Solidity中文文档----实例篇

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原文链接:http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/solidity-by-example.html

实例一:投票

下面的合同比较复杂,展示了Solidity的很多功能。 它是关于投票的合同。 当然,电子投票的主要问题是如何正确地为人分配投票权以及如何防止投票被操纵。 我们无法在这里解决所有问题,我们展示的是如何进行委派投票,以便实现自动计票和投票的完全透明。

思路:为每个选票创建一个合同,为每个选项提供一个简短的名称。 然后,担任主席的合同的创建者将给予每个地址单独投票的权利。

地址背后的人随后可以选择投票给自己或将他们的投票委托给他们信任的人。

在投票时间结束时,函数winningProposal()将返回获得最多投票的投标。

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

/// @title Voting with delegation.
contract Ballot {
    // This declares a new complex type which will
    // be used for variables later.
    // It will represent a single voter.
    struct Voter {
        uint weight; // weight is accumulated by delegation
        bool voted;  // if true, that person already voted
        address delegate; // person delegated to
        uint vote;   // index of the voted proposal
    }

    // This is a type for a single proposal.
    struct Proposal
    {
        bytes32 name;   // short name (up to 32 bytes)
        uint voteCount; // number of accumulated votes
    }

    address public chairperson;

    // This declares a state variable that
    // stores a `Voter` struct for each possible address.
    mapping(address => Voter) public voters;

    // A dynamically-sized array of `Proposal` structs.
    Proposal[] public proposals;

    /// Create a new ballot to choose one of `proposalNames`.
    function Ballot(bytes32[] proposalNames) {
        chairperson = msg.sender;
        voters[chairperson].weight = 1;

        // For each of the provided proposal names,
        // create a new proposal object and add it
        // to the end of the array.
        for (uint i = 0; i < proposalNames.length; i++) {
            // `Proposal({...})` creates a temporary
            // Proposal object and `proposals.push(...)`
            // appends it to the end of `proposals`.
            proposals.push(Proposal({
                name: proposalNames[i],
                voteCount: 0
            }));
        }
    }

    // Give `voter` the right to vote on this ballot.
    // May only be called by `chairperson`.
    function giveRightToVote(address voter) {
        if (msg.sender != chairperson || voters[voter].voted) {
            // `throw` terminates and reverts all changes to
            // the state and to Ether balances. It is often
            // a good idea to use this if functions are
            // called incorrectly. But watch out, this
            // will also consume all provided gas.
            throw;
        }
        voters[voter].weight = 1;
    }

    /// Delegate your vote to the voter `to`.
    function delegate(address to) {
        // assigns reference
        Voter sender = voters[msg.sender];
        if (sender.voted)
            throw;

        // Forward the delegation as long as
        // `to` also delegated.
        // In general, such loops are very dangerous,
        // because if they run too long, they might
        // need more gas than is available in a block.
        // In this case, the delegation will not be executed,
        // but in other situations, such loops might
        // cause a contract to get "stuck" completely.
        while (
            voters[to].delegate != address(0) &&
            voters[to].delegate != msg.sender
        ) {
            to = voters[to].delegate;
        }

        // We found a loop in the delegation, not allowed.
        if (to == msg.sender) {
            throw;
        }

        // Since `sender` is a reference, this
        // modifies `voters[msg.sender].voted`
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.delegate = to;
        Voter delegate = voters[to];
        if (delegate.voted) {
            // If the delegate already voted,
            // directly add to the number of votes
            proposals[delegate.vote].voteCount += sender.weight;
        } else {
            // If the delegate did not vote yet,
            // add to her weight.
            delegate.weight += sender.weight;
        }
    }

    /// Give your vote (including votes delegated to you)
    /// to proposal `proposals[proposal].name`.
    function vote(uint proposal) {
        Voter sender = voters[msg.sender];
        if (sender.voted)
            throw;
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.vote = proposal;

        // If `proposal` is out of the range of the array,
        // this will throw automatically and revert all
        // changes.
        proposals[proposal].voteCount += sender.weight;
    }

    /// @dev Computes the winning proposal taking all
    /// previous votes into account.
    function winningProposal() constant
            returns (uint winningProposal)
    {
        uint winningVoteCount = 0;
        for (uint p = 0; p < proposals.length; p++) {
            if (proposals[p].voteCount > winningVoteCount) {
                winningVoteCount = proposals[p].voteCount;
                winningProposal = p;
            }
        }
    }

    // Calls winningProposal() function to get the index
    // of the winner contained in the proposals array and then
    // returns the name of the winner
    function winnerName() constant
            returns (bytes32 winnerName)
    {
        winnerName = proposals[winningProposal()].name;
    }
}

可以改进的地方:

目前,需要很多交易来为所有参与者分配投票权。 你能想到一个更好的方法吗?

实例二:盲拍

在本节中,我们将在以太坊上创建一个盲拍合同。 我们将从公开拍卖开始,每个人都可以看到所做的出价,然后将此合同延伸到盲拍,在出价期结束前无法查看实际出价。

1.简单的公开拍卖

简单拍卖合同的一般思路是,每个人都可以在投标期间发送出价。 出价过程已包括汇款/以太网,以绑定投标人的出价。 如果提高最高出价,先前最高的出价者拿回自己的钱。 招标期结束后,合同必须手动呼叫受益人去收到他的钱 —- 合同不能激活自己。

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

contract SimpleAuction {
    // Parameters of the auction. Times are either
    // absolute unix timestamps (seconds since 1970-01-01)
    // or time periods in seconds.
    address public beneficiary;
    uint public auctionStart;
    uint public biddingTime;

    // Current state of the auction.
    address public highestBidder;
    uint public highestBid;

    // Allowed withdrawals of previous bids
    mapping(address => uint) pendingReturns;

    // Set to true at the end, disallows any change
    bool ended;

    // Events that will be fired on changes.
    event HighestBidIncreased(address bidder, uint amount);
    event AuctionEnded(address winner, uint amount);

    // The following is a so-called natspec comment,
    // recognizable by the three slashes.
    // It will be shown when the user is asked to
    // confirm a transaction.

    /// Create a simple auction with `_biddingTime`
    /// seconds bidding time on behalf of the
    /// beneficiary address `_beneficiary`.
    function SimpleAuction(
        uint _biddingTime,
        address _beneficiary
    ) {
        beneficiary = _beneficiary;
        auctionStart = now;
        biddingTime = _biddingTime;
    }

    /// Bid on the auction with the value sent
    /// together with this transaction.
    /// The value will only be refunded if the
    /// auction is not won.
    function bid() payable {
        // No arguments are necessary, all
        // information is already part of
        // the transaction. The keyword payable
        // is required for the function to
        // be able to receive Ether.
        if (now > auctionStart + biddingTime) {
            // Revert the call if the bidding
            // period is over.
            throw;
        }
        if (msg.value <= highestBid) {
            // If the bid is not higher, send the
            // money back.
            throw;
        }
        if (highestBidder != 0) {
            // Sending back the money by simply using
            // highestBidder.send(highestBid) is a security risk
            // because it can be prevented by the caller by e.g.
            // raising the call stack to 1023. It is always safer
            // to let the recipient withdraw their money themselves.
            pendingReturns[highestBidder] += highestBid;
        }
        highestBidder = msg.sender;
        highestBid = msg.value;
        HighestBidIncreased(msg.sender, msg.value);
    }

    /// Withdraw a bid that was overbid.
    function withdraw() returns (bool) {
        var amount = pendingReturns[msg.sender];
        if (amount > 0) {
            // It is important to set this to zero because the recipient
            // can call this function again as part of the receiving call
            // before `send` returns.
            pendingReturns[msg.sender] = 0;

            if (!msg.sender.send(amount)) {
                // No need to call throw here, just reset the amount owing
                pendingReturns[msg.sender] = amount;
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /// End the auction and send the highest bid
    /// to the beneficiary.
    function auctionEnd() {
        // It is a good guideline to structure functions that interact
        // with other contracts (i.e. they call functions or send Ether)
        // into three phases:
        // 1. checking conditions
        // 2. performing actions (potentially changing conditions)
        // 3. interacting with other contracts
        // If these phases are mixed up, the other contract could call
        // back into the current contract and modify the state or cause
        // effects (ether payout) to be perfromed multiple times.
        // If functions called internally include interaction with external
        // contracts, they also have to be considered interaction with
        // external contracts.

        // 1. Conditions
        if (now <= auctionStart + biddingTime)
            throw; // auction did not yet end
        if (ended)
            throw; // this function has already been called

        // 2. Effects
        ended = true;
        AuctionEnded(highestBidder, highestBid);

        // 3. Interaction
        if (!beneficiary.send(highestBid))
            throw;
    }
}

2.盲拍

之前的公开竞价延伸至以下的盲拍。 盲拍的优点是在招标周期结束时没有时间压力。 在透明的计算平台上创建盲拍,听起来可能是一个矛盾,这里其实用到了加密技术。

在投标期间,投标人实际上不会发送她的出价,发送的只有一个哈希值。 由于当前认为实际上不可能找到对应哈希值相等的两个值(在足够长的情况下),投标者可以承诺其投标。 招标期结束后,投标人必须公开他们的投标:他们发送他们未加密的值,合同检查哈希值与投标期间提供的值是否相同。

另一个存在的问题是如何在同一时间绑定拍卖和盲化:防止投标人中标后不汇款的办法是让他一起发送他的出价。 但是交易在以太坊中又是透明的,任何人都可以看到。

以下合约的解决办法是:通过接受大于或等于出价的任何值来解决此问题。 因为这只能在显示阶段检查,一些出价可能是无效的,这是有意而为之(甚至提供了一个明确的标志,以高价值转移放置无效出价):投标者可以通过放置几个高或低无效出价。

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

contract BlindAuction {
    struct Bid {
        bytes32 blindedBid;
        uint deposit;
    }

    address public beneficiary;
    uint public auctionStart;
    uint public biddingEnd;
    uint public revealEnd;
    bool public ended;

    mapping(address => Bid[]) public bids;

    address public highestBidder;
    uint public highestBid;

    // Allowed withdrawals of previous bids
    mapping(address => uint) pendingReturns;

    event AuctionEnded(address winner, uint highestBid);

    /// Modifiers are a convenient way to validate inputs to
    /// functions. `onlyBefore` is applied to `bid` below:
    /// The new function body is the modifier's body where
    /// `_` is replaced by the old function body.
    modifier onlyBefore(uint _time) { if (now >= _time) throw; _; }
    modifier onlyAfter(uint _time) { if (now <= _time) throw; _; }

    function BlindAuction(
        uint _biddingTime,
        uint _revealTime,
        address _beneficiary
    ) {
        beneficiary = _beneficiary;
        auctionStart = now;
        biddingEnd = now + _biddingTime;
        revealEnd = biddingEnd + _revealTime;
    }

    /// Place a blinded bid with `_blindedBid` = keccak256(value,
    /// fake, secret).
    /// The sent ether is only refunded if the bid is correctly
    /// revealed in the revealing phase. The bid is valid if the
    /// ether sent together with the bid is at least "value" and
    /// "fake" is not true. Setting "fake" to true and sending
    /// not the exact amount are ways to hide the real bid but
    /// still make the required deposit. The same address can
    /// place multiple bids.
    function bid(bytes32 _blindedBid)
        payable
        onlyBefore(biddingEnd)
    {
        bids[msg.sender].push(Bid({
            blindedBid: _blindedBid,
            deposit: msg.value
        }));
    }

    /// Reveal your blinded bids. You will get a refund for all
    /// correctly blinded invalid bids and for all bids except for
    /// the totally highest.
    function reveal(
        uint[] _values,
        bool[] _fake,
        bytes32[] _secret
    )
        onlyAfter(biddingEnd)
        onlyBefore(revealEnd)
    {
        uint length = bids[msg.sender].length;
        if (
            _values.length != length ||
            _fake.length != length ||
            _secret.length != length
        ) {
            throw;
        }

        uint refund;
        for (uint i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            var bid = bids[msg.sender][i];
            var (value, fake, secret) =
                    (_values[i], _fake[i], _secret[i]);
            if (bid.blindedBid != keccak256(value, fake, secret)) {
                // Bid was not actually revealed.
                // Do not refund deposit.
                continue;
            }
            refund += bid.deposit;
            if (!fake && bid.deposit >= value) {
                if (placeBid(msg.sender, value))
                    refund -= value;
            }
            // Make it impossible for the sender to re-claim
            // the same deposit.
            bid.blindedBid = 0;
        }
        if (!msg.sender.send(refund))
            throw;
    }

    // This is an "internal" function which means that it
    // can only be called from the contract itself (or from
    // derived contracts).
    function placeBid(address bidder, uint value) internal
            returns (bool success)
    {
        if (value <= highestBid) {
            return false;
        }
        if (highestBidder != 0) {
            // Refund the previously highest bidder.
            pendingReturns[highestBidder] += highestBid;
        }
        highestBid = value;
        highestBidder = bidder;
        return true;
    }

    /// Withdraw a bid that was overbid.
    function withdraw() returns (bool) {
        var amount = pendingReturns[msg.sender];
        if (amount > 0) {
            // It is important to set this to zero because the recipient
            // can call this function again as part of the receiving call
            // before `send` returns (see the remark above about
            // conditions -> effects -> interaction).
            pendingReturns[msg.sender] = 0;

            if (!msg.sender.send(amount)){
                // No need to call throw here, just reset the amount owing
                pendingReturns[msg.sender] = amount;
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /// End the auction and send the highest bid
    /// to the beneficiary.
    function auctionEnd()
        onlyAfter(revealEnd)
    {
        if (ended)
            throw;
        AuctionEnded(highestBidder, highestBid);
        ended = true;
        // We send all the money we have, because some
        // of the refunds might have failed.
        if (!beneficiary.send(this.balance))
            throw;
    }
}

实例三:安全的远程购物

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;

contract Purchase {
    uint public value;
    address public seller;
    address public buyer;
    enum State { Created, Locked, Inactive }
    State public state;

    function Purchase() payable {
        seller = msg.sender;
        value = msg.value / 2;
        if (2 * value != msg.value) throw;
    }

    modifier require(bool _condition) {
        if (!_condition) throw;
        _;
    }

    modifier onlyBuyer() {
        if (msg.sender != buyer) throw;
        _;
    }

    modifier onlySeller() {
        if (msg.sender != seller) throw;
        _;
    }

    modifier inState(State _state) {
        if (state != _state) throw;
        _;
    }

    event aborted();
    event purchaseConfirmed();
    event itemReceived();

    /// Abort the purchase and reclaim the ether.
    /// Can only be called by the seller before
    /// the contract is locked.
    function abort()
        onlySeller
        inState(State.Created)
    {
        aborted();
        state = State.Inactive;
        if (!seller.send(this.balance))
            throw;
    }

    /// Confirm the purchase as buyer.
    /// Transaction has to include `2 * value` ether.
    /// The ether will be locked until confirmReceived
    /// is called.
    function confirmPurchase()
        inState(State.Created)
        require(msg.value == 2 * value)
        payable
    {
        purchaseConfirmed();
        buyer = msg.sender;
        state = State.Locked;
    }

    /// Confirm that you (the buyer) received the item.
    /// This will release the locked ether.
    function confirmReceived()
        onlyBuyer
        inState(State.Locked)
    {
        itemReceived();
        // It is important to change the state first because
        // otherwise, the contracts called using `send` below
        // can call in again here.
        state = State.Inactive;
        // This actually allows both the buyer and the seller to
        // block the refund.
        if (!buyer.send(value) || !seller.send(this.balance))
            throw;
    }
}

实例四:小额付款
待续……

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