最简单的基于FFmpeg的AVDevice例子(屏幕录制)

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/leixiaohua1020/article/details/39706721

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最简单的基于FFmpeg的AVDevice例子文章列表:

最简单的基于FFmpeg的AVDevice例子(读取摄像头)

最简单的基于FFmpeg的AVDevice例子(屏幕录制)
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FFmpeg中有一个和多媒体设备交互的类库:Libavdevice。使用这个库可以读取电脑的多媒体设备的数据,或者输出数据到指定的多媒体设备上。

计划写2个有关FFmpeg的libavdevice类库的例子。上篇文章记录了一个基于FFmpeg的Libavdevice类库读取摄像头数据的例子。本篇文章记录一个基于FFmpeg的Libavdevice类库录制屏幕的例子。本文程序录制当前桌面内容并且解码显示出来。有关解码显示方面的代码本文不再详述,可以参考文章:
100行代码实现最简单的基于FFMPEG+SDL的视频播放器(SDL1.x)

抓屏方法

上篇文章记录了libavdevice的使用方法,本文不再重复。在Windows系统使用libavdevice抓取屏幕数据有两种方法:gdigrab和dshow。下文分别介绍。
1. gdigrab
gdigrab是FFmpeg专门用于抓取Windows桌面的设备。非常适合用于屏幕录制。它通过不同的输入URL支持两种方式的抓取:
(1)“desktop”:抓取整张桌面。或者抓取桌面中的一个特定的区域。
(2)“title={窗口名称}”:抓取屏幕中特定的一个窗口(目前中文窗口还有乱码问题)。
gdigrab另外还支持一些参数,用于设定抓屏的位置:
offset_x:抓屏起始点横坐标。
offset_y:抓屏起始点纵坐标。
video_size:抓屏的大小。
framerate:抓屏的帧率。
参考的代码如下:

//Use gdigrab
 AVDictionary* options = NULL;
 //Set some options
 //grabbing frame rate
 //av_dict_set(&options,"framerate","5",0);
 //The distance from the left edge of the screen or desktop
 //av_dict_set(&options,"offset_x","20",0);
 //The distance from the top edge of the screen or desktop
 //av_dict_set(&options,"offset_y","40",0);
 //Video frame size. The default is to capture the full screen
 //av_dict_set(&options,"video_size","640x480",0);
 AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("gdigrab");
 if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"desktop",ifmt,&options)!=0){
  printf("Couldn't open input stream.(无法打开输入流)\n");
  return -1;
  }

2. dshow
使用dshow抓屏需要安装抓屏软件:screen-capture-recorder
软件地址:http://sourceforge.net/projects/screencapturer/
下载软件安装完成后,可以指定dshow的输入设备为“screen-capture-recorder”即可。有关dshow设备的使用方法在上一篇文章中已经有详细叙述,这里不再重复。参考的代码如下:
AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("dshow");
 if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"video=screen-capture-recorder",ifmt,NULL)!=0){
  printf("Couldn't open input stream.(无法打开输入流)\n");
  return -1;
 }

注:上述两种抓屏方法也可以直接使用ffmpeg.exe的命令行完成,可以参考文章:

FFmpeg获取DirectShow设备数据(摄像头,录屏)

在Linux下可以使用x11grab抓屏,在MacOS下可以使用avfoundation抓屏,在这里不再详细叙述。

代码

下面直接贴上程序代码:

/**
 * 最简单的基于FFmpeg的AVDevice例子(屏幕录制)
 * Simplest FFmpeg Device (Screen Capture)
 *
 * 雷霄骅 Lei Xiaohua
 * leixiaohua1020@126.com
 * 中国传媒大学/数字电视技术
 * Communication University of China / Digital TV Technology
 * http://blog.csdn.net/leixiaohua1020
 *
 * 本程序实现了屏幕录制功能。可以录制并播放桌面数据。是基于FFmpeg
 * 的libavdevice类库最简单的例子。通过该例子,可以学习FFmpeg中
 * libavdevice类库的使用方法。
 * 本程序在Windows下可以使用2种方式录制屏幕:
 *  1.gdigrab: Win32下的基于GDI的屏幕录制设备。
 *             抓取桌面的时候,输入URL为“desktop”。
 *  2.dshow: 使用Directshow。注意需要安装额外的软件screen-capture-recorder
 * 在Linux下可以使用x11grab录制屏幕。
 * 在MacOS下可以使用avfoundation录制屏幕。
 *
 * This software capture screen of computer. It's the simplest example
 * about usage of FFmpeg's libavdevice Library. 
 * It's suiltable for the beginner of FFmpeg.
 * This software support 2 methods to capture screen in Microsoft Windows:
 *  1.gdigrab: Win32 GDI-based screen capture device.
 *             Input URL in avformat_open_input() is "desktop".
 *  2.dshow: Use Directshow. Need to install screen-capture-recorder.
 * It use x11grab to capture screen in Linux.
 * It use avfoundation to capture screen in MacOS.
 */


#include <stdio.h>

#define __STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS

#ifdef _WIN32
//Windows
extern "C"
{
#include "libavcodec/avcodec.h"
#include "libavformat/avformat.h"
#include "libswscale/swscale.h"
#include "libavdevice/avdevice.h"
#include "SDL/SDL.h"
};
#else
//Linux...
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C"
{
#endif
#include <libavcodec/avcodec.h>
#include <libavformat/avformat.h>
#include <libswscale/swscale.h>
#include <libavdevice/avdevice.h>
#include <SDL/SDL.h>
#ifdef __cplusplus
};
#endif
#endif

//Output YUV420P 
#define OUTPUT_YUV420P 0
//'1' Use Dshow 
//'0' Use GDIgrab
#define USE_DSHOW 0

//Refresh Event
#define SFM_REFRESH_EVENT  (SDL_USEREVENT + 1)

#define SFM_BREAK_EVENT  (SDL_USEREVENT + 2)

int thread_exit=0;

int sfp_refresh_thread(void *opaque)
{
	thread_exit=0;
	while (!thread_exit) {
		SDL_Event event;
		event.type = SFM_REFRESH_EVENT;
		SDL_PushEvent(&event);
		SDL_Delay(40);
	}
	thread_exit=0;
	//Break
	SDL_Event event;
	event.type = SFM_BREAK_EVENT;
	SDL_PushEvent(&event);

	return 0;
}

//Show Dshow Device
void show_dshow_device(){
    AVFormatContext *pFormatCtx = avformat_alloc_context();
    AVDictionary* options = NULL;
    av_dict_set(&options,"list_devices","true",0);
    AVInputFormat *iformat = av_find_input_format("dshow");
    printf("========Device Info=============\n");
    avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"video=dummy",iformat,&options);
    printf("================================\n");
}

//Show AVFoundation Device
void show_avfoundation_device(){
    AVFormatContext *pFormatCtx = avformat_alloc_context();
    AVDictionary* options = NULL;
    av_dict_set(&options,"list_devices","true",0);
    AVInputFormat *iformat = av_find_input_format("avfoundation");
    printf("==AVFoundation Device Info===\n");
    avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"",iformat,&options);
    printf("=============================\n");
}



int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{

	AVFormatContext	*pFormatCtx;
	int				i, videoindex;
	AVCodecContext	*pCodecCtx;
	AVCodec			*pCodec;
	
	av_register_all();
	avformat_network_init();
	pFormatCtx = avformat_alloc_context();
	
	//Open File
	//char filepath[]="src01_480x272_22.h265";
	//avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,filepath,NULL,NULL)

	//Register Device
	avdevice_register_all();
	//Windows
#ifdef _WIN32
#if USE_DSHOW
	//Use dshow
	//
	//Need to Install screen-capture-recorder
	//screen-capture-recorder
	//Website: http://sourceforge.net/projects/screencapturer/
	//
	AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("dshow");
	if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"video=screen-capture-recorder",ifmt,NULL)!=0){
		printf("Couldn't open input stream.\n");
		return -1;
	}
#else
	//Use gdigrab
	AVDictionary* options = NULL;
	//Set some options
	//grabbing frame rate
	//av_dict_set(&options,"framerate","5",0);
	//The distance from the left edge of the screen or desktop
	//av_dict_set(&options,"offset_x","20",0);
	//The distance from the top edge of the screen or desktop
	//av_dict_set(&options,"offset_y","40",0);
	//Video frame size. The default is to capture the full screen
	//av_dict_set(&options,"video_size","640x480",0);
	AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("gdigrab");
	if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"desktop",ifmt,&options)!=0){
		printf("Couldn't open input stream.\n");
		return -1;
	}

#endif
#elif defined linux
	//Linux
	AVDictionary* options = NULL;
	//Set some options
	//grabbing frame rate
	//av_dict_set(&options,"framerate","5",0);
	//Make the grabbed area follow the mouse
	//av_dict_set(&options,"follow_mouse","centered",0);
	//Video frame size. The default is to capture the full screen
	//av_dict_set(&options,"video_size","640x480",0);
	AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("x11grab");
	//Grab at position 10,20
	if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,":0.0+10,20",ifmt,&options)!=0){
		printf("Couldn't open input stream.\n");
		return -1;
	}
#else
    show_avfoundation_device();
    //Mac
    AVInputFormat *ifmt=av_find_input_format("avfoundation");
    //Avfoundation
    //[video]:[audio]
    if(avformat_open_input(&pFormatCtx,"1",ifmt,NULL)!=0){
        printf("Couldn't open input stream.\n");
        return -1;
    }
#endif

	if(avformat_find_stream_info(pFormatCtx,NULL)<0)
	{
		printf("Couldn't find stream information.\n");
		return -1;
	}
	videoindex=-1;
	for(i=0; i<pFormatCtx->nb_streams; i++) 
		if(pFormatCtx->streams[i]->codec->codec_type==AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO)
		{
			videoindex=i;
			break;
		}
	if(videoindex==-1)
	{
		printf("Didn't find a video stream.\n");
		return -1;
	}
	pCodecCtx=pFormatCtx->streams[videoindex]->codec;
	pCodec=avcodec_find_decoder(pCodecCtx->codec_id);
	if(pCodec==NULL)
	{
		printf("Codec not found.\n");
		return -1;
	}
	if(avcodec_open2(pCodecCtx, pCodec,NULL)<0)
	{
		printf("Could not open codec.\n");
		return -1;
	}
	AVFrame	*pFrame,*pFrameYUV;
	pFrame=av_frame_alloc();
	pFrameYUV=av_frame_alloc();
	//unsigned char *out_buffer=(unsigned char *)av_malloc(avpicture_get_size(AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P, pCodecCtx->width, pCodecCtx->height));
	//avpicture_fill((AVPicture *)pFrameYUV, out_buffer, AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P, pCodecCtx->width, pCodecCtx->height);
	//SDL----------------------------
	if(SDL_Init(SDL_INIT_VIDEO | SDL_INIT_AUDIO | SDL_INIT_TIMER)) {  
		printf( "Could not initialize SDL - %s\n", SDL_GetError()); 
		return -1;
	} 
	int screen_w=640,screen_h=360;
	const SDL_VideoInfo *vi = SDL_GetVideoInfo();
	//Half of the Desktop's width and height.
	screen_w = vi->current_w/2;
	screen_h = vi->current_h/2;
	SDL_Surface *screen; 
	screen = SDL_SetVideoMode(screen_w, screen_h, 0,0);

	if(!screen) {  
		printf("SDL: could not set video mode - exiting:%s\n",SDL_GetError());  
		return -1;
	}
	SDL_Overlay *bmp; 
	bmp = SDL_CreateYUVOverlay(pCodecCtx->width, pCodecCtx->height,SDL_YV12_OVERLAY, screen); 
	SDL_Rect rect;
	rect.x = 0;    
	rect.y = 0;    
	rect.w = screen_w;    
	rect.h = screen_h;  
	//SDL End------------------------
	int ret, got_picture;

	AVPacket *packet=(AVPacket *)av_malloc(sizeof(AVPacket));

#if OUTPUT_YUV420P 
    FILE *fp_yuv=fopen("output.yuv","wb+");  
#endif  

	struct SwsContext *img_convert_ctx;
	img_convert_ctx = sws_getContext(pCodecCtx->width, pCodecCtx->height, pCodecCtx->pix_fmt, pCodecCtx->width, pCodecCtx->height, AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P, SWS_BICUBIC, NULL, NULL, NULL); 
	//------------------------------
	SDL_Thread *video_tid = SDL_CreateThread(sfp_refresh_thread,NULL);
	//
	SDL_WM_SetCaption("Simplest FFmpeg Grab Desktop",NULL);
	//Event Loop
	SDL_Event event;

	for (;;) {
		//Wait
		SDL_WaitEvent(&event);
		if(event.type==SFM_REFRESH_EVENT){
			//------------------------------
			if(av_read_frame(pFormatCtx, packet)>=0){
				if(packet->stream_index==videoindex){
					ret = avcodec_decode_video2(pCodecCtx, pFrame, &got_picture, packet);
					if(ret < 0){
						printf("Decode Error.\n");
						return -1;
					}
					if(got_picture){
						SDL_LockYUVOverlay(bmp);
						pFrameYUV->data[0]=bmp->pixels[0];
						pFrameYUV->data[1]=bmp->pixels[2];
						pFrameYUV->data[2]=bmp->pixels[1];     
						pFrameYUV->linesize[0]=bmp->pitches[0];
						pFrameYUV->linesize[1]=bmp->pitches[2];   
						pFrameYUV->linesize[2]=bmp->pitches[1];
						sws_scale(img_convert_ctx, (const unsigned char* const*)pFrame->data, pFrame->linesize, 0, pCodecCtx->height, pFrameYUV->data, pFrameYUV->linesize);

#if OUTPUT_YUV420P  
						int y_size=pCodecCtx->width*pCodecCtx->height;    
						fwrite(pFrameYUV->data[0],1,y_size,fp_yuv);    //Y   
						fwrite(pFrameYUV->data[1],1,y_size/4,fp_yuv);  //U  
						fwrite(pFrameYUV->data[2],1,y_size/4,fp_yuv);  //V  
#endif  
						SDL_UnlockYUVOverlay(bmp); 
						
						SDL_DisplayYUVOverlay(bmp, &rect); 

					}
				}
				av_free_packet(packet);
			}else{
				//Exit Thread
				thread_exit=1;
			}
		}else if(event.type==SDL_QUIT){
			thread_exit=1;
		}else if(event.type==SFM_BREAK_EVENT){
			break;
		}

	}


	sws_freeContext(img_convert_ctx);

#if OUTPUT_YUV420P 
    fclose(fp_yuv);
#endif 

	SDL_Quit();

	//av_free(out_buffer);
	av_free(pFrameYUV);
	avcodec_close(pCodecCtx);
	avformat_close_input(&pFormatCtx);

	return 0;
}





结果

程序的运行效果如下。这个运行结果还是十分有趣的,会出现一个屏幕“嵌套”在另一个屏幕里面的现象,环环相套。
 
可以通过代码定义的宏来确定是否将解码后的YUV420P数据输出成文件:
#define OUTPUT_YUV420P 0

可以通过下面的宏定义来确定使用GDIGrab或者是Dshow打开摄像头:

//'1' Use Dshow 
//'0' Use GDIgrab
#define USE_DSHOW 0


下载


Simplest FFmpeg Device 


项目主页

SourceForge:https://sourceforge.net/projects/simplestffmpegdevice/

Github:https://github.com/leixiaohua1020/simplest_ffmpeg_device

开源中国:http://git.oschina.net/leixiaohua1020/simplest_ffmpeg_device


CSDN下载地址:
http://download.csdn.net/detail/leixiaohua1020/7994049

注:
 本工程包含两个基于FFmpeg的libavdevice的例子:
 simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop:屏幕录制。
 simplest_ffmpeg_readcamera:读取摄像头


更新-1.1(2015.1.9)=========================================

该版本中,修改了SDL的显示方式,弹出的窗口可以移动了。

CSDN下载地址:http://download.csdn.net/detail/leixiaohua1020/8344695


更新-1.2 (2015.2.13)=========================================

这次考虑到了跨平台的要求,调整了源代码。经过这次调整之后,源代码可以在以下平台编译通过:

VC++:打开sln文件即可编译,无需配置。

cl.exe:打开compile_cl.bat即可命令行下使用cl.exe进行编译,注意可能需要按照VC的安装路径调整脚本里面的参数。编译命令如下。

::VS2010 Environment
call "D:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\VC\vcvarsall.bat"
::include
@set INCLUDE=include;%INCLUDE%
::lib
@set LIB=lib;%LIB%
::compile and link
cl simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.cpp /MD /link SDL.lib SDLmain.lib avcodec.lib ^
avformat.lib avutil.lib avdevice.lib avfilter.lib postproc.lib swresample.lib swscale.lib ^
/SUBSYSTEM:WINDOWS /OPT:NOREF

MinGW:MinGW命令行下运行compile_mingw.sh即可使用MinGW的g++进行编译。编译命令如下。

g++ simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.cpp -g -o simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.exe \
-I /usr/local/include -L /usr/local/lib \
-lmingw32 -lSDLmain -lSDL -lavformat -lavcodec -lavutil -lavdevice -lswscale

GCC(Linux):Linux命令行下运行compile_gcc.sh即可使用GCC进行编译。编译命令如下。

gcc simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.cpp -g -o simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.out \
-I /usr/local/include -L /usr/local/lib -lSDLmain -lSDL -lavformat -lavcodec -lavutil -lavdevice -lswscale

GCC(MacOS):MacOS命令行下运行compile_gcc_mac.sh即可使用GCC进行编译。Mac的GCC和Linux的GCC差别不大,但是使用SDL1.2的时候,必须加上“-framework Cocoa”参数,否则编译无法通过。编译命令如下。

gcc simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.cpp -g -o simplest_ffmpeg_grabdesktop.out \
-framework Cocoa -I /usr/local/include -L /usr/local/lib -lSDLmain -lSDL -lavformat -lavcodec -lavutil -lavdevice -lswscale

PS:相关的编译命令已经保存到了工程文件夹中


CSDN下载地址:http://download.csdn.net/detail/leixiaohua1020/8445747

SourceForge上已经更新。


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