# HOJ1797 Red and Black 基础搜索

## Red and Black(HOJ1797)

Source : Japan Domestic 2004
Time limit : 1 sec Memory limit : 32 M

There is a rectangular room, covered with square tiles. Each tile is colored either red or black. A man is standing on a black tile. From a tile, he can move to one of four adjacent tiles. But he can’t move on red tiles, he can move only on black tiles.
Write a program to count the number of black tiles which he can reach by repeating the moves described above.

## Input

The input consists of multiple data sets. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers W and H; W and H are the numbers of tiles in the x- and y- directions, respectively. W and H are not more than 20.
There are H more lines in the data set, each of which includes W characters. Each character represents the color of a tile as follows.
‘.’ - a black tile
‘#’ - a red tile
‘@’ - a man on a black tile(appears exactly once in a data set)

## Output

For each data set, your program should output a line which contains the number of tiles he can reach from the initial tile (including itself).

6 9
….#.
…..#
……
……
……
……
……
#@…#
.#..#.
11 9
.#………
.#.#######.
.#.#…..#.
.#.#.###.#.
.#.#..@#.#.
.#.#####.#.
.#…….#.
.#########.
………..
11 6
..#..#..#..
..#..#..#..
..#..#..###
..#..#..#@.
..#..#..#..
..#..#..#..
7 7
..#.#..
..#.#..
###.###
…@…
###.###
..#.#..
..#.#..
0 0

## Sample Output

45
59
6
13

DFS代码

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>

using namespace std;
bool vis[105][105];
char grid[105][105];
int n, m, CNT;

bool dfs(int x, int y, int depth)
{
/** 这里完全可以把返回值设为空，返回值为bool的dfs函数多用于判断迷宫中能否达到目的地之类的问题。这里dfs函数的作用是标记vis用来表示哪些点是能够被访问到的，然后在扫描vis数组判断被标记出来的点有多少个，然后输出答案
*/
if(x < 0 || y < 0 || x >=m || y >= n || vis[x][y])
return false;

if(grid[x][y] == '#')
return false;
/*判断数组下标是否越界，并且如果下标越界或者该点被访问过，返回false（但其实主要作用是避免把该点vis[x][y]标记为true）*/

vis[x][y] = true;
/*vis[x][y]用于标记grid[x][y]是否已经访问过，作用是防止死循环，并且提高程序效率*/
if(dfs(x,y+1,depth+1)) return true;
if(dfs(x,y-1,depth+1)) return true;
if(dfs(x-1,y,depth+1)) return true;
if(dfs(x+1,y,depth+1)) return true;
//四个方向都递归调用dfs

return false;
}

int main()
{
while(true)
{
memset(vis, false, sizeof(vis));
//不要忘记初始化；
cin >> n >> m;
if(n == 0 && m == 0) break;
for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
scanf("%s", grid[i]);
CNT = 0;
int posx = 0, posy = 0;

for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j<n; j++)
{
if(grid[i][j] == '@')
{
posx = i;
posy = j;
break;
//找到起始位置
}
}
}
dfs(posx, posy, 0);

for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
for(int j=0; j<n; j++)
if(vis[i][j] == true) CNT++;
cout << CNT << endl;
}

return 0;
}


BFS的思路类似，也是从初始位置开始搜索，然后每搜索到一个符合条件的（!= ‘#’）没有被访问过的(vis[x][y] != true)的点就把vis[x][y]标记成true，不符合条件就不再以这个点为基础向外遍历了，在该点的搜索停止，再在其他点的基础上搜索，最后再统计被标记的点的数量。

BFS：

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <queue>
//需要用到stl中的队列

using namespace std;
bool vis[105][105];
char grid[105][105];
int n, m;
int CNT;
int step[] = {0, 0, 1, -1};
//在有很多个遍历方向的时候用几层循环搭配step数组，这样会精简你的代码，具体实现往下看
struct p
{
int x, y;
};
//bfs常会用到结构体

void bfs(int posx, int posy, queue<p> q)
{
p point;
while(!q.empty())
{
posx = q.front().x;
posy = q.front().y;
for(int i=0; i<4; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j<4; j++)
{
int x = posx+step[i];
int y = posy+step[j];
if(step[i]*step[j] == 0 && x < m && y < n && x*y >= 0 &&)
{
if(grid [x][y] != '#' && vis[x][y] != true)
{
point.x = x;
point.y = y;
vis[point.x][point.y] = true;
q.push(point);
}
}
}
}
q.pop();//不要忘记弹出原有的元素，否则循环会死的-_-#
}
return;
}
int main()
{
while(true)
{
queue<p> q;

memset(vis, false, sizeof(vis));
cin >> n >> m;
if(n == 0 && m == 0) break;
for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
scanf("%s", grid[i]);
CNT = 0;
int posx = 0, posy = 0;

for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j<n; j++)
{
if(grid[i][j] == '@')
{
posx = i;
posy = j;
break;
}
}
}
p point;
point.x = posx;
point.y = posy;
q.push(point);

bfs(posx, posy, q);

for(int i=0; i<m; i++)
for(int j=0; j<n; j++)
if(vis[i][j] == true) CNT++;

cout << CNT << endl;
}

return 0;
}

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