Linux进程管理之task_struct结构体(下)

    9、进程地址空间 

	struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
	unsigned brk_randomized:1;
#endif
#if defined(SPLIT_RSS_COUNTING)
	struct task_rss_stat	rss_stat;
#endif

    mm指向进程所拥有的内存描述符,而active_mm指向进程运行时所使用的内存描述符。对于普通进程而言,这两个指针变量的值相同。但是,内核线程不拥有任何内存描述符,所以它们的mm成员总是为NULL。当内核线程得以运行时,它的active_mm成员被初始化为前一个运行进程的active_mm值。

    brk_randomized的用法在http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/1104.1/00196.html上有介绍,用来确定对随机堆内存的探测。

    rss_stat用来记录缓冲信息。 

    10、判断标志 

	int exit_code, exit_signal;
	int pdeath_signal;  /*  The signal sent when the parent dies  */
	/* ??? */
	unsigned int personality;
	unsigned did_exec:1;
	unsigned in_execve:1;	/* Tell the LSMs that the process is doing an
				 * execve */
	unsigned in_iowait:1;


	/* Revert to default priority/policy when forking */
	unsigned sched_reset_on_fork:1;

    exit_code用于设置进程的终止代号,这个值要么是_exit()或exit_group()系统调用参数(正常终止),要么是由内核提供的一个错误代号(异常终止)。

    exit_signal被置为-1时表示是某个线程组中的一员。只有当线程组的最后一个成员终止时,才会产生一个信号,以通知线程组的领头进程的父进程。

    pdeath_signal用于判断父进程终止时发送信号。

    personality用于处理不同的ABI,它的可能取值如下: 

enum {
	PER_LINUX =		0x0000,
	PER_LINUX_32BIT =	0x0000 | ADDR_LIMIT_32BIT,
	PER_LINUX_FDPIC =	0x0000 | FDPIC_FUNCPTRS,
	PER_SVR4 =		0x0001 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | MMAP_PAGE_ZERO,
	PER_SVR3 =		0x0002 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | SHORT_INODE,
	PER_SCOSVR3 =		0x0003 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS |
					 WHOLE_SECONDS | SHORT_INODE,
	PER_OSR5 =		0x0003 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | WHOLE_SECONDS,
	PER_WYSEV386 =		0x0004 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | SHORT_INODE,
	PER_ISCR4 =		0x0005 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,
	PER_BSD =		0x0006,
	PER_SUNOS =		0x0006 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,
	PER_XENIX =		0x0007 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | SHORT_INODE,
	PER_LINUX32 =		0x0008,
	PER_LINUX32_3GB =	0x0008 | ADDR_LIMIT_3GB,
	PER_IRIX32 =		0x0009 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,/* IRIX5 32-bit */
	PER_IRIXN32 =		0x000a | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,/* IRIX6 new 32-bit */
	PER_IRIX64 =		0x000b | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,/* IRIX6 64-bit */
	PER_RISCOS =		0x000c,
	PER_SOLARIS =		0x000d | STICKY_TIMEOUTS,
	PER_UW7 =		0x000e | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | MMAP_PAGE_ZERO,
	PER_OSF4 =		0x000f,			 /* OSF/1 v4 */
	PER_HPUX =		0x0010,
	PER_MASK =		0x00ff,
};

    did_exec用于记录进程代码是否被execve()函数所执行。

    in_execve用于通知LSM是否被do_execve()函数所调用。详见补丁说明:http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0901.1/00014.html

    in_iowait用于判断是否进行iowait计数。

    sched_reset_on_fork用于判断是否恢复默认的优先级或调度策略。

    11、时间 

	cputime_t utime, stime, utimescaled, stimescaled;
	cputime_t gtime;
#ifndef CONFIG_VIRT_CPU_ACCOUNTING
	cputime_t prev_utime, prev_stime;
#endif
	unsigned long nvcsw, nivcsw; /* context switch counts */
	struct timespec start_time; 		/* monotonic time */
	struct timespec real_start_time;	/* boot based time */
	struct task_cputime cputime_expires;
	struct list_head cpu_timers[3];
#ifdef CONFIG_DETECT_HUNG_TASK
/* hung task detection */
	unsigned long last_switch_count;
#endif

    utime/stime用于记录进程在用户态/内核态下所经过的节拍数(定时器)。prev_utime/prev_stime是先前的运行时间,请参考补丁说明http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/1003.3/02431.html

    utimescaled/stimescaled也是用于记录进程在用户态/内核态的运行时间,但它们以处理器的频率为刻度。

    gtime是以节拍计数的虚拟机运行时间(guest time)。

    nvcsw/nivcsw是自愿(voluntary)/非自愿(involuntary)上下文切换计数。last_switch_count是nvcsw和nivcsw的总和。

    start_time和real_start_time都是进程创建时间,real_start_time还包含了进程睡眠时间,常用于/proc/pid/stat,补丁说明请参考http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0705.0/2094.html

    cputime_expires用来统计进程或进程组被跟踪的处理器时间,其中的三个成员对应着cpu_timers[3]的三个链表。

    12、信号处理 

/* signal handlers */
	struct signal_struct *signal;
	struct sighand_struct *sighand;

	sigset_t blocked, real_blocked;
	sigset_t saved_sigmask;	/* restored if set_restore_sigmask() was used */
	struct sigpending pending;

	unsigned long sas_ss_sp;
	size_t sas_ss_size;
	int (*notifier)(void *priv);
	void *notifier_data;
	sigset_t *notifier_mask;

    signal指向进程的信号描述符。

    sighand指向进程的信号处理程序描述符。

    blocked表示被阻塞信号的掩码,real_blocked表示临时掩码。

    pending存放私有挂起信号的数据结构。

    sas_ss_sp是信号处理程序备用堆栈的地址,sas_ss_size表示堆栈的大小。

    设备驱动程序常用notifier指向的函数来阻塞进程的某些信号(notifier_mask是这些信号的位掩码),notifier_data指的是notifier所指向的函数可能使用的数据。

    13、其他

    (1)、用于保护资源分配或释放的自旋锁 

/* Protection of (de-)allocation: mm, files, fs, tty, keyrings, mems_allowed,
 * mempolicy */
	spinlock_t alloc_lock;

    (2)、进程描述符使用计数,被置为2时,表示进程描述符正在被使用而且其相应的进程处于活动状态。 

	atomic_t usage;

    (3)、用于表示获取大内核锁的次数,如果进程未获得过锁,则置为-1。 

	int lock_depth;		/* BKL lock depth */

    (4)、在SMP上帮助实现无加锁的进程切换(unlocked context switches) 

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
#ifdef __ARCH_WANT_UNLOCKED_CTXSW
	int oncpu;
#endif
#endif

    (5)、preempt_notifier结构体链表 

#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_NOTIFIERS
	/* list of struct preempt_notifier: */
	struct hlist_head preempt_notifiers;
#endif

    (6)、FPU使用计数 

	unsigned char fpu_counter;

    (7)、blktrace是一个针对Linux内核中块设备I/O层的跟踪工具。 

#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IO_TRACE
	unsigned int btrace_seq;
#endif

    (8)、RCU同步原语 

#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
	int rcu_read_lock_nesting;
	char rcu_read_unlock_special;
	struct list_head rcu_node_entry;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU
	struct rcu_node *rcu_blocked_node;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST
	struct rt_mutex *rcu_boost_mutex;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST */

    (9)、用于调度器统计进程的运行信息 

#if defined(CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS) || defined(CONFIG_TASK_DELAY_ACCT)
	struct sched_info sched_info;
#endif

    (10)、用于构建进程链表 

	struct list_head tasks;

    (11)、to limit pushing to one attempt 

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	struct plist_node pushable_tasks;
#endif

    补丁说明请参考:http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0808.3/0503.html

    (12)、防止内核堆栈溢出 

#ifdef CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
	/* Canary value for the -fstack-protector gcc feature */
	unsigned long stack_canary;
#endif

    在GCC编译内核时,需要加上-fstack-protector选项。

    (13)、PID散列表和链表 

	/* PID/PID hash table linkage. */
	struct pid_link pids[PIDTYPE_MAX];
	struct list_head thread_group; //线程组中所有进程的链表

    (14)、do_fork函数 

	struct completion *vfork_done;		/* for vfork() */
	int __user *set_child_tid;		/* CLONE_CHILD_SETTID */
	int __user *clear_child_tid;		/* CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID */

    在执行do_fork()时,如果给定特别标志,则vfork_done会指向一个特殊地址。

    如果copy_process函数的clone_flags参数的值被置为CLONE_CHILD_SETTID或CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID,则会把child_tidptr参数的值分别复制到set_child_tid和clear_child_tid成员。这些标志说明必须改变子进程用户态地址空间的child_tidptr所指向的变量的值。

    (15)、缺页统计 

/* mm fault and swap info: this can arguably be seen as either mm-specific or thread-specific */
	unsigned long min_flt, maj_flt;

    (16)、进程权能 

	const struct cred __rcu *real_cred; /* objective and real subjective task
					 * credentials (COW) */
	const struct cred __rcu *cred;	/* effective (overridable) subjective task
					 * credentials (COW) */
	struct cred *replacement_session_keyring; /* for KEYCTL_SESSION_TO_PARENT */

    (17)、相应的程序名 

	char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN];

    (18)、文件 

/* file system info */
	int link_count, total_link_count;
/* filesystem information */
	struct fs_struct *fs;
/* open file information */
	struct files_struct *files;

    fs用来表示进程与文件系统的联系,包括当前目录和根目录。

    files表示进程当前打开的文件。

    (19)、进程通信(SYSVIPC) 

#ifdef CONFIG_SYSVIPC
/* ipc stuff */
	struct sysv_sem sysvsem;
#endif

    (20)、处理器特有数据 

/* CPU-specific state of this task */
	struct thread_struct thread;

    (21)、命名空间 

/* namespaces */
	struct nsproxy *nsproxy;

    (22)、进程审计 

	struct audit_context *audit_context;
#ifdef CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL
	uid_t loginuid;
	unsigned int sessionid;
#endif

    (23)、secure computing 

	seccomp_t seccomp;

    (24)、用于copy_process函数使用CLONE_PARENT 标记时 

/* Thread group tracking */
   	u32 parent_exec_id;
   	u32 self_exec_id;

    (25)、中断 

#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_HARDIRQS
	/* IRQ handler threads */
	struct irqaction *irqaction;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_TRACE_IRQFLAGS
	unsigned int irq_events;
	unsigned long hardirq_enable_ip;
	unsigned long hardirq_disable_ip;
	unsigned int hardirq_enable_event;
	unsigned int hardirq_disable_event;
	int hardirqs_enabled;
	int hardirq_context;
	unsigned long softirq_disable_ip;
	unsigned long softirq_enable_ip;
	unsigned int softirq_disable_event;
	unsigned int softirq_enable_event;
	int softirqs_enabled;
	int softirq_context;
#endif

    (26)、task_rq_lock函数所使用的锁 

	/* Protection of the PI data structures: */
	raw_spinlock_t pi_lock;

    (27)、基于PI协议的等待互斥锁,其中PI指的是priority inheritance(优先级继承) 

#ifdef CONFIG_RT_MUTEXES
	/* PI waiters blocked on a rt_mutex held by this task */
	struct plist_head pi_waiters;
	/* Deadlock detection and priority inheritance handling */
	struct rt_mutex_waiter *pi_blocked_on;
#endif

    (28)、死锁检测 

#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_MUTEXES
	/* mutex deadlock detection */
	struct mutex_waiter *blocked_on;
#endif

    (29)、lockdep,参见内核说明文档linux-2.6.38.8/Documentation/lockdep-design.txt 

#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP
# define MAX_LOCK_DEPTH 48UL
	u64 curr_chain_key;
	int lockdep_depth;
	unsigned int lockdep_recursion;
	struct held_lock held_locks[MAX_LOCK_DEPTH];
	gfp_t lockdep_reclaim_gfp;
#endif

    (30)、JFS文件系统 

/* journalling filesystem info */
	void *journal_info;

    (31)、块设备链表 

/* stacked block device info */
	struct bio_list *bio_list;

    (32)、内存回收 

	struct reclaim_state *reclaim_state;

    (33)、存放块设备I/O数据流量信息

	struct backing_dev_info *backing_dev_info;
    (34)、I/O调度器所使用的信息 
	struct io_context *io_context;

    (35)、记录进程的I/O计数 

	struct task_io_accounting ioac;
#if defined(CONFIG_TASK_XACCT)
	u64 acct_rss_mem1;	/* accumulated rss usage */
	u64 acct_vm_mem1;	/* accumulated virtual memory usage */
	cputime_t acct_timexpd;	/* stime + utime since last update */
#endif

    在Ubuntu 11.04上,执行cat获得进程1的I/O计数如下: 

$ sudo cat /proc/1/io
rchar: 164258906
wchar: 455212837
syscr: 388847
syscw: 92563
read_bytes: 439251968
write_bytes: 14143488
cancelled_write_bytes: 2134016

    输出的数据项刚好是task_io_accounting结构体的所有成员。

    (36)、CPUSET功能 

#ifdef CONFIG_CPUSETS
	nodemask_t mems_allowed;	/* Protected by alloc_lock */
	int mems_allowed_change_disable;
	int cpuset_mem_spread_rotor;
	int cpuset_slab_spread_rotor;
#endif

    (37)、Control Groups 

#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUPS
	/* Control Group info protected by css_set_lock */
	struct css_set __rcu *cgroups;
	/* cg_list protected by css_set_lock and tsk->alloc_lock */
	struct list_head cg_list;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR /* memcg uses this to do batch job */
	struct memcg_batch_info {
		int do_batch;	/* incremented when batch uncharge started */
		struct mem_cgroup *memcg; /* target memcg of uncharge */
		unsigned long bytes; 		/* uncharged usage */
		unsigned long memsw_bytes; /* uncharged mem+swap usage */
	} memcg_batch;
#endif

    (38)、futex同步机制 

#ifdef CONFIG_FUTEX
	struct robust_list_head __user *robust_list;
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	struct compat_robust_list_head __user *compat_robust_list;
#endif
	struct list_head pi_state_list;
	struct futex_pi_state *pi_state_cache;
#endif

    (39)、非一致内存访问(NUMA  Non-Uniform Memory Access) 

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	struct mempolicy *mempolicy;	/* Protected by alloc_lock */
	short il_next;
#endif

    (40)、文件系统互斥资源 

	atomic_t fs_excl;	/* holding fs exclusive resources */

    (41)、RCU链表 

	struct rcu_head rcu;

    (42)、管道 

	struct pipe_inode_info *splice_pipe;

    (43)、延迟计数 

#ifdef	CONFIG_TASK_DELAY_ACCT
	struct task_delay_info *delays;
#endif

    (44)、fault injection,参考内核说明文件linux-2.6.38.8/Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt 

#ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION
	int make_it_fail;
#endif

    (45)、FLoating proportions 

	struct prop_local_single dirties;

    (46)、Infrastructure for displayinglatency 

#ifdef CONFIG_LATENCYTOP
	int latency_record_count;
	struct latency_record latency_record[LT_SAVECOUNT];
#endif

    (47)、time slack values,常用于poll和select函数 

	unsigned long timer_slack_ns;
	unsigned long default_timer_slack_ns;

    (48)、socket控制消息(control message) 

	struct list_head	*scm_work_list;

    (49)、ftrace跟踪器 

#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
	/* Index of current stored address in ret_stack */
	int curr_ret_stack;
	/* Stack of return addresses for return function tracing */
	struct ftrace_ret_stack	*ret_stack;
	/* time stamp for last schedule */
	unsigned long long ftrace_timestamp;
	/*
	 * Number of functions that haven't been traced
	 * because of depth overrun.
	 */
	atomic_t trace_overrun;
	/* Pause for the tracing */
	atomic_t tracing_graph_pause;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_TRACING
	/* state flags for use by tracers */
	unsigned long trace;
	/* bitmask of trace recursion */
	unsigned long trace_recursion;
#endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */

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