matlab与机器学习(二)程序基本操作(含代码解析)

备注:%%之间的为注释内容%%,%注释后面的内容

            matlab形成自己的编程风格更有利于简洁的编程界面

            图像的初步处理可应用于论文撰写上,文章更有说服力

            程序调试有利于发现逻辑问题,都是必备的基础知识

%% I. 清空环境变量及命令

% clear all
clc

一、MATLAB编程习惯与风格

%% II. MATLAB编程习惯与风格

x_coordinate = rand(1,10);
y_coordinate = rand(1,10);
figure
plot(x_coordinate,y_coordinate,'r-*')

二、程序调试

%% III. MATLAB程序调试

% %%
% % 1. Index must be a positive integer or logical.
% A = [1 2 3 4 5];
% A(0)
% A(3.5)
% A(-2)
%
% %%
% % 2. Undefined function or variable 'B'.
% B
%
% %%
% % 3. Inner matrix dimensions must agree.
% B = [1 2 3];
% A * B
%
% %%
% % 4. Function definitions are not permitted at the prompt or in scripts.
% function c = add(a,b)
% c = a + b;
%
% %%
% % 5. Index out of bounds because numel(A)=5.
% A(6)
%
% %%
% % 6. In an assignment  A(I) = B, the number of elements in B and I must be the same.
% A(3) = B;
%
% %%
% % 7. Expression or statement is incorrect--possibly unbalanced (, {, or [.
% mean(A(1:3)
%
% %%
% % 8. Too many input arguments.
% mean(A,1,2)

%%
% 9. 循环体的调试
a = 1:100;
b = [];
for i = 21:21
    index = 105 - 5*i;
    b = [b a(index)];
end

%%
% 10. 查看、编辑MATLAB自带的工具箱函数
edit mean

edit newff

三、内存优化

%% III. MATLAB内存优化配置

feature memstats
%
%% IV. 向量化编程
%%
% 1. 及时清除不用的变量
a = rand(10000);
b = rand(10000);
clear a
b = rand(10000);

%%
% 2. 使用变量前,预分配内存空间
clear all
clc
n = 30000;
tic;
for k = 1:n
    a(k) = 1;
end
time = toc;
disp(['未预分配内存下动态赋值长为',num2str(n),'的数组时间是:',num2str(time),'秒!'])

tic
b = zeros(1,n);
for k = 1:n
    b(k) = 1;
end
time = toc;
disp(['预分配内存下动态赋值长为',num2str(n),'的数组时间是:',num2str(time),'秒!'])

%%c
% 3. 选择恰当的数据类型
clear all
clc
n = 300000;
a = 8;
b{1} = 8;
c.data = 8;

tic
for k = 1:n;
    a;
end
time = toc;
disp(['访问',num2str(n),'次double型数组时间是:',num2str(time),'秒!'])

tic
for k = 1:n;
    b{1};
end
time = toc;
disp(['访问',num2str(n),'次cell型数组时间是:',num2str(time),'秒!'])

tic
for k = 1:n;
    c.data;
end
time = toc;
disp(['访问',num2str(n),'次struct型数组时间是:',num2str(time),'秒!'])

%%
% 4. 按列优先循环
clear all
clc
n = 1000;
a = rand(n);
tic
for i = 1:n
    for j = 1:n
        a(i,j);
    end
end
toc

for i = 1:n
    for j = 1:n
        a(j,i);
    end
end
toc

%%
% 5. 循环次数多的变量安排在内层
clear all
clc
tic
a = 0;
for i = 1:1000
    for j = 50000
        a = a + 1;
    end
end
toc

tic
a = 0;
for i = 1:50000
    for j = 1:1000
        a = a + 1;
    end
end
toc

%%
% 6. 给一些函数“瘦身”
edit mean
clear all
clc
a = rand(1,10000);
tic
b = mean(a)
toc

tic
c = sum(a)/length(a)
toc

四、图像对象和句柄

%% V. 图像对象和句柄

%%
% 1. 如何设置线条的属性呢?
x = 0:0.01:2*pi;
y = sin(x);
h = plot(x,y);
grid on
get(h)
set(h,'linestyle','-','linewidth',2,'color','k')

%%
% 2. 如何修改网格的间隔呢?  
set(gca,'xtick',0:0.5:7)
set(gca,'ytick',-1:0.1:1)

%%
% 3. 如何设置图例的字体及大小呢?
x = 0:0.01:2*pi;
y1 = sin(x);
y2 = cos(x);
plot(x,y1,'r')
hold on
plot(x,y2,'-.b')
h = legend('sin(x)','cos(x)');
set(h,'fontsize',16,'color','k','edgecolor','r','textcolor','w')

%%
% 4. 如何拆分图例呢?
x = 0:0.01:2*pi;
y1 = sin(x);
y2 = cos(x);
h1 = plot(x,y1,'r');
hold on
h2 = plot(x,y2,'-.b');
ax1 = axes('position',get(gca,'position'),'visible','off');
legend(ax1,h1,'sin(x)','location','northwest')
ax2 = axes('position',get(gca,'position'),'visible','off');
legend(ax2,h2,'cos(x)','location','northeast')

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