact) getItem(position);
            TextView itemView;
            
            switch (itemViewType) {
            case TYPE_ITEM:
                if (null == convertView) {
                    itemView = new TextView(SectionListView.this);
                    itemView.setLayoutParams(new AbsListView.LayoutParams(ViewGroup.LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT,
                            mItemHeight));
                    itemView.setTextSize(16);
                    itemView.setPadding(10, 0, 0, 0);
                    itemView.setGravity(Gravity.CENTER_VERTICAL);
                    //itemView.setBackgroundColor(Color.argb(255, 20, 20, 20));
                    convertView = itemView;
                }
                
                itemView = (TextView) convertView;
                itemView.setText(data.toString());
                break;
                
            case TYPE_CATEGORY_ITEM:
                if (null == convertView) {
                    convertView = getHeaderView();
                }
                itemView = (TextView) convertView;
                itemView.setText(data.toString());
                break;
            }
            
            return convertView;
        }

        @Override
        public int getPinnedHeaderState(int position) {
            if (position < 0) {
                return PINNED_HEADER_GONE;
            }
            
            Contact item = (Contact) getItem(position);
            Contact itemNext = (Contact) getItem(position + 1);
            boolean isSection = item.isSection;
            boolean isNextSection = (null != itemNext) ? itemNext.isSection : false;
            if (!isSection && isNextSection) {
                return PINNED_HEADER_PUSHED_UP;
            }
            
            return PINNED_HEADER_VISIBLE;
        }

        @Override
        public void configurePinnedHeader(View header, int position, int alpha) {
            Contact item = (Contact) getItem(position);
            if (null != item) {
                if (header instanceof TextView) {
                    ((TextView) header).setText(item.sectionStr);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

关于数据加载,分组的逻辑这里就不列出了,数据分组请参考:
最后来一张截图:





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