Mysql 实战之——读写分离方案

Linux环境:Centos 6.8  64-bit

Mysql 版本:5.1.7

 

一、准备工作:部署Mysql主从复制

二、使用Amoeba数据库代理来实现读写分离

Amoeba作为数据库代理,以中间件的形式存在,拓扑图如下所示:(Amoeba官网的一张图)

1、下载Amoeba:https://sourceforge.net/projects/amoeba/files/

2、解压并复制到local目录

[root@ linux ~]# unzip amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC-distribution.zip

[root@ linux ~]# cp -rf amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC /usr/local

3、启动Amoeba。

[root@chenllcentos ~]# /usr/local/amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC/bin/launcher

如果出现fatal exception:

The stack size specified is too small, Specify at least 228k
Error: Could not create the Java Virtual Machine.
Error: A fatal exception has occurred. Program will exit.

原因是由于stack size太小,导致JVM启动失败,要如何修改呢?

 解决:

[root@ linux ~]# vi /usr/local/amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC/jvm.properties

将内容:

JVM_OPTIONS="-server -Xms256m -Xmx1024m -Xss196k -XX:PermSize=16m -XX:MaxPermSize=96m"

替换为:

JVM_OPTIONS="-server -Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -Xss256k -XX:PermSize=16m -XX:MaxPermSize=96m"

4、修改配置文件:Amoeba完成读写分离的实现主要是依靠2个非常重要的配置文件:

dbServers.xml  和  amoeba.xml

4.1、首先,看看dbServers.xml文件

[root@localhost conf]# cat dbServer.xml

这个文件主要是配置数据库链接,主库,还有从库(slave)节点的信息,以及数据库连接池信息

如下内容就是这个文件的配置

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="gbk"?>
<!DOCTYPE amoeba:dbServers SYSTEM “dbserver.dtd”> <amoeba:dbServers xmlns:amoeba=“http://amoeba.meidusa.com/”>
<!-- 
        Each dbServer needs to be configured into a Pool,
        If you need to configure multiple dbServer with load balancing that can be simplified by the following configuration:
         add attribute with name virtual = "true" in dbServer, but the configuration does not allow the element with name factoryConfig
         such as 'multiPool' dbServer   
-->

<!-- 该dbServer节点abstractive="true",包含Mysql的公共配置信息,其他dbServer节点都继承该节点 -->
<!-- 设置节点配置的继承结构,可以避免重复配置相同信息,减少配置文件冗余 -->
<dbServer name="abstractServer" abstractive="true">
    <factoryConfig class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.net.MysqlServerConnectionFactory">
        <property name="connectionManager">${defaultManager}</property>
        <property name="sendBufferSize">64</property>
        <property name="receiveBufferSize">128</property>

        <!-- mysql port -->
        <!-- Mysql默认端口 -->
        <property name="port">3306</property>

        <!-- mysql schema -->
        <!-- 默认连接的数据库,若不存在需要事先创建,否则Amoeba启动报错 -->
        <property name="schema">testdb</property>

        <!-- mysql user -->
        <property name="user">root</property>

        <property name="password">222</property>
    </factoryConfig>

    <poolConfig class="com.meidusa.toolkit.common.poolable.PoolableObjectPool">
        <property name="maxActive">500</property>
        <property name="maxIdle">500</property>
        <property name="minIdle">1</property>
        <property name="minEvictableIdleTimeMillis">600000</property>
        <property name="timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis">600000</property>
        <property name="testOnBorrow">true</property>
        <property name="testOnReturn">true</property>
        <property name="testWhileIdle">true</property>
    </poolConfig>
</dbServer>

<!-- Mysql主服务器master节点继承abstractServer -->
<dbServer name="master"  parent="abstractServer">
    <factoryConfig>
        <!-- master数据库主机地址 -->
        <property name="ipAddress">192.168.48.133</property>
    </factoryConfig>
</dbServer>

<!-- Mysql从服务器slave节点继承abstractServer -->
<dbServer name="slave1"  parent="abstractServer">
    <factoryConfig>
        <!-- slave数据库主机地址 -->
        <property name="ipAddress">192.168.48.132</property>
    </factoryConfig>
</dbServer>

<!-- 如果有多个从服务器节点, 可以复制多个dbServer -->

<!-- 配置数据库读取连接池 Amoeba实现读写分离根据readPool 连接池来实现-->
<dbServer name="readPool" virtual="true">
    <poolConfig class="com.meidusa.amoeba.server.MultipleServerPool">
        <!-- Load balancing strategy: 1=ROUNDROBIN , 2=WEIGHTBASED , 3=HA-->
        <property name="loadbalance">1</property>

        <!-- Separated by commas,such as: server1,server2,server1 -->
        <property name="poolNames">slave1</property>
    </poolConfig>
</dbServer>

配置完成之后:

4.2、接着配置amoeba.xml

vi amoeba.xml

内容如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="gbk"?>

<!DOCTYPE amoeba:configuration SYSTEM "amoeba.dtd">
<amoeba:configuration xmlns:amoeba="http://amoeba.meidusa.com/">

	<proxy>
	
		<!-- service class must implements com.meidusa.amoeba.service.Service -->
		<service name="Amoeba for Mysql" class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.server.MySQLService">
			<!-- port -->
			<property name="port">8066</property>
			
			<!-- bind ipAddress -->
			<!-- 
			<property name="ipAddress">127.0.0.1</property>
			 -->
			
			<property name="connectionFactory">
				<bean class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.net.MysqlClientConnectionFactory">
					<property name="sendBufferSize">128</property>
					<property name="receiveBufferSize">64</property>
				</bean>
			</property>
			
			<property name="authenticateProvider">
				<bean class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.server.MysqlClientAuthenticator">
					
					<property name="user">root</property>
					
					<property name="password"></property>
					
					<property name="filter">
						<bean class="com.meidusa.toolkit.net.authenticate.server.IPAccessController">
							<property name="ipFile">${amoeba.home}/conf/access_list.conf</property>
						</bean>
					</property>
				</bean>
			</property>
			
		</service>
		
		<runtime class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.context.MysqlRuntimeContext">
			
			<!-- proxy server client process thread size -->
			<property name="executeThreadSize">128</property>
			
			<!-- per connection cache prepared statement size  -->
			<property name="statementCacheSize">500</property>
			
			<!-- default charset -->
			<property name="serverCharset">utf8</property>
			
			<!-- query timeout( default: 60 second , TimeUnit:second) -->
			<property name="queryTimeout">60</property>
		</runtime>
		
	</proxy>
	
	<!-- 
		Each ConnectionManager will start as thread
		manager responsible for the Connection IO read , Death Detection
	-->
	<connectionManagerList>
		<connectionManager name="defaultManager" class="com.meidusa.toolkit.net.MultiConnectionManagerWrapper">
			<property name="subManagerClassName">com.meidusa.toolkit.net.AuthingableConnectionManager</property>
		</connectionManager>
	</connectionManagerList>
	
		<!-- default using file loader -->
	<dbServerLoader class="com.meidusa.amoeba.context.DBServerConfigFileLoader">
		<property name="configFile">${amoeba.home}/conf/dbServers.xml</property>
	</dbServerLoader>
	
	<queryRouter class="com.meidusa.amoeba.mysql.parser.MysqlQueryRouter">
		<property name="ruleLoader">
			<bean class="com.meidusa.amoeba.route.TableRuleFileLoader">
				<property name="ruleFile">${amoeba.home}/conf/rule.xml</property>
				<property name="functionFile">${amoeba.home}/conf/ruleFunctionMap.xml</property>
			</bean>
		</property>
		<property name="sqlFunctionFile">${amoeba.home}/conf/functionMap.xml</property>
		<property name="LRUMapSize">1500</property>
		<property name="defaultPool">multiPool</property>
		
		<!--
		<property name="writePool">server1</property>
		<property name="readPool">server1</property>
		-->
		<property name="needParse">true</property>
	</queryRouter>
</amoeba:configuration>

我们需要改的有3个地方:

5、启动

cd /usr/local/amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC/bin/

./launcher

出现如下信息就是启动成功了

2016-10-11 23:20:55 [INFO] Project Name=Amoeba-MySQL, PID=4097 , System shutdown ....
2016-10-11 23:27:49 [INFO] Project Name=Amoeba-MySQL, PID=4162 , starting...
log4j:WARN log4j config load completed from file:/usr/local/amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC/conf/log4j.xml
2016-10-11 23:27:50,736 INFO  context.MysqlRuntimeContext - Amoeba for Mysql current versoin=5.1.45-mysql-amoeba-proxy-3.0.4-BETA
log4j:WARN ip access config load completed from file:/usr/local/amoeba-mysql-3.0.5-RC/conf/access_list.conf
2016-10-11 23:27:51,863 INFO  net.ServerableConnectionManager - Server listening on 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:8066.

6、测试

先停止从库的主从复制

mysql>slave stop;

 查询主库的数据

mysql> select * from t_test;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    3 | t3   |
+------+------+

查询从库的数据

mysql> select * from t_test;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aaa  |
+------+------+

 登录Amoeba

mysql -uroot -p111111 -h192.168.48.133 -P8066

先使用查询语句

-- 经过多次测试查询,始终返回从库的数据
mysql> select * from t_test ;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aaa  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

再使用insert语句

mysql> insert into t_test (id,name) values (100,'100');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> insert into t_test (id,name) values (200,'200');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

现在看看insert语句的结果:

-- 查询从库的结果:
mysql> select * from t_test;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|  100 | 100  |
|  200 | 200  |
+------+------+
-- 查询主库的结果
mysql> select * from t_test;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|  200 | 200  |
|  100 | 100  |
+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
--在Amoeba执行查询的结果:
mysql> select * from t_test ;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|  100 | 100  |
|  200 | 200  |
+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.07 sec)

已经成功了。。。查询操作,始终查询的是从库的数据,而insert操作,始终是对主库进行操作

JAVA程序中整合amoeba的话,只需要把数据库链接改成amoeba的就行了。。

在企业的实际项目中,这样做的好处是,不需要对代码进行硬编码,具备非常高的解耦作用,而且,Amoeba的配置也非常的简单,其实还有分库和分表的操作,这里就不做演示

三、报错信息

amoeba里查询的时候报错:
amoeba ERROR 1044 (42000): Could not create a validated object, cause: ValidateObject failed

这个问题,我在网上找到了一个原因,就是,amoeba去从库查询的时候,账号没权限。grant 赋予从库那个账号所有权限就好了。

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