Java 对象锁

在并发环境下,解决共享资源冲突问题时,可以考虑使用锁机制。
1.对象的锁
所有对象都自动含有单一的锁。
JVM负责跟踪对象被加锁的次数。如果一个对象被解锁,其计数变为0。在任务(线程)第一次给对象加锁的时候,计数变为1。每当这个相同的任务(线程)在此对象上获得锁时,计数会递增。
只有首先获得锁的任务(线程)才能继续获取该对象上的多个锁。
每当任务离开一个synchronized方法,计数递减,当计数为0的时候,锁被完全释放,此时别的任务就可以使用此资源。
2.synchronized同步块
2.1同步到单一对象锁
当使用同步块时,如果方法下的同步块都同步到一个对象上的锁,则所有的任务(线程)只能互斥的进入这些同步块。
Resource1.java演示了三个线程(包括main线程)试图进入某个类的三个不同的方法的同步块中,虽然这些同步块处在不同的方法中,但由于是同步到同一个对象(当前对象 synchronized (this)),所以对它们的方法依然是互斥的。
Resource1.java
package com.zj.lock;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 
public class Resource1 {
    public void f() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in f()");
       synchronized (this) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in f()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public void g() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in g()");
       synchronized (this) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in g()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public void h() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in h()");
       synchronized (this) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in h()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       final Resource1 rs = new Resource1();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.f();
           }
       }.start();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.g();
           }
       }.start();
 
       rs.h();
    }
}
结果:
Thread-0:not synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:not synchronized in h()
Thread-1:not synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
2.2 同步到多个对象锁
Resource1.java演示了三个线程(包括main线程)试图进入某个类的三个不同的方法的同步块中,这些同步块处在不同的方法中,并且是同步到三个不同的对象(synchronized (this)synchronized(syncObject1)synchronized (syncObject2)),所以对它们的方法中的临界资源访问是独立的。
Resource2.java
package com.zj.lock;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 
public class Resource2 {
    private Object syncObject1 = new Object();
    private Object syncObject2 = new Object();
 
    public void f() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in f()");
       synchronized (this) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in f()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public void g() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in g()");
       synchronized (syncObject1) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in g()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public void h() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in h()");
       synchronized (syncObject2) {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in h()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       final Resource2 rs = new Resource2();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.f();
           }
       }.start();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.g();
           }
       }.start();
 
       rs.h();
    }
}
结果:
Thread-0:not synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:not synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:not synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
3.Lock对象锁
除了使用synchronized外,还可以使用Lock对象来创建临界区。Resource3.java的演示效果同Resource1.java;Resource4.java的演示效果同Resource2.java。
Resource3.java
package com.zj.lock;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;
 
public class Resource3 {
    private Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();
 
    public void f() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in f()");
       lock.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in f()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public void g() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in g()");
       lock.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in g()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public void h() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in h()");
       lock.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in h()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       final Resource3 rs = new Resource3();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.f();
           }
       }.start();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.g();
           }
       }.start();
 
       rs.h();
    }
}
结果:
Thread-0:not synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:not synchronized in h()
Thread-1:not synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Resource4.java
package com.zj.lock;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;
 
public class Resource4 {
    private Lock lock1 = new ReentrantLock();
    private Lock lock2 = new ReentrantLock();
    private Lock lock3 = new ReentrantLock();
 
    public void f() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in f()");
       lock1.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in f()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock1.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public void g() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in g()");
       lock2.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in g()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock2.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public void h() {
       // other operations should not be locked...
       System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
              ":not synchronized in h()");
       lock3.lock();
       try {
           for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
              System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
                     ":synchronized in h()");
              try {
                  TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
              catch (InterruptedException e) {
                  e.printStackTrace();
              }
           }
       finally {
           lock3.unlock();
       }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       final Resource4 rs = new Resource4();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.f();
           }
       }.start();
 
       new Thread() {
           public void run() {
              rs.g();
           }
       }.start();
 
       rs.h();
    }
}
结果:
Thread-0:not synchronized in f()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:not synchronized in h()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:not synchronized in g()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()
Thread-0:synchronized in f()
main:synchronized in h()
Thread-1:synchronized in g()



synchronized和lock的区别:

Lock 的锁定是通过代码实现的,而 synchronized 是在 JVM 层面上实现的
synchronized 在锁定时如果方法块抛出异常,JVM 会自动将锁释放掉,不会因为出了异常没有释放锁造成线程死锁。但是 Lock 的话就享受不到 JVM 带来自动的功能,出现异常时必须在 finally 将锁释放掉,否则将会引起死锁。

在资源竞争不是很激烈的情况下,偶尔会有同步的情形下,synchronized是很合适的。原因在于,编译程序通常会尽可能的进行优化synchronize,另外可读性非常好,不管用没用过5.0多线程包的程序员都能理解。 

ReentrantLock: 
ReentrantLock提供了多样化的同步,比如有时间限制的同步,可以被Interrupt的同步(synchronized的同步是不能Interrupt的)等。在资源竞争不激烈的情形下,性能稍微比synchronized差点点。但是当同步非常激烈的时候,synchronized的性能一下子能下降好几十倍。而ReentrantLock确还能维持常态。 

Atomic: 
和上面的类似,不激烈情况下,性能比synchronized略逊,而激烈的时候,也能维持常态。激烈的时候,Atomic的性能会优于ReentrantLock一倍左右。但是其有一个缺点,就是只能同步一个值,一段代码中只能出现一个Atomic的变量,多于一个同步无效。因为他不能在多个Atomic之间同步。
阅读更多
换一批

没有更多推荐了,返回首页