Cracking the coding interview汇总目录



Chapter 1 | Arrays and Strings

1.1 Implement an algorithm to determine if a string has all unique characters. What if you can not use additional data structures?

1.2 Write code to reverse a C-Style String. (C-String means that “abcd” is represented as five characters, including the null character.)

1.3 Design an algorithm and write code to remove the duplicate characters in a string without using any additional buffer. NOTE: One or two additional variables are fine. An extra copy of the array is not.
Write the test cases for this method.

1.4 Write a method to decide if two strings are anagrams or not.

1.5 Write a method to replace all spaces in a string with ‘%20’.

1.6 Given an image represented by an NxN matrix, where each pixel in the image is 4 bytes, write a method to rotate the image by 90 degrees. Can you do this in place?

1.7 Write an algorithm such that if an element in an MxN matrix is 0, its entire row and column is set to 0.

1.8 Assume you have a method isSubstring which checks if one word is a substring of another. Given two strings, s1 and s2, write code to check if s2 is a rotation of s1 using only one call to isSubstring (i.e., “waterbottle” is a rotation of “erbottlewat”).

Chapter 2 | Linked Lists

2.1 Write code to remove duplicates from an unsorted linked list.
How would you solve this problem if a temporary buffer is not allowed?

2.2 Implement an algorithm to find the nth to last element of a singly linked list.

2.3 Implement an algorithm to delete a node in the middle of a single linked list, given only access to that node.
Input: the node ‘c’ from the linked list a->b->c->d->e
Result: nothing is returned, but the new linked list looks like a->b->d->e

2.4 You have two numbers represented by a linked list, where each node contains a single digit. The digits are stored in reverse order, such that the 1’s digit is at the head of the list. Write a function that adds the two numbers and returns the sum as a linked list.
Input: (3 -> 1 -> 5) + (5 -> 9 -> 2)
Output: 8 -> 0 -> 8

2.5 Given a circular linked list, implement an algorithm which returns node at the beginning of the loop.
Circular linked list: A (corrupt) linked list in which a node’s next pointer points to an earlier node, so as to make a loop in the linked list.
input: A -> B -> C -> D -> E -> C [the same C as earlier]
output: C

Chapter 3 | Stacks and Queues

3.1 Describe how you could use a single array to implement three stacks.

3.2 How would you design a stack which, in addition to push and pop, also has a function min which returns the minimum element? Push, pop and min should all operate in O(1) time.

3.3 Imagine a (literal) stack of plates. If the stack gets too high, it might topple. Therefore, in real life, we would likely start a new stack when the previous stack exceeds some threshold. Implement a data structure SetOfStacks that mimics this. SetOfStacks should be composed of several stacks, and should create a new stack once the previous one exceeds capacity. SetOfStacks.push() and SetOfStacks.pop() should behave identically to a single stack (that is, pop() should return the same values as it would if there were just a single stack).
Implement a function popAt(int index) which performs a pop operation on a specific sub-stack.

3.4 In the classic problem of the Towers of Hanoi, you have 3 rods and N disks of different sizes which can slide onto any tower. The puzzle starts with disks sorted in ascending order of size from top to bottom (e.g., each disk sits on top of an even larger one). You have the following constraints:
(A) Only one disk can be moved at a time.
(B) A disk is slid off the top of one rod onto the next rod.
(C) A disk can only be placed on top of a larger disk.
Write a program to move the disks from the first rod to the last using Stacks.

3.5 Implement a MyQueue class which implements a queue using two stacks.

3.6 Write a program to sort a stack in ascending order. You should not make any assumptions about how the stack is implemented. The following are the only functions that should be used to write this program: push | pop | peek | isEmpty.

Chapter 4 | Trees and Graphs

4.1 Implement a function to check if a tree is balanced. For the purposes of this question, a balanced tree is defined to be a tree such that no two leaf nodes differ in distance from the root by more than one.

4.2 Given a directed graph, design an algorithm to find out whether there is a route between two nodes.

4.3 Given a sorted (increasing order) array, write an algorithm to create a binary tree with minimal height.

4.4 Given a binary search tree, design an algorithm which creates a linked list of all the nodes at each depth (i.e., if you have a tree with depth D, you’ll have D linked lists).

4.5 Write an algorithm to find the ‘next’ node (i.e., in-order successor) of a given node in a binary search tree where each node has a link to its parent.

4.6 Design an algorithm and write code to find the first common ancestor of two nodes in a binary tree. Avoid storing additional nodes in a data structure. NOTE: This is not necessarily a binary search tree.

4.7 You have two very large binary trees: T1, with millions of nodes, and T2, with hundreds of nodes. Create an algorithm to decide if T2 is a subtree of T1.

4.8 You are given a binary tree in which each node contains a value. Design an algorithm to print all paths which sum up to that value. Note that it can be any path in the tree - it does not have to start at the root.

Chapter 5 | Bit Manipulation

5.1 You are given two 32-bit numbers, N and M, and two bit positions, i and j. Write a method to set all bits between i and j in N equal to M (e.g., M becomes a substring of N located at i and starting at j).
Input: N = 10000000000, M = 10101, i = 2, j = 6
Output: N = 10001010100

5.2 Given a (decimal - e.g. 3.72) number that is passed in as a string, print the binary representation. If the number can not be represented accurately in binary, print “ERROR”

5.3 Given an integer, print the next smallest and next largest number that have the same number of 1 bits in their binary representation.

5.4 Explain what the following code does: ((n & (n-1)) == 0).

5.5 Write a function to determine the number of bits required to convert integer A to integer B.
Input: 31, 14
Output: 2

5.6 Write a program to swap odd and even bits in an integer with as few instructions as possible (e.g., bit 0 and bit 1 are swapped, bit 2 and bit 3 are swapped, etc).

5.7 An array A[1... n] contains all the integers from 0 to n except for one number which is missing. In this problem, we cannot access an entire integer in A with a single operation. The elements of A are represented in binary, and the only operation we can use to access them is “fetch the jth bit of A[i]”, which takes constant time. Write code to find the missing integer. Can you do it in O(n) time?

Chapter 6 | Brain Teasers

Chapter 7 | Object Oriented Design

Chapter 8 | Recursion

8.1 Write a method to generate the nth Fibonacci number.

8.2 Imagine a robot sitting on the upper left hand corner of an NxN grid. The robot can only move in two directions: right and down. How many possible paths are there for the robot?
Imagine certain squares are “off limits”, such that the robot can not step on them. Design an algorithm to get all possible paths for the robot.

8.3 Write a method that returns all subsets of a set.

8.4 Write a method to compute all permutations of a string.

8.5 Implement an algorithm to print all valid (e.g., properly opened and closed) combinations of n-pairs of parentheses.
input: 3 (e.g., 3 pairs of parentheses)
output: ()()(), ()(()), (())(), ((()))

8.6 Implement the “paint fill” function that one might see on many image editing programs. That is, given a screen (represented by a 2 dimensional array of Colors), a point, and a new color, fill in the surrounding area until you hit a border of that color.’

8.7 Given an infinite number of quarters (25 cents), dimes (10 cents), nickels (5 cents) and pennies (1 cent), write code to calculate the number of ways of representing n cents.

8.8 Write an algorithm to print all ways of arranging eight queens on a chess board so that none of them share the same row, column or diagonal.

Chapter 9 | Sorting and Searching

9.1 You are given two sorted arrays, A and B, and A has a large enough buffer at the end to hold B. Write a method to merge B into A in sorted order.

9.2 Write a method to sort an array of strings so that all the anagrams are next to each other.

9.3 Given a sorted array of n integers that has been rotated an unknown number of times, give an O(log n) algorithm that finds an element in the array. You may assume that the array was originally sorted in increasing order.
Input: find 5 in array (15 16 19 20 25 1 3 4 5 7 10 14)
Output: 8 (the index of 5 in the array)

9.4 If you have a 2 GB file with one string per line, which sorting algorithm would you use to sort the file and why?

9.5 Given a sorted array of strings which is interspersed with empty strings, write a method to find the location of a given string.
Example: find “ball” in [“at”, “”, “”, “”, “ball”, “”, “”, “car”, “”, “”, “dad”, “”, “”] will return 4
Example: find “ballcar” in [“at”, “”, “”, “”, “”, “ball”, “car”, “”, “”, “dad”, “”, “”] will return -1

9.6 Given a matrix in which each row and each column is sorted, write a method to find an element in it.

9.7 A circus is designing a tower routine consisting of people standing atop one another’s shoulders. For practical and aesthetic reasons, each person must be both shorter and lighter than the person below him or her. Given the heights and weights of each person in the circus, write a method to compute the largest possible number of people in such a tower.
Input (ht, wt): (65, 100) (70, 150) (56, 90) (75, 190) (60, 95) (68, 110)
Output: The longest tower is length 6 and includes from top to bottom: (56, 90) (60,95) (65,100) (68,110) (70,150) (75,190)

Chapter 10 | Mathematical

Cracking the coding interview--Q10.1~Q10.7

Chapter 11 | Testing

Cracking the coding interview--Q11.1~Q11.6

Chapter 12 | System Design and Memory Limits

12.1 If you were integrating a feed of end of day stock price information (open, high, low, and closing price) for 5,000 companies, how would you do it? You are responsible for the development, rollout and ongoing monitoring and maintenance of the feed. Describe the different methods you considered and why you would recommend your approach. The feed is delivered once per trading day in a comma-separated format via an FTP site. The feed will be used by 1000 daily users in a web application.

12.2 How would you design the data structures for a very large social network (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc)? Describe how you would design an algorithm to show the connection, or path, between two people (e.g., Me -> Bob -> Susan -> Jason -> You).

12.3 Given an input file with four billion integers, provide an algorithm to generate an integer which is not contained in the file. Assume you have 1 GB of memory.
What if you have only 10 MB of memory?

12.4 You have an array with all the numbers from 1 to N, where N is at most 32,000. The array may have duplicate entries and you do not know what N is. With only 4KB of memory available, how would you print all duplicate elements in the array?

12.5 If you were designing a web crawler, how would you avoid getting into infinite loops?

12.6 You have a billion urls, where each is a huge page. How do you detect the duplicate documents?

12.7 You have to design a database that can store terabytes of data. It should support efficient range queries. How would you do it?

Chapter 13 | C++

Chapter 14 | Java

Cracking the coding interview--14.1-14.6

Chapter 15 | Databases

15.1 Write a method to find the number of employees in each department.

15.2 What are the different types of joins? Please explain how they differ and why certain types are better in certain situations.

15.3 What is denormalization? Explain the pros and cons.

15.4 Draw an entity-relationship diagram for a database with companies, people, and professionals (people who work for companies).

15.5 Imagine a simple database storing information for students’ grades. Design what this database might look like, and provide a SQL query to return a list of the honor roll students (top 10%), sorted by their grade point average.

Chapter 16 | Low Level

Cracking the coding interview--Q16.1-Q16.10

Chapter 17 | Networking

17.1 Explain what happens, step by step, after you type a URL into a browser. Use as much detail as possible.

17.2 Explain any common routing protocol in detail. For example: BGP, OSPF, RIP.

17.3 Compare and contrast the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.

17.4 What is a network / subnet mask? Explain how host A sends a message / packet to host B when: (a) both are on same network and (b) both are on different networks. Explain which layer makes the routing decision and how.

17.5 What are the differences between TCP and UDP? Explain how TCP handles reliable delivery (explain ACK mechanism), flow control (explain TCP sender’s / receiver’s window) and congestion control.

Chapter 18 | Threads and Locks

18.1 What’s the difference between a thread and a process?

18.2 How can you measure the time spent in a context switch?

18.3 Implement a singleton design pattern as a template such that, for any given class Foo, you can call Singleton::instance() and get a pointer to an instance of a singleton of type Foo. Assume the existence of a class Lock which has acquire() and release() methods. How could you make your implementation thread safe and exception safe?

18.4 Design a class which provides a lock only if there are no possible deadlocks.

18.5 Suppose we have the following code:
class Foo {
(.....); /* If A is called, a new thread will be created and
* the corresponding function will be executed. */
B(.....); /* same as above */
C(.....); /* same as above */
Foo f;
i) Can you design a mechanism to make sure that B is executed after A, and C is executed after B?
iii) Suppose we have the following code to use class Foo. We do not know how the threads will be scheduled in the OS.
Foo f;
f.A(.....); f.B(.....); f.C(.....);
f.A(.....); f.B(.....); f.C(.....);
Can you design a mechanism to make sure that all the methods will be executed in sequence?

18.6 You are given a class with synchronized method A, and a normal method C. If you have two threads in one instance of a program, can they call A at the same time? Can they call A and C at the same time?

Chapter 19 | Moderate

19.1 Write a function to swap a number in place without temporary variables.

19.2 Design an algorithm to figure out if someone has won in a game of tic-tac-toe.

19.3 Write an algorithm which computes the number of trailing zeros in n factorial.

19.4 Write a method which finds the maximum of two numbers. You should not use if-else or any other comparison operator.
Input: 5, 10
Output: 10

19.5 The Game of Master Mind is played as follows:
The computer has four slots containing balls that are red (R), yellow (Y), green (G) or blue (B). For example, the computer might have RGGB (e.g., Slot #1 is red, Slots #2 and #3 are green, Slot #4 is blue).
You, the user, are trying to guess the solution. You might, for example, guess YRGB.
When you guess the correct color for the correct slot, you get a “hit”. If you guess a color that exists but is in the wrong slot, you get a “pseudo-hit”. For example, the guess YRGB has 2 hits and one pseudo hit.
For each guess, you are told the number of hits and pseudo-hits.
Write a method that, given a guess and a solution, returns the number of hits and pseudo hits.

19.6 Given an integer between 0 and 999,999, print an English phrase that describes the integer (eg, “One Thousand, Two Hundred and Thirty Four”).

19.7 You are given an array of integers (both positive and negative). Find the continuous sequence with the largest sum. Return the sum.
Input: {2, -8, 3, -2, 4, -10}
Output: 5 (i.e., {3, -2, 4} )

19.8 Design a method to find the frequency of occurrences of any given word in a book.

19.10 Write a method to generate a random number between 1 and 7, given a method that generates a random number between 1 and 5 (i.e., implement rand7() using rand5()).

19.11 Design an algorithm to find all pairs of integers within an array which sum to a specified value.

Chapter 20 | Hard

20.1 Write a function that adds two numbers. You should not use + or any arithmetic operators.

20.2 Write a method to shuffle a deck of cards. It must be a perfect shuffle - in other words, each 52! permutations of the deck has to be equally likely. Assume that you are given a random number generator which is perfect.

20.3 Write a method to randomly generate a set of m integers from an array of size n. Each element must have equal probability of being chosen.

20.4 Write a method to count the number of 2s between 0 and n.

20.5 You have a large text file containing words. Given any two words, find the shortest distance (in terms of number of words) between them in the file. Can you make the searching operation in O(1) time? What about the space complexity for your solution?

20.6 Describe an algorithm to find the largest 1 million numbers in 1 billion numbers. Assume that the computer memory can hold all one billion numbers.

20.7 Write a program to find the longest word made of other words in a list of words.
Input: test, tester, testertest, testing, testingtester
Output: testingtester

20.8 Given a string s and an array of smaller strings T, design a method to search s for each small string in T.

20.9 Numbers are randomly generated and passed to a method. Write a program to find and maintain the median value as new values are generated.

20.10 Given two words of equal length that are in a dictionary, write a method to transform one word into another word by changing only one letter at a time. The new word you get in each step must be in the dictionary.

Output: DAMP -> LAMP -> LIMP -> LIME -> LIKE

20.11 Imagine you have a square matrix, where each cell is filled with either black or white. Design an algorithm to find the maximum subsquare such that all four borders are filled with black pixels.

20.12 Given an NxN matrix of positive and negative integers, write code to find the sub-matrix with the largest possible sum.

20.13 Given a dictionary of millions of words, give an algorithm to find the largest possible rectangle of letters such that every row forms a word (reading left to right) and every column forms a word (reading top to bottom).