英语状语有哪些种类

文章转自:http://www.yygrammar.com/Article/201009/1745.html
版权归原作者。


英语中的状语按其用途,可以分为时间状语、地点状语、方面状语、原因状语、结果状语、目的状语、条件状语、让步状语、程度状语、方式状语、伴随状语等11种。  

一、时间状语

She is to be married next month. 她预定在下个月结婚。  
I’ll meet you at 4 o’clock. 我将在4点钟和你见面。  
A lot of students missed my lecture yesterday. 昨天许多学生误了我的课。  

二、地点状语

He lives over the mountain. 他住在山的那一边。  
I first met him in Paris. 我初次见到他是在巴黎。  
The children are swimming in the river. 孩子们正在河里游泳。  
注:地点状语除表位置外,还可以表“出发”“去向”“距离”等。如:  
Are you glad to be going back to school? 返回学校你感到高兴吗?   
They lived many miles from the town. 他们住的地方离镇子好几英里远。  

三、方面状语

She is very weak in physics. 她物理很不行。  
China is very rich in natural resources. 中国自然资源丰富。  
This is better in every way than that. 这个在哪一方面都比那个要好。  
The bridge is 2500 meters in length and 150 meters in height. 这座桥长2500米,高150米。  


补充:“限制状语”(in terms of, as for, regarding/concerning/with respect to/with regard to)。
We all differ in terms of what we find funny, but we’re all the same in terms of our interest to listen to amusing things.


四、原因状语

He was surprised at what she said. 听到她说的话,他很吃惊。  
He succeeded by hard work. 他由于努力工作而成功。  
He was sent to prison for robbery. 他因为抢劫而坐牢。  
Last week she fell ill from cold. 上星期她着凉生病了。  
We’re proud of our motherland. 我们为祖国感到骄傲。  

五、结果状语

He talked his wife into buying a car. 他说服他妻子买一辆小汽车。  
The box is too heavy for me to lift. 这个箱子太重了,我提不动。  
It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that country. 大雨滂沱,造成了那个国家洪水泛滥。  
He went to Africa in 1963, never to come back. 他在1963年到非洲,然后就再也没回来过了。  

六、目的状语

They went out for a walk. 他们出去散步了。  
He saves on behalf of his son. 他为儿子存钱。  
He stood aside for her to pass. 他靠边站让她过去。  
He cupped his ear to hear better. 他的手捂着耳朵,以便听得更清楚。  
He went to the south in search of a better life. 他去南方寻求更好的生活。  
I went to France not to study French, but to study architecture. 我去法国不是为了学法语,而是为了学建筑。  

七、条件状语

Can you see without your glasses? 你不戴眼镜能看得清东西吗?  
United, we stand;divided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。  
With more money I would be able to buy it. 钱多一点的话,我就买得起。  
To look at him you could hardly help laughing. 看到他你就会忍不住笑起来。  
We must be losing at least a third of our staff under new technology. 在新的技术条件下,我们必定要解雇至少三分之一的员工。  
Weather permitting, we’ll have the match tomorrow. 天气允许的话,我们将于明天进行比赛。  

八、让步状语

For all his money, he’s a very lonely man. 他虽然富有,可是非常寂寞。  
Carol went to work in spite of feeling ill. 卡洛尔尽管感到不舒服仍去上了班。  
With all his efforts, he lost the match. 虽然尽了全力,他还是输了那场比赛。  
You couldn’t do that to save your life. 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。  
Laughed at by everybody, he had my sympathy. 人人都嘲笑他,但我却同情他。  
Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 他们尽管了解这一切,还是要我赔偿损失。  

九、程度状语

I don’t like coffee very much. 我不太喜欢咖啡。  
To a great extent, it is not fair. 在很大程度上,这是不公平的。  
The system which is used in this school is very successful. 这个学校所施行的制度是非常成功的。  

十、方式状语

We came on the bus. 我们坐公共汽车来的。  
You must pay the bill in cash. 你必须用现金付账。  
I watched the game on television. 我在电视上收看了那场比赛。  
We see with our eyes, and hear with our ears. 我们用眼睛看,用耳朵听。  
I heard of the job through a newspaper advertisement. 我从报上的广告中知道了这个工作。  

十一、伴随状语

I slept with the window open. 我开着窗睡觉。  
She said good-bye with tears in her eyes. 她含着泪水说再见。  
He ran up to her breathing heavily. 他气喘吁吁地跑到她跟前。  
He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. 他满脸是汗跑进屋来。


如上讨论的是非从句的情况。
关于状语从句,参考:英语中的九大状语从句

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