Linux恢复删除后数据文件

简介

在使用Linux系统时,有时候会不小心误删除数据,由于Linux系统也没有与Windows系统下回收站类似的功能,一般会认为该文件将无法找回。 本文主要以CentOS7操作系统为例,介绍如何使用开源工具Extundelete快速恢复被误删除掉的数据。

原理

在Linux下,基于开源的数据恢复工具有很多,常见的有debugfs、R-Linux、ext3grep、extundelete等,比较常用的有ext3grep和extundelete,这两个工具的恢复原理基本一样,只是extundelete功能更加强大。

Extundelete是基于linux的开源数据恢复软件,能够利用inode信息结合日志去查询该inode所在的block位置,以次来查找和恢复所需的数据,该工具最给力的一点就是支持ext3/ext4双格式分区恢复,基于整个磁盘的恢复功能较为强大。

在数据被误删除后,第一时间要做的是卸载被删除数据所在的磁盘或磁盘分区。因为将文件删除后,仅仅是将文件的inode结点中的扇区指针清零,实际文件还存储在磁盘上,如果磁盘以读写模式挂载,这些已删除的文件的数据块就可能被操作系统重新分配出去,在这些数据块被新的数据覆盖后,这些数据就真的丢失了,恢复工具也回力无天。所以,以只读模式挂载磁盘可以尽量降低数据块中数据被覆盖的风险,以提高恢复数据成功的几率。

在实际线上恢复过程中,切勿将extundelete安装到您误删的文件所在硬盘,这样会有一定几率将需要恢复的数据彻底覆盖,切记操作前做好快照备份。

安装依赖包

yum -y install  bzip2  e2fsprogs-devel  e2fsprogs  gcc-c++  make

部署extundelete工具

wget  http://zy-res.oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/server/extundelete-0.2.4.tar.bz2
tar -xvjf extundelete-0.2.4.tar.bz2
cd extundelete-0.2.4                                #进入程序目录
./configure                                         #如下图表示安装成功
make && make install

默认文件安装在usr/local/bin

创建文件

[root@ecs-prod-wiki extundelete-0.2.4]# mkdir /testDeleteFile
[root@ecs-prod-wiki extundelete-0.2.4]# cd /testDeleteFile
[root@ecs-prod-wiki testDeleteFile]#  touch helloWorld.txt
[root@ecs-prod-wiki testDeleteFile]# echo "hello world" > helloWorld.txt
[root@ecs-prod-wiki testDeleteFile]# cat helloWorld.txt
hello world

记录文件的md5值

md5sum helloWorld.txt
6f5902ac237024bdd0c176cb93063dc4  helloWorld.txt

删除文件

[root@ecs-prod-wiki testDeleteFile]# rm helloWorld.txt  -f

离开磁盘

[root@ecs-prod-wiki testDeleteFile]# cd
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]#

卸载磁盘

结束使用某分区的进程树,保证磁盘没进程使用

[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# fuser -k /testDeleteFile/
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]#

卸载磁盘

[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# umount /dev/vdb
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]#

任何的文件恢复工具,在使用前,均要将要恢复的分区卸载或挂载为只读,防止数据被覆盖使用

使用Extundelete工具恢复文件

  • 查找删除的文件
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# extundelete --inode 2 /dev/vdb
NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored.
Loading filesystem metadata ... 160 groups loaded.
Group: 0
Contents of inode 2:
0000 | ed 41 00 00 00 10 00 00 74 bd 89 5c 23 be 89 5c | .A......t..\#..\
0010 | 23 be 89 5c 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 00 08 00 00 00 | #..\............
0020 | 00 00 08 00 0a 00 00 00 0a f3 01 00 04 00 00 00 | ................
0030 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 21 24 00 00 | ............!$..
0040 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0050 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0060 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0070 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0080 | 1c 00 00 00 c8 05 c3 b3 c8 05 c3 b3 ac 60 11 00 | .............`..
0090 | 0a bc 89 5c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ...\............
00a0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00b0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00c0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00d0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00e0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00f0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
Inode is Allocated
File mode: 16877
Low 16 bits of Owner Uid: 0
Size in bytes: 4096
Access time: 1552530804
Creation time: 1552530979
Modification time: 1552530979
Deletion Time: 0
Low 16 bits of Group Id: 0
Links count: 3
Blocks count: 8
File flags: 524288
File version (for NFS): 0
File ACL: 0
Directory ACL: 0
Fragment address: 0
Direct blocks: 127754, 4, 0, 0, 1, 9249, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
Indirect block: 0
Double indirect block: 0
Triple indirect block: 0
File name                                       | Inode number | Deleted status
.                                                 2
..                                                2
lost+found                                        11
helloWorld.txt                                    12             Deleted

为查找某i节点中的内容,使用2则说明为整个分区搜索,如果需要进入目录搜索,只须要指定目录I节点即可。这是可以看到删除的文件名和inode

  • 恢复文件
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# /usr/local/bin/extundelete  --restore-inode 12  /dev/vdb
NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored.
Loading filesystem metadata ... 160 groups loaded.
Loading journal descriptors ... 58 descriptors loaded.

此时会在执行命令的同级目录下出现RECOVERED_FILES目录,查看是否恢复。

[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# ll RECOVERED_FILES/
总用量 4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12 3月  14 10:42 file.12
  • 通过md5值查看文件是否一样
[root@ecs-prod-wiki ~]# md5sum RECOVERED_FILES/file.1
6f5902ac237024bdd0c176cb93063dc4  RECOVERED_FILES/file.12  ## helloWorld.txt文件的md5值请参阅 3.3.4节,其具体值为:  6f5902ac237024bdd0c176cb93063dc4  helloWorld.txt

--restore-inode 12 # --restore-inode 按指定的I节点恢复 --extundelete --restore-all # --restore-all 全部恢复

原创作者:爱折腾的邦邦

本文由博客群发一文多发等运营工具平台 OpenWrite 发布

实付 19.90元
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值