ThreadLocal源码解析

ThreadLocal经常被使用到,但是一直没有研究过它的实现原理。

在看源码之前,我猜测它是这样设计的:ThreadLocal中包含一个Map<Thread,Map<ThreadLocal, V>>属性,在使用时,通过Thread.currentThread()获取到当前线程,从而根据Key,找到Map<ThreadLocal, V>,后来发现是错的。所以本文通过阅读JDK源码,来解析ThreadLocal的设计思想和原理。


源码解析(基于jdk1.8.0_40)


数据结构


这里附上一张网上找的ThreadLocal类图



ThreadLocal只包含一个属性threadLocalHashCode。该属性的注释提到了Thread.threadLocals,它是一个特殊实现的hash表。

public class ThreadLocal<T> {
    /**
     * ThreadLocals rely on per-thread linear-probe hash maps attached
     * to each thread (Thread.threadLocals and
     * inheritableThreadLocals).  The ThreadLocal objects act as keys,
     * searched via threadLocalHashCode.  This is a custom hash code
     * (useful only within ThreadLocalMaps) that eliminates collisions
     * in the common case where consecutively constructed ThreadLocals
     * are used by the same threads, while remaining well-behaved in
     * less common cases.
     */
    private final int threadLocalHashCode = nextHashCode();

    /**
     * The next hash code to be given out. Updated atomically. Starts at
     * zero.
     */
    private static AtomicInteger nextHashCode =
        new AtomicInteger();

    /**
     * The difference between successively generated hash codes - turns
     * implicit sequential thread-local IDs into near-optimally spread
     * multiplicative hash values for power-of-two-sized tables.
     */
    private static final int HASH_INCREMENT = 0x61c88647;

    /**
     * Returns the next hash code.
     */
    private static int nextHashCode() {
        return nextHashCode.getAndAdd(HASH_INCREMENT);
    }
	
	......
}

而ThreadLocal的唯一属性threadLocalHashCode,是用来计算ThreadLocal<?> key在ThreadLocalMap中数组位置(index)的。


ThreadLocalMap


ThreadLocal中定义的静态类ThreadLocalMap,其实是一个特殊的Hash表:

	/**
     * ThreadLocalMap is a customized hash map suitable only for
     * maintaining thread local values. No operations are exported
     * outside of the ThreadLocal class. The class is package private to
     * allow declaration of fields in class Thread.  To help deal with
     * very large and long-lived usages, the hash table entries use
     * WeakReferences for keys. However, since reference queues are not
     * used, stale entries are guaranteed to be removed only when
     * the table starts running out of space.
     */
    static class ThreadLocalMap {

        /**
         * The entries in this hash map extend WeakReference, using
         * its main ref field as the key (which is always a
         * ThreadLocal object).  Note that null keys (i.e. entry.get()
         * == null) mean that the key is no longer referenced, so the
         * entry can be expunged from table.  Such entries are referred to
         * as "stale entries" in the code that follows.
         */
        static class Entry extends WeakReference<ThreadLocal<?>> {
            /** The value associated with this ThreadLocal. */
            Object value;

            Entry(ThreadLocal<?> k, Object v) {
                super(k);
                value = v;
            }
        }

        /**
         * The initial capacity -- MUST be a power of two.
         */
        private static final int INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

        /**
         * The table, resized as necessary.
         * table.length MUST always be a power of two.
         */
        private Entry[] table;

        /**
         * The number of entries in the table.
         */
        private int size = 0;

        /**
         * The next size value at which to resize.
         */
        private int threshold; // Default to 0
		
		
	......
		
}

(1)ThreadLocalMap解决Hash冲突的方法和java.util.HashMap不同,这里是冲突之后,就从数组的index+1位置开始寻找一个为空的位置放进去。

        /**
         * Increment i modulo len.
         */
        private static int nextIndex(int i, int len) {
            return ((i + 1 < len) ? i + 1 : 0);
        }


        /**
         * Get the entry associated with key.  This method
         * itself handles only the fast path: a direct hit of existing
         * key. It otherwise relays to getEntryAfterMiss.  This is
         * designed to maximize performance for direct hits, in part
         * by making this method readily inlinable.
         *
         * @param  key the thread local object
         * @return the entry associated with key, or null if no such
         */
        private Entry getEntry(ThreadLocal<?> key) {
        //hash算法:使用ThreadLocal.threadLocalHashCode属性计算数组下标 
        int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (table.length - 1);
            Entry e = table[i];
            if (e != null && e.get() == key)
                return e;
            else
                return getEntryAfterMiss(key, i, e);
        }

        /**
         * Version of getEntry method for use when key is not found in
         * its direct hash slot.
         *
         * @param  key the thread local object
         * @param  i the table index for key's hash code
         * @param  e the entry at table[i]
         * @return the entry associated with key, or null if no such
         */
        private Entry getEntryAfterMiss(ThreadLocal<?> key, int i, Entry e) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;

            while (e != null) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
                if (k == key)
                    return e;
                if (k == null)
                    expungeStaleEntry(i);
                else
                    i = nextIndex(i, len);
                e = tab[i];
            }
            return null;
        }

        /**
         * Set the value associated with key.
         *
         * @param key the thread local object
         * @param value the value to be set
         */
        private void set(ThreadLocal<?> key, Object value) {

            // We don't use a fast path as with get() because it is at
            // least as common to use set() to create new entries as
            // it is to replace existing ones, in which case, a fast
            // path would fail more often than not.

            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (len-1);

            for (Entry e = tab[i];
                 e != null;
                 e = tab[i = nextIndex(i, len)]) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();

                if (k == key) {
                    e.value = value;
                    return;
                }

                if (k == null) {
                    replaceStaleEntry(key, value, i);
                    return;
                }
            }

            tab[i] = new Entry(key, value);
            int sz = ++size;
            if (!cleanSomeSlots(i, sz) && sz >= threshold)
                rehash();
        }

(2)Entry类被设计为static class Entry extends WeakReference<ThreadLocal<?>>,一旦外部没有了对ThreadLocal对象的强引用,Jvm GC时就会回收ThreadLocal对象。


于是ThreadLocalMap中的提供了清除失效的Entry方法expungeStaleEntry(),通过判断WeakReference.get() ==null,来发现被GC回收掉referent属性的Entry对象,并执行清除工作:

       /**
         * Expunge a stale entry by rehashing any possibly colliding entries
         * lying between staleSlot and the next null slot.  This also expunges
         * any other stale entries encountered before the trailing null.  See
         * Knuth, Section 6.4
         *
         * @param staleSlot index of slot known to have null key
         * @return the index of the next null slot after staleSlot
         * (all between staleSlot and this slot will have been checked
         * for expunging).
         */
        private int expungeStaleEntry(int staleSlot) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;

            // expunge entry at staleSlot
            tab[staleSlot].value = null;
            tab[staleSlot] = null;
            size--;

            // Rehash until we encounter null
            Entry e;
            int i;
            for (i = nextIndex(staleSlot, len);
                 (e = tab[i]) != null;
                 i = nextIndex(i, len)) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
                if (k == null) {
                    e.value = null;
                    tab[i] = null;
                    size--;
                } else {
                    int h = k.threadLocalHashCode & (len - 1);
                    if (h != i) {
                        tab[i] = null;

                        // Unlike Knuth 6.4 Algorithm R, we must scan until
                        // null because multiple entries could have been stale.
                        while (tab[h] != null)
                            h = nextIndex(h, len);
                        tab[h] = e;
                    }
                }
            }
            return i;
        }

ThreadLocal是如何使用和操作ThreadLocalMap的?


其实ThreadLocalMap是被保存在Thread中的:Thread类里包含了一个ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap的属性,不过却是由ThreadLocal类来维护(创建和使用),这样的设计目的是让这个ThreadLocalMap随着Thread的生命周期而存在。

  /* ThreadLocal values pertaining to this thread. This map is maintained
     * by the ThreadLocal class. */
    ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap threadLocals = null;


ThreadLocal类中的getMap()和createMap()方法:

    /**
     * Get the map associated with a ThreadLocal. Overridden in
     * InheritableThreadLocal.
     *
     * @param  t the current thread
     * @return the map
     */
    ThreadLocalMap getMap(Thread t) {
        return t.threadLocals;
    }

    /**
     * Create the map associated with a ThreadLocal. Overridden in
     * InheritableThreadLocal.
     *
     * @param t the current thread
     * @param firstValue value for the initial entry of the map
     * @param map the map to store.
     */
    void createMap(Thread t, T firstValue) {
        t.threadLocals = new ThreadLocalMap(this, firstValue);//该构造函数相当于new ThreadLocalMap().set(this, firstValue)
    }


继续类看ThreadLocal里的get()/set()/remove()方法,都是在操作ThreadLocalMap

 /**
     * Returns the value in the current thread's copy of this
     * thread-local variable.  If the variable has no value for the
     * current thread, it is first initialized to the value returned
     * by an invocation of the {@link #initialValue} method.
     *
     * @return the current thread's value of this thread-local
     */
    public T get() {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null) {
            ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this);
            if (e != null) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                T result = (T)e.value;
                return result;
            }
        }
        return setInitialValue();
    }

    /**
     * Variant of set() to establish initialValue. Used instead
     * of set() in case user has overridden the set() method.
     *
     * @return the initial value
     */
    private T setInitialValue() {
        T value = initialValue();
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null)
            map.set(this, value);
        else
            createMap(t, value);
        return value;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the current thread's copy of this thread-local variable
     * to the specified value.  Most subclasses will have no need to
     * override this method, relying solely on the {@link #initialValue}
     * method to set the values of thread-locals.
     *
     * @param value the value to be stored in the current thread's copy of
     *        this thread-local.
     */
    public void set(T value) {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null)
            map.set(this, value);
        else
            createMap(t, value);
    }

    /**
     * Removes the current thread's value for this thread-local
     * variable.  If this thread-local variable is subsequently
     * {@linkplain #get read} by the current thread, its value will be
     * reinitialized by invoking its {@link #initialValue} method,
     * unless its value is {@linkplain #set set} by the current thread
     * in the interim.  This may result in multiple invocations of the
     * {@code initialValue} method in the current thread.
     *
     * @since 1.5
     */
     public void remove() {
         ThreadLocalMap m = getMap(Thread.currentThread());
         if (m != null)
             m.remove(this);
     }

附录


1.ThreadLocal的应用实例

ThreadLocal实现方式&使用介绍---无锁化线程封闭 --文中介绍了Spring运用ThreadLocal来做事务管理器的例子


2.ThreadLocal是否有内存泄露?

--这里链接几篇关于ThreadLocal是否有内存泄露的讨论文章(结论是不会内存泄露,当然,不然写JDK的作者就丢人了不是(*^__^*) ……):

ThreadLocal是否会引起内存溢出?

ThreadLocal内存泄露分析


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