Oracle RAC OCR 的管理与维护

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,欢迎扩散,扩散请务必注明出处。 https://blog.csdn.net/robinson_0612/article/details/8572648

   OCR相当于Windows的注册表。对于Windows而言,所有的软件信息,用户,配置,安全等等统统都放到注册表里边。而集群呢,同样如此,所有和集群相关的资源,配置,节点,RAC数据库统统都放在这个仓库里。如果OCR被破坏则导致集群服务启动异常,需要修复OCR。因此OCR的管理与维护对于整个集群而言,是相当重要的。本文主要描述了Oracle 10g RAC下的OCR的管理与维护。

1、环境
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> cat /etc/issue
 Welcome to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 (x86_64) - Kernel \r (\l).
 
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> crsctl query crs activeversion
 CRS active version on the cluster is [10.2.0.3.0]

2、校验OCR文件
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6160
          Available space (kbytes) :     198400
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1                <-- OCR (primary)
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
                                     Device/File not configured   <-- OCR Mirror (not configured)
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 #如果clusterware处于关闭状态也可通过查询ocr.loc获得ocr文件所在的位置
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
 local_only=FALSE         
 
 #校验OCR产生的日志文件
 $ORA_CRS_HOME/log/<hostname>/client/ocrcheck_<pid>.log

3、dump OCR的内容
 #缺省情况下,ocrdump命令导出文件被命名为OCRDUMPFILE,其文件类型为ASCII文件,如果缺省文件已存在,则收到PROT-303文件存在提示
 
 #导出ocr到缺省文件
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrdump
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls -hltr OCRDUMPFILE
 -rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall 44K 2013-01-07 14:13 OCRDUMPFILE
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> file OCRDUMPFILE
 OCRDUMPFILE: ASCII text
 
 #导出ocr到指定文件
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrdump /tmp/`hostname`_ocrdump_`date +%Y%m%d:%H%M`
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ls /tmp/*ocr*
 /tmp/bo2dbp_ocrdump_20130107:1415
 
 #导出ocr中system.css项的内容
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrdump -stdout -keyname SYSTEM.css -xml >ocrdump.xml
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> more ocrdump.xml
 <OCRDUMP>
 
 <TIMESTAMP>01/07/2013 14:15:42</TIMESTAMP>
 <COMMAND>/u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrdump.bin -stdout -keyname SYSTEM.css -xml </COMMAND>
 
 <KEY>
 <NAME>SYSTEM.css</NAME>
 <VALUE_TYPE>UNDEF</VALUE_TYPE>
 <VALUE><![CDATA[]]></VALUE>
 <USER_PERMISSION>PROCR_ALL_ACCESS</USER_PERMISSION>
 <GROUP_PERMISSION>PROCR_READ</GROUP_PERMISSION>
 <OTHER_PERMISSION>PROCR_READ</OTHER_PERMISSION>
 <USER_NAME>root</USER_NAME>
 <GROUP_NAME>root</GROUP_NAME>
 ............
 
 #导出ocr中关于ocr的备份情况
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrdump -stdout -keyname SYSTEM.OCR -xml>ocrdump_bak.xml

4、添加OCR文件
 #注,下面的描述中crs在所有的节点处于online状态,即对于ocr的添加,移动,代替crs无需处于offline状态
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> crsctl check crs
 CSS appears healthy
 CRS appears healthy
 EVM appears healthy
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ssh bo2dbs crsctl check crs
 CSS appears healthy
 CRS appears healthy
 EVM appears healthy
 
 ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror <destination_file>
 ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror <disk>
 
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s rcraw status
 root'''s password:
 /dev/raw/raw1:  bound to major 8, minor 33
 /dev/raw/raw2:  bound to major 8, minor 49
 /dev/raw/raw11: bound to major 8, minor 113
 /dev/raw/raw21: bound to major 8, minor 129
 /dev/raw/raw22: bound to major 8, minor 145
                                                                       running
 
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror /dev/raw/raw11
 root'''s password:
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11   #新的ocr镜像已经被添加
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 #下面是连接到第二个节点查看
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ssh bo2dbp ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11   #新的ocr镜像已经被添加
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 #从两个节点查看ocr.loc文件记录的ocr位置是否发生变化                                                                               
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 #Device/file  getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw11 
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
 ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw11  #可以看到增加了ocrmirror位置
 local_only=false
 
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ssh bo2dbs cat /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 #Device/file  getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw11 
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
 ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw11
 
 #下面来尝试多添加一个ocrmirror,我们使用裸设备为raw21的做为镜像
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror /dev/raw/raw21
 root'''s password:
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw1
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw21  #可以看到原来的raw11已经被替代了
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 #从上面的描述可知,ocr磁盘只能有两个,一个作为primary,一个作为mirror

5、重定位OCR
 重定位OCR,也称之为移动OCR文件,也就是将当前的OCR或者镜像的OCR放置到新的裸设备后者OCFS上。对于整个操作可以在联机的情形下完成
 不论是移动primary ocr还是mirror ocr,其依赖的ocr必须存在。也就是说必须要有两份ocr存在,否则收到PROT-16: Internal Error
 
 使用下面的命令移动primary ocr
 ocrconfig -replace ocr <destination_file>
 ocrconfig -replace ocr <disk>
 
 现在我们将primary ocr移动到之前的raw11上
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/raw/raw11 bs=1024k count=210
 dd: writing `/dev/raw/raw11': No space left on device
 200+0 records in
 199+0 records out
 209698816 bytes (210 MB) copied, 5.39183 seconds, 38.9 MB/s
 
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> sudo -s /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocrconfig -replace ocr /dev/raw/raw11
 oracle@bo2dbp:~> ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11   #可以看到,此处之前的raw1被新的raw11代替
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw21
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 使用下面的命令移动mirror ocr,关于mirro ocr的移动此处不做演示
 ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror <destination_file>
 ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror <disk>

6、本地节点OCR的修复
 对于任一节点的clusterware处于关闭状态或者节点主机被关闭的情形,其他节点对ocr配置的更改将使得处于被停机或关闭的clusterware
 节点ocr信息与出现不一致的情形。比如在第二个节点处于关闭的情形下,对第一个节点进行了ocr的添加,移出,重定位等等操作,对于这
 种情形则需要在关闭的节点进行ocr修复处理。修复仅仅在clusterware守护进程处于关闭下完成。
 使用下面的命令修复ocr,repair参数仅仅作用于所在的节点
  ocrconfig -repair ocr device_name        #修复primary ocr, 
  ocrconfig -repair ocrmirror device_name  #修复mirror ocr

 在前面的一个示例中我们将primary 的ocr用原来的raw1变成了raw11,在这个操作期间,节点2已经意外宕机。
 下面来查看节点2的ocr.loc
 下面的ocr.loc中primary还是raw1,而上一个操作已经变成了raw11
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/log/bo2dbs # more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 #Device/file /dev/raw/raw11 getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw21 
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw1
 ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw21
 local_only=false
 
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./crsctl start crs
 Attempting to start CRS stack 
 The CRS stack will be started shortly

 #此时bo2dbs上集群无法启动
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./crsctl check crs
 Failure 1 contacting CSS daemon
 Cannot communicate with CRS
 Cannot communicate with EVM 

 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep   #没有看到任何集群相关的进程
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # tail -2 /u01/oracle/crs/log/bo2dbs/alertbo2dbs.log    #查看日志文件
 2013-01-07 17:13:49.153
 [client(12071)]CRS-1009:The OCR configuration is invalid. Details in /u01/oracle/crs/log/bo2dbs/client/css37.log.
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # more /u01/oracle/crs/log/bo2dbs/client/css37.log      #查看日志文件
 Oracle Database 10g CRS Release 10.2.0.1.0 Production Copyright 1996, 2005 Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 2013-01-07 17:13:49.153: [  OCRRAW][190773584]proprioini: OCR configuration on disk 1 isn't valid  
 2013-01-07 17:13:49.153: [  OCRRAW][190773584]proprinit: Could not open raw device 
 2013-01-07 17:13:49.153: [ default][190773584]a_init:7!: Backend init unsuccessful : [26]
 2013-01-07 17:13:49.153: [ CSSCLNT][190773584]clsssinit: 
    Unable to access OCR device in OCR init.PROC-26: Error while accessing the physical storage

 #从上面的日志可知,在磁盘1上ocr配置无效,也就是不能打开裸设备raw1

 #下面我们来尝试修复
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./ocrconfig -repair ocr /dev/raw/raw11
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 #Device/file /dev/raw/raw1 getting replaced by device /dev/raw/raw11 
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw11
 ocrmirrorconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw21
 local_only=false
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./crsctl start crs
 Attempting to start CRS stack 
 The CRS stack will be started shortly 
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./crsctl check crs
 CSS appears healthy
 CRS appears healthy
 EVM appears healthy
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ps -ef | grep d.bin | grep -v grep
 root     14459  5067  0 17:33 ?        00:00:01 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsd.bin reboot
 oracle   14512  5065  0 17:33 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/evmd.bin
 oracle   15128 14426  0 17:33 ?        00:00:01 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocssd.bin
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./crs_stat -t | grep bo2dbs
 ora....SM2.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora....BS.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora....BS.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora.bo2dbs.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora.bo2dbs.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora.bo2dbs.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs      
 ora....g2.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    bo2dbs   
 # Authro : Robinson Cheng
 # Blog   : http://blog.csdn.net/robinson_0612

7、移除OCR
 #OCR可以添加,当然也可以移除OCR,比如对于ocr的镜像使用外部raid冗余方式。不过有个条件是必须至少有一个OCR处于联机状态。
 通常可以按照下面的步骤来移除OCR
  校验集群处于联机状态(尽可能为所有节点)
  检查至少一个ocr处于联机状态
  移除pirmary ocr或者ocr mirror
  对于ocfs文件系统,移除ocr文件

 #使用下面的命令来移除ocr
 ocrconfig -replace ocr
 ocrconfig -replace ocrmirror
 
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ps -ef | grep d.bin
 oracle    5745  5092  0 17:52 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/evmd.bin
 root      5902  5094  0 17:52 ?        00:00:02 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsd.bin reboot
 oracle    6420  5795  0 17:52 ?        00:00:01 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocssd.bin
 root      8870 18345  0 18:01 pts/0    00:00:00 grep d.bin
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ssh bo2dbp ps -ef | grep d.bin
 The authenticity of host 'bo2dbp (192.168.7.51)' can't be established.
 RSA key fingerprint is 2a:77:4f:eb:46:5b:07:4a:12:23:5c:69:b2:cd:15:ec.
 Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
 Warning: Permanently added 'bo2dbp' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
 Password: 
 oracle    5837  5122  0 17:54 ?        00:00:00 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/evmd.bin
 root      5907  5124  0 17:54 ?        00:00:02 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/crsd.bin reboot
 oracle    6672  5756  0 17:54 ?        00:00:01 /u01/oracle/crs/bin/ocssd.bin
 
 #两个ocr都处于online
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw11   #primary ocr
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw21   #mirror ocr
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded
 
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./ocrconfig -replace ocr    #移除ocr
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
 #Device/file /dev/raw/raw11 being deleted 
 ocrconfig_loc=/dev/raw/raw21
 local_only=false
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ocrcheck
 -bash: ocrcheck: command not found
 bo2dbs:/u01/oracle/crs/bin # ./ocrcheck
 Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :
          Version                  :          2
          Total space (kbytes)     :     204560
          Used space (kbytes)      :       6184
          Available space (kbytes) :     198376
          ID                       : 1512159503
          Device/File Name         : /dev/raw/raw21   #可以看到原来的mirror ocr变成了primary ocr
                                     Device/File integrity check succeeded
 
                                     Device/File not configured
 
          Cluster registry integrity check succeeded

OCR 相关参考:

        Oracle RAC OCR 与健忘症
        Oracle RAC OCR 的备份与恢复

 

更多参考:

有关Oracle RAC请参考
     使用crs_setperm修改RAC资源的所有者及权限
     使用crs_profile管理RAC资源配置文件
     RAC 数据库的启动与关闭
     再说 Oracle RAC services
     Services in Oracle Database 10g
     Migrate datbase from single instance to Oracle RAC
     Oracle RAC 连接到指定实例
     Oracle RAC 负载均衡测试(结合服务器端与客户端)
     Oracle RAC 服务器端连接负载均衡(Load Balance)
     Oracle RAC 客户端连接负载均衡(Load Balance)
     ORACLE RAC 下非缺省端口监听配置(listener.ora tnsnames.ora)
     ORACLE RAC 监听配置 (listener.ora tnsnames.ora)
     配置 RAC 负载均衡与故障转移
     CRS-1006 , CRS-0215 故障一例 
     基于Linux (RHEL 5.5) 安装Oracle 10g RAC
     使用 runcluvfy 校验Oracle RAC安装环境

有关Oracle 网络配置相关基础以及概念性的问题请参考:
     配置非默认端口的动态服务注册
     配置sqlnet.ora限制IP访问Oracle
     Oracle 监听器日志配置与管理
     设置 Oracle 监听器密码(LISTENER)
     配置ORACLE 客户端连接到数据库

有关基于用户管理的备份和备份恢复的概念请参考
     Oracle 冷备份
     Oracle 热备份
     Oracle 备份恢复概念
     Oracle 实例恢复
     Oracle 基于用户管理恢复的处理
     SYSTEM 表空间管理及备份恢复
     SYSAUX表空间管理及恢复
     Oracle 基于备份控制文件的恢复(unsing backup controlfile)

有关RMAN的备份恢复与管理请参考
     RMAN 概述及其体系结构
     RMAN 配置、监控与管理
     RMAN 备份详解
     RMAN 还原与恢复
     RMAN catalog 的创建和使用
     基于catalog 创建RMAN存储脚本
     基于catalog 的RMAN 备份与恢复
     RMAN 备份路径困惑
     使用RMAN实现异机备份恢复(WIN平台)
     使用RMAN迁移文件系统数据库到ASM
     linux 下RMAN备份shell脚本
     使用RMAN迁移数据库到异机

有关ORACLE体系结构请参考
     Oracle 表空间与数据文件
     Oracle 密码文件
     Oracle 参数文件
     Oracle 联机重做日志文件(ONLINE LOG FILE)
     Oracle 控制文件(CONTROLFILE)
     Oracle 归档日志
     Oracle 回滚(ROLLBACK)和撤销(UNDO)
     Oracle 数据库实例启动关闭过程
     Oracle 10g SGA 的自动化管理
     Oracle 实例和Oracle数据库(Oracle体系结构)  

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