linux绘图工具之dot

    有时候我们在linux下也会有绘制流程图的需求,你是不是也愁找不到一款合适的绘图工具呢,当然也有好多图形化的也是非常好用的(默默的说一声,我也是一个资深的菜鸟,当然没有用过了,也是工作没有用到)
    好了,进入主题吧,这里有两位前辈的帖子,感觉不错所以就借鉴过来了。
    http://codingstandards.iteye.com/blog/840055
    http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-26009923-id-3151636.html

    首先创建一个dot文件,fllow.dot
    vi fllow.dot
    digraph G {
        hello [shape=box];
        world [style=filled, color="1,1,1"];
        hello -> world [label="Yes"];
    }
    然后编译,导出一个png文件
    sudo apt-get install graphviz
    dot -Tpng flow.dot -o flow.png
    最后就可以预览了
    sudo apt-get install eog
    eog ./flow.png

   

用途说明

Graphviz (Graph Visualization Software的缩写)是一个由AT&T实验室启动的开源工具包,用于绘制DOT语言脚本描述的图形。它也提供了供其它软件使用的库。Graphviz是一个自由软件,其授权为Common Public License。其Mac版本曾经获得2004年的苹果设计奖。Graphviz包括很多命令行工具,dot命令是一个用来将生成的图形转换成多种输出格式的命令行工具,其输出格式包括PostScript,PDF,SVG,PNG,含注解的文本等等。neato命令用于spring model的生成(在Mac OS版本中称为energy minimized)。twopi命令用于放射状图形的生成。circo命令用于圆形图形的生成。fdp命令另一个用于生成无向图的工具。dotty命令一个用于可视化与修改图形的图形用户界面程序。lefty命令是一个可编程的(使用一种被EZ影响的语言[4])控件,它可以显示DOT图形,并允许用户用鼠标在图上执行操作。Lefty可以作为MVC模型的使用图形的GUI程序中的视图部分。 DOT语言是一种文本图形描述语言。它提供了一种简单的描述图形的方法,并且可以为人类和计算机程序所理解。DOT语言文件通常是具有.gv或是.dot的文件扩展名。本文将主要介绍从源代码安装Graphviz工具以及dot命令的使用方式。

常用参数

格式:dot -T<type> -o<outfile> <infile.dot>

输入文件是<infile.dot>,生成的格式由<type>指定,生成的文件是<outfile>。

 

其中-T<type>包括:

-Tps (PostScript),

-Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured Vector Graphics), 

-Tfig (XFIG  graphics), 

-Tmif  (FrameMaker graphics),

-Thpgl (HP pen plotters),

-Tpcl (Laserjet printers),

-Tpng -Tgif (bitmap graphics),

-Tdia (GTK+ based diagrams),

-Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge  that  has a non-null "href" attribute.),

-Tcmapx (client-side imagemap for use in html and xhtml).

 

 

下面简单介绍下DOT语言的语法:

无向图:在最简单的应用中,DOT语言可以用来描述一张无向图。无向图显示了对象间最简单的关系,例如人之间的友谊。使用关键字graph开始一张无向图的定义,并用大括号包含要描述的节点,双连字号(--)被用来描述节点间的关系。另外,一行的末尾需要加上分号(;)。
 graph graphname {
     a -- b -- c;
     b -- d;
 }

有向图:类似于无向图,DOT语言也可以用来描述一张有向图,类似于流程图和树状图。其语法与无向图相似,但要在图的最开始使用关键字'digraph',并用箭头(->)表示节点直接的关系。
 digraph graphname {
     a -> b -> c;
     b -> d;
 }
属性:DOT语言中,可以对节点和边添加不同的属性。这些属性可以控制节点和边的显示样式,例如颜色,形状和线形。可以在语句和句尾的分号间放置一对方括号,并在其中中放置一个或多个属性-值对。多个属性可以被逗号和空格(, )分开。节点的属性被放置在只包含节点名称的表达式后。
 graph graphname {
     // label属性可以改变节点的显示名称
     a [label="Foo"];
     // 节点形状被改变了
     b [shape=box];
     // a-b边和b-c边有相同的属性
     a -- b -- c [color=blue];
     b -- d [style=dotted];
 }
注释:DOT语言支持C语言与C++风格的单行与多行注释。另外,也支持Shell脚本风格的以#开头的注释。
 // 单行注释
 /* 多行
    注
    释 */
 # 如此的行也会被忽略。

 

使用示例

示例一 从源代码安装Graphviz

[root@jfht setup]# wget "http://www.graphviz.org/pub/graphviz/stable/SOURCES/graphviz-2.26.3.tar.gz"
--2010-12-12 09:10:26--  http://www.graphviz.org/pub/graphviz/stable/SOURCES/graphviz-2.26.3.tar.gz
正在解析主机 www.graphviz.org... 192.20.225.20
Connecting to www.graphviz.org|192.20.225.20|:80... 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应... 200 OK
长度:17092429 (16M) [application/x-gzip]
Saving to: `graphviz-2.26.3.tar.gz'

100%[==========================================================================================>] 17,092,429   174K/s   in 1m 44s 

2010-12-12 09:12:10 (161 KB/s) - `graphviz-2.26.3.tar.gz' saved [17092429/17092429]

[root@jfht setup]# tar zxf graphviz-2.26.3.tar.gz
[root@jfht setup]# cd graphviz-2.26.3
[root@jfht graphviz-2.26.3]# ls
aclocal.m4       builddate.h      config.h.in    configure.old  dot.demo     graphviz.sln        INSTALL      makearch      plugin
ast_common.h     ChangeLog        config.h.old   contrib        Doxyfile     graphviz.spec       INSTALL.old  Makeargs      README
ast_common.h.in  cmd              config.iffe    COPYING        Doxyfile.in  graphviz.spec.in    lib          Makefile.am   rtest
AUTHORS          compat_getopt.h  Config.mk.old  cpl1.0.txt     features     graphviz.vcproj     libltdl      Makefile.in   share
autogen.sh       compat.h         configure      debian         graphs       graphviz_version.h  m4           Makefile.old  tclpkg
awk              config           configure.ac   doc            graphviz.7   iffe                macosx       NEWS          windows
[root@jfht graphviz-2.26.3]# ./configure --prefix=/usr
checking build system type... i686-pc-linux-gnu
checking host system type... i686-pc-linux-gnu
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking whether build environment is sane... yes
checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /bin/mkdir -p
checking for gawk... gawk
checking whether make sets $(MAKE)... yes
checking for style of include used by make... GNU
checking for gcc... gcc
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking whether the C compiler works... yes

省略输出


----------------------------------------------------------------

graphviz-2.26.3 will be compiled with the following:

options:
  cgraph:        No (disabled by default - experimental)
  digcola:       Yes
  expat:         No (missing library)
  fontconfig:    No (missing fontconfig-config)
  freetype:      No (missing freetype-config)

  glut:          No (missing GL/glut.h)
  gts:           No (gts library not available)
  ipsepcola:     No (disabled by default - C++ portability issues)
  ltdl:          Yes
  ortho:         No (disabled by default - experimental)
  png:           No (missing png.h)
  jpeg:          No (missing header)
  sfdp:          Yes
  shared:        Yes
  static:        No (disabled by default)

commands:
  dot:           Yes (always enabled)
  neato:         Yes (always enabled)
  fdp:           Yes (always enabled)
  circo:         Yes (always enabled)
  twopi:         Yes (always enabled)
  gvpr:          Yes (always enabled)
  lefty:         No (missing Xaw headers)
  smyrna:        No (disabled by default - experimental)

plugin libraries:
  dot_layout:    Yes (always enabled)
  neato_layout:  Yes (always enabled)
  core:          Yes (always enabled)
  devil:         No (missing library)
  gd:            Yes (internal)
  gdiplus:       No (disabled by default - Windows only)
  gdk_pixbuf:    No (gdk_pixbuf library not available)
  ghostscript:   No (missing headers)
  glitz:         No (disabled by default - incomplete)
  gtk:           No (gtk library not available)
  lasi:          No (lasi library not available)
  ming:          No (disabled by default - incomplete)
  pangocairo:    No (pangocairo library not available)
  quartz:        No (disabled by default - Mac only)
  rsvg:          No (rsvg library not available)
  visio:         No (disabled by default - experimental)
  xlib:          No (disabled or unavailable)

language extensions:
  gv_sharp:      No (swig not available)
  gv_guile:      No (swig not available)
  gv_io:         No (disabled by default - no swig support yet)
  gv_java:       No (swig not available)
  gv_lua:        No (swig not available)
  gv_ocaml:      No (swig not available)
  gv_perl:       No (swig not available)
  gv_php:        No (swig not available)
  gv_python:     No (swig not available)
  gv_python23:   No (disabled by default - for multiversion installs)
  gv_python24:   No (disabled by default - for multiversion installs)
  gv_python25:   No (disabled by default - for multiversion installs)
  gv_python26:   No (disabled by default - for multiversion installs)
  gv_R:          No (swig not available)
  gv_ruby:       No (swig not available)
  gv_tcl:        No (tcl not available)

  tcldot:        No (tcl not available)
  tclpathplan:   No (tcl not available)
  gdtclft:       No (tcl not available)
  tkspline:      No (tk not available)
[root@jfht graphviz-2.26.3]#


[root@jfht graphviz-2.26.3]# make && make install

test -z "/usr/share/graphviz/doc/html" || /bin/mkdir -p "/usr/share/graphviz/doc/html"
test -z "/usr/share/man/man7" || /bin/mkdir -p "/usr/share/man/man7"
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'graphviz.7' '/usr/share/man/man7/graphviz.7'
test -z "/usr/include/graphviz" || /bin/mkdir -p "/usr/include/graphviz"
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'graphviz_version.h' '/usr/include/graphviz/graphviz_version.h'
test -z "/usr/share/graphviz/doc" || /bin/mkdir -p "/usr/share/graphviz/doc"
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'AUTHORS' '/usr/share/graphviz/doc/AUTHORS'
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'COPYING' '/usr/share/graphviz/doc/COPYING'
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'ChangeLog' '/usr/share/graphviz/doc/ChangeLog'
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'NEWS' '/usr/share/graphviz/doc/NEWS'
 /usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'cpl1.0.txt' '/usr/share/graphviz/doc/cpl1.0.txt'
make[2]: Leaving directory `/root/setup/graphviz-2.26.3'
make[1]: Leaving directory `/root/setup/graphviz-2.26.3'
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@jfht graphviz-2.26.3]#

 

示例二 操作系统的进程状态转换图

下面的例子来自http://www.graphviz.org/Gallery/undirected/process.html

 

[root@jfht ~]# cat process.gv
graph G {
        run -- intr;
        intr -- runbl;
        runbl -- run;
        run -- kernel;
        kernel -- zombie;
        kernel -- sleep;
        kernel -- runmem;
        sleep -- swap;
        swap -- runswap;
        runswap -- new;
        runswap -- runmem;
        new -- runmem;
        sleep -- runmem;
}

[root@jfht ~]# dot -Tpng -oprocess.png process.gv
Format: "png" not recognized. Use one of: canon cmap cmapx cmapx_np dot eps fig gd gd2 gif gv imap imap_np ismap plain plain-ext ps ps2 svg svgz tk vml vmlz wbmp xdot
[root@jfht ~]# dot -Tgif -oprocess.gif process.gv    

[root@jfht ~]# dot -Tsvg -oprocess.svg process.gv      
[root@jfht ~]#

 

 

示例三 中文支持

要想在dot文件中使用中文,必须要安装有fontconfig-devel和freetype-devel。如示例一所示的安装中就没有这两项,

  fontconfig:    No (missing fontconfig-config)
  freetype:      No (missing freetype-config)

先得安装上,先把Linux安装盘挂载上。安装步骤如下

[root@jfht software]# find . -name "*fontconfig*"
./Server/fontconfig-devel-2.4.1-7.el5.i386.rpm
./Server/fontconfig-2.4.1-7.el5.i386.rpm
[root@jfht software]#
[root@jfht software]#
[root@jfht software]# rpm -qa | grep fontconfig
fontconfig-2.4.1-7.el5
[root@jfht software]# rpm -ivh ./Server/fontconfig-devel-2.4.1-7.el5.i386.rpm
warning: ./Server/fontconfig-devel-2.4.1-7.el5.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
error: Failed dependencies:
        freetype-devel >= 2.1.4 is needed by fontconfig-devel-2.4.1-7.el5.i386
[root@jfht software]# find . -name "freetype-devel*rpm"
./Server/freetype-devel-2.2.1-21.el5_3.i386.rpm
[root@jfht software]# rpm -ivh ./Server/freetype-devel-2.2.1-21.el5_3.i386.rpm ./Server/fontconfig-devel-2.4.1-7.el5.i386.rpm
warning: ./Server/freetype-devel-2.2.1-21.el5_3.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:freetype-devel         ########################################### [ 50%]
   2:fontconfig-devel       ########################################### [100%]
[root@jfht software]#

安装好这两个rpm包之后,再到graphviz源代码目录,执行

./configure --prefix=/usr

make && make install

这样dot就可以支持中文了。首先我们编写一个简单的dot文件。

[root@jfht ~]# cat cn.gv
graph G {
        中文    --   英文
}

[root@jfht ~]# dot -Tgif -ocn.gif cn.gv
Error: Invalid 2-byte UTF8 found in input. Perhaps "-Gcharset=latin1" is needed?

要注意的是:dot不支持gbk编码的中文,但可以支持UTF8的中文,所以先把它转换成UTF8编码的。

[root@jfht ~]# iconv -f GBK -t UTF8 cn.gv >cn8.gv

[root@jfht ~]# dot -Tgif -ocn8.gif cn8.gv
[root@jfht ~]#

 

示例四 改变中文字体

默认的中文字体是宋体的,如果想改成仿宋、黑体、幼圆或别的字体,在Linux下可能没有,那么可以在Windows下找到相应的字体文件,上传的LInux上使用。步骤如下:

到C:\Windows\Fonts下找到simyou.ttf,用sftp上传到Linux下的/usr/share/fonts/chinese/TrueType目录。

[root@jfht ~]# cd /usr/share/fonts/chinese/TrueType
[root@jfht TrueType]# mkfontscale
[root@jfht TrueType]# mkfontdir
[root@jfht TrueType]# fc-cache
[root@jfht TrueType]# cat fonts.dir

注意下面内容中粗体部分。
62
fangsong.ttf -misc-fangsong_gb2312-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
fangsong.ttf -misc-fangsong_gb2312-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-1
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-2
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-3
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb18030.2000-0
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-jisx0208.1983-0
simhei.ttf -misc-simhei-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-jisx0208.1990-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-ascii-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-1
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-2
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-3
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb18030.2000-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-jisx0208.1983-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-jisx0208.1990-0
simsun.ttc -misc-simsun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-koi8-r
simyou.ttf -misc-youyuan-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-m-0-cns11643-2
simyou.ttf -misc-youyuan-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-m-0-gb2312.1980-0
simyou.ttf -misc-youyuan-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-m-0-iso10646-1
stcaiyun.ttf -misc-stcaiyun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-ascii-0
stcaiyun.ttf -misc-stcaiyun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
stcaiyun.ttf -misc-stcaiyun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
stcaiyun.ttf -misc-stcaiyun-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-ascii-0
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-big5-0
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-big5.eten-0
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-1
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-2
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-10
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-13
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-15
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-16
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-2
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-3
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-4
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-9
ukai.ttf -misc-ar pl zenkai uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-suneu-greek
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-ascii-0
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-big5-0
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-big5.eten-0
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-1
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-cns11643-2
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-gb2312.1980-0
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso10646-1
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-10
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-13
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-15
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-16
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-2
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-3
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-4
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-9
uming.ttf -misc-ar pl shanheisun uni-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-suneu-greek
[root@jfht TrueType]#

上面粗体标出的部分就是中文字体的名称,比如fangsong_gb2312、simhei、simsun、youyuan、stcaiyun。

[root@jfht ~]# dot -Nfontname=fangsong_gb2312 -Tgif -ocn8_fangsong_gb2312.gif cn8.gv
[root@jfht ~]# dot -Nfontname=simhei -Tgif -ocn8_simhei.gif cn8.gv                             
[root@jfht ~]# dot -Nfontname=simsun -Tgif -ocn8_simsun.gif cn8.gv     
[root@jfht ~]# dot -Nfontname=youyuan -Tgif -ocn8_youyuan.gif cn8.gv           
[root@jfht ~]# dot -Nfontname=stcaiyun -Tgif -ocn8_stcaiyun.gif cn8.gv             
[root@jfht ~]# ls -l cn8*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 922 12-12 15:58 cn8_fangsong_gb2312.gif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 902 12-12 15:38 cn8.gif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  35 12-12 15:35 cn8.gv
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 926 12-12 16:00 cn8_simhei.gif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 866 12-12 16:01 cn8_simsun.gif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 974 12-12 16:03 cn8_stcaiyun.gif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 876 12-12 16:02 cn8_youyuan.gif
[root@jfht ~]#

 

问题思考

相关资料

【1】维基百科   Graphviz   

【2】维基百科   DOT语言

【3】啄木鸟社区  Graphviz

【4】age的个人空间  用Dot绘图

【5】海贼’blog   linux dot 绘图

【6】daxuxu   graphviz dot简介

【7】openstudy  英文版linux安装中文字体



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