Linux 驱动程序开发步骤(X86平台)

Linux 驱动程序开发步骤(X86平台)

本文转自:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_75f3979401015cwr.html

编写好驱动,通过挂载的方法将驱动程序挂载到内核里面,大致步骤如下:

: 1>建立以.c为后缀的c语言程序文件(里面包含了设备名及设备号等)

2>建立Makefile文件(作用是通过make来产生设备文件*.ko文件,里面可以建立自己的平台所需的设备文件如:arm).make产生相应的设备文件

: 要在/dev建立相应的设备结点(设备名),insomd *.ko命令将相应的驱动设备文件挂载到内核中.

:编写测试文件(.c文件)用来测试内核是否已近成功挂载到内核.(编写好相应的测试文件后,gcc –o Filename Filename.c(测试文件名)来产生相应的可执行文件).

:如果设备驱动挂载成功,当执行测试文件(./Filename)时会产生相应的结果.

:可能用到的相关命令:

1.lsmod:列出内核已经载入模块的专题.

输出:

Module(模块名)size(大小)used by (..使用)

2.demop:分析可加载模块的依赖性,生成modules.dep文件和映射文件

3.uname –r 显示内核版本(在编写Makefile时使用到)

4.modprobe : linux内核添加和删除模块(相关参数请查看man帮助文档)

5.modinfo:显示内核模块的信息.

6.insmod: linux内核中加载一个模块,用法:insmod[filename] [module options…]

7.rmmod: 删除内核中的模块, 用法: rmmod [-f,w,s,v][modulename]

8.dmesg: 显示内核缓冲区,内核的各种信息,内核启动时的信息会写入到/var/log/.

.例子1:

第一步:增加头文件和宏定义

#include <linux/fs.h>

#include <linux/types.h>

#include <linux/cdev.h>

#include <linux/uaccess.h>

#include <linux/module>

#include <linux/kernel>

第二步:添加与字符设备定义及注册有关的数据成员

//定义设备名称

#define DEVICE_NAME "test" //设备名

#define BUF_SIZE 1024

static char tmpbuf[BUF_SIZE];

//定义主次设备号

static unsigned int TestMajor=0; //

static unsigned int TestMinor=0; //

static struct cdev *test_cdev;

static dev_t dev;

第三步:增加open/release函数

static int test_chardev_open(struct inode *inode,struct file *file)

{

printk("open major=%d, minor=%d\n", imajor(inode),

iminor(inode));

return 0;

}

static int test_chardev_release(struct inode *inode,struct file *file)

{

printk("close major=%d,minor=%d\n",imajor(inode),

iminor(inode));

return 0;

}

第四步:增加read函数

static ssize_t test_chardev_read(struct file *file,char __user *buf,

size_t const count,loff_t *offset)

{

if(count < BUF_SIZE)

{

if(copy_to_user(buf,tmpbuf,count))

{

printk("copy to user fail \n");

return -EFAULT;

}

}else{

printk("read size must be less than %d\n", BUF_SIZE);

return -EINVAL;

}

*offset += count;

return count;

}

第五步:增加write函数

static ssize_t test_chardev_write(struct file *file, const char __user*buf,size_t const count,loff_t *offset)

{

if(count < BUF_SIZE)

{

if(copy_from_user(tmpbuf,buf,count))

{

printk("copy from user fail \n");

return -EFAULT;

}

}else{

printk("size must be less than %d\n", BUF_SIZE);

return -EINVAL;

}

*offset += count;

return count;

}

第六步:添加增加file_operations成员

static struct file_operations chardev_fops={

.owner = THIS_MODULE,

.read = test_chardev_read,

.write = test_chardev_write,

.open = test_chardev_open,

.release = test_chardev_release,

};

第七步:在模块的入口添加设备的设备号获取及设备注册

static int __init chrdev_init(void)

{

int result;

if(TestMajor)

{

dev=MKDEV(TestMajor,TestMinor);//创建设备编号

result=register_chrdev_region(dev,1,DEVICE_NAME);

} else {

result=alloc_chrdev_region(&dev,TestMinor,1,DEVICE_NAME);

TestMajor=MAJOR(dev);

}

if(result<0)

{

printk(KERN_WARNING"LED: cannot get major %d \n",TestMajor);

return result;

}

test_cdev=cdev_alloc();

cdev_init(test_cdev,&chardev_fops);

//test_cdev->ops=&chardev_fops;

test_cdev->owner=THIS_MODULE;

result=cdev_add(test_cdev,dev,1);

if(result)

printk("<1>Error %d while register led device!\n",result);

return 0;

}

第八步:在模块的出口函数增加设备设备号释放及设备注销函数

unregister_chrdev_region(MKDEV(TestMajor,TestMinor),1);

cdev_del(test_cdev);

第九步:编译并加载该模块

第十步:根据设备号的设置,在文件系统中建立对应的设备节点

#mknod /dev/test c XXX XX

例子2:

驱动文件:

#include <linux/init.h>

#include <linux/module.h>

#include <linux/cdev.h>

#include <linux/fs.h>

#include <linux/kernel.h>

#include <linux/uaccess.h>

#define DEVICENAME "ccccc"

unsigned int major=221;

unsigned int minor=0;

struct cdev *abc;

dev_t dev;

static char bufrh[1024]="read success!";

static int aaaaa_open(struct inode *inodep, struct file *filep)

{

printk("read success!\n");

return 0;

}

int aaaaa_release(struct inode *inodep, struct file *filep)

{

return 0;

}

static ssize_t aaaaa_read (struct file *filep, char __user *buf, size_tcount, loff_t *offset)

{

if(copy_to_user(buf, bufrh, 1))

{

printk("copy_to_user fail!\n");

}

return 0;

}

ssize_t aaaaa_write (struct file *filep, const char __user *buf,size_t count, loff_t *offse)

{

printk("write!\n");

return 0;

}

static const struct file_operations fops = {

.owner = THIS_MODULE,

.open = aaaaa_open,

.release = aaaaa_release,

.read = aaaaa_read,

.write = aaaaa_write,

};

static int __init aaaaa_init(void)

{

int a;

dev=MKDEV(major, minor);

a=register_chrdev_region(dev, 1, DEVICENAME);

abc=cdev_alloc();

abc->owner=THIS_MODULE;

cdev_init(abc, &fops);

cdev_add(abc, dev, 1);

return 0;

}

static void __exit aaaaa_cleanup(void)

{

cdev_del(abc);

unregister_chrdev_region(dev, 1);

}

module_init(aaaaa_init);

module_exit(aaaaa_cleanup);

MODULE_LICENSE("GPL ");

Makefile文件:

obj-m += firstqd.o(相应设备文件名)

KERDIR = /usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.32-24-generic

#KERDIR=/home/linux2.6/linux #arm骞冲彴

PWD=$(shell pwd)

modules:

$(MAKE) -C $(KERDIR) M=$(PWD)modules

pc:

gcc -o fristqd firstqd.c

arm:

arm-linux-gcc -o fristqd firstqd.c

clean:

rm -rf *.o *~core *.depend *.cmd *.ko *.mod.c *.tmp_versions

测试文件(test.c):

#include <stdio.h>

#include <sys/types.h>

#include <fcntl.h>

char buf[1024];

char bufw[1024]="write success";

int main()

{

int fd,m,n;

fd=open("/dev/aaa",O_RDWR);

if (fd)

{

m=read(fd,buf,100);

printf("read kernel:%s\n",buf);

n=write(fd,bufw,10);

}

//printf("ni hao");

return 0;

}

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