# leetcode笔记：N-Queens

The n-queens puzzle is the problem of placing n queens on an nn chessboard such that no two queens attack each other.

Given an integer n, return all distinct solutions to the n-queens puzzle.

Each solution contains a distinct board configuration of the n-queens’ placement, where ‘Q’ and ‘.’ both indicate a queen and an empty space respectively.

For example, There exist two distinct solutions to the 4-queens puzzle:

[
[".Q..", // Solution 1
"...Q",
"Q...",
"..Q."],
["..Q.", // Solution 2
"Q...",
"...Q",
".Q.."]
]

dfs深度达到n时，意味着已经可以遍历完最低一层，存在满足条件的解，把矩阵中个元素的信息转化为'.''Q'，存到结果中。

// 来源:http://blog.csdn.net/havenoidea/article/details/12167399
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;

class Solution
{
public:
vector<vector<string> > solveNQueens(int n)
{
this->row = vector<int>(n, 0); // 行信息
this->col = vector<int>(n, 0); // 列信息
dfs(0, n, result); // 深搜
return result;
}

private:
vector<vector<string> > result; // 存放打印的结果
vector<int> row; // 记录每一行哪个下标是Q
vector<int> col; // 记录每一列是否已有Q

void dfs(int r, int n, vector<vector<string> > & result) // 遍历第r行，棋盘总共有n行
{
if (r == n) // 可遍历到棋盘底部，填入本次遍历结果
{
vector<string> temp;
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
{
string s(n, '.'); // 每行先被初始化为'.'
s[row[i]] = 'Q';  // 每行下标被标记为1的元素被标记为Q
temp.push_back(s);
}
result.push_back(temp);
}

int i, j;
for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
{
if (col[i] == 0)
{

for (j = 0; j < r; ++j)
if (abs(r - j) == abs(row[j] - i))
break;

if (j == r)
{
col[i] = 1; // 标记第i列，已存在Q
row[j] = i; // 第j行的第i个元素放入Q
dfs(r + 1, n, result); // 遍历第r + 1行
col[i] = 0;
row[j] = 0;
}

}
}
}
};

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