Oracle 最常用功能函数经典汇总 (zz)

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2004-6-14 10:58:00
  * SQL Group Function
 s (num can be a column or ex


  (null values are ign
 ored, default between distin

 ct and all is all)      



  AVG([distinct or all] num)   
 -- average value
  COUNT(distinct or all] num)  
 -- number of values
  MAX([distinct or all
 ] num)   -- maximum value
  MAX([distinct or all] num)   
 -- minimum value
  STDDEV([distinct or
 all] num)  -- standard devi
  SUM([distinct or all
 ] num)   -- sum of values
  VARIANCE([distinct o
 r all] num) -- variance of v

  * Miscellaneaous Functions :  



  DECODE(expr, srch1,
 return1 [,srch2, return2...]
 , default]
      -- if no search matches t
 he expression then the default is returned,
      -- otherwise,
 the first search that match
 es will cause
      -- the corres
 ponding return value to be r
  DUMP(column_name [,fmt [,start_p
 os [, length]]])
     -- returns an
 internal oracle format, used

 for getting info about a

     -- format options : 8 = oc
 tal, 10 = decimel, 16 = hex, 17 = characters
     -- return type
 codes : 1 = varchar2, 2 = n
 umber, 8 = long, 12 = date,
     --  23 = raw,
 24 = long raw, 69 = rowid,
 96 = char, 106 = mlslabel
  GREATEST(expr [,expr2 [, expr3...]]       
     -- returns the largest val
 ue of all expressions
  LEAST(expr [,expr2 [, expr3...]]             
     -- returns the
 smallest value of all expre
  NVL(expr1 ,expr2                                             
     -- if expr1 is not null, i
 t is returned, otherwise expr2 is returned
     -- returns sql error code
 of last error. Can not be used directly in

     -- value must
 be set to local variable fir
     -- returns sql
in query,
 error message of last error

 . Can not be used directly

     -- value must be set to lo
 cal variable first
     -- returns the user id of
 the user you are logged on as
     -- useful in s
 electing information from lo
 w level sys tables
     -- returns the
 user name of the user you a
 re logged on as
     -- returns inf
 ormation about the user you
 are logged on as
     -- options : E
     --      (
 all options not available in
 all Oracle versions)
     -- returns the number of b
 ytes used by the expression
     -- useful in s
 electing information about t
 able space requirements


  * SQL Date Functions (dt represe
 nts oracle date and time)          

  * (functions return
 an oracle date unless otherw

 ise specified)        


  ADD_MONTHS(dt, num)
    -- adds num months to
 dt (num can be negative)
    -- last day of month in
 month containing dt
  MONTHS_BETWEEN(dt1, dt2) -- retu
 rns fractional value of months between dt1,

  NEW_TIME(dt, tz1, tz
zone 2
 2)  -- dt = date in time zo

 ne 1, returns date in time

  NEXT_DAY(dt, str)    -- date
 of first (str) after dt (str = 'Monday',

  SYSDATE         -- present system date 
  ROUND(dt [,fmt]     -- roun
 ds dt as specified by format fmt
  TRUNC(dt [,fmt]  
    -- truncates dt as spe
 cified by format fmt

  * Number Functions :      


  ABS(num)       -- absolute
 value of num
  CEIL(num)      -- smallest integer > or = num 

  COS(num)       -- cosine(n
 um), num in radians
  -- hyperbolic cosine(num)
 -- e raised to the num powe
  FLOOR(num)      -- largest
 integer < or = num
  LN(num)       -- natural
 logarithm of num
  LOG(num2, num1)   -- logarith
 m base num2 of num1
  MOD(num2, num1)   -- remainde
 r of num2 / num1
  POWER(num2, num1) 
  -- num2 raised to the num1
  ROUND(num1 [,num2]  -- num1 rou
 nded to num2 decimel places (default 0)
  SIGN(num)      -- sign of
 num * 1, 0 if num = 0
 -- sin(num), num in radians
  SINH(num)      -- hyperbolic sine(num) 
  SQRT(num)      -- square root of num     
  TAN(num)       -- tangent(
 num), num in radians
  -- hyperbolic tangent(num)
  TRUNC(num1 [,num2]  -- truncate
 num1 to num2 decimel places (default 0)

  * String Functions,
 String Result :      



  (num)          -- ASCII
 character for num
   -- ASCII character for n
  CONCAT(str1, str2)   -- str1
 concatenated with str2 (same as str1||str2)
   -- capitalize first lett
 er of each word in str
  LOWER(str)       -- str w
 ith all letters in lowercase
  LPAD(str1, num [,str2]) -- left
 pad str1 to length num with str2 (default

  LTRIM(str [,set]) 
    -- remove set from left
 side of str (default spaces)
  NLS_INITCAP(str [,nl
 s_val]) -- same as initcap f
 or different languages
  NLS_LOWER(str [,nls_
 val])  -- same as lower for
 different languages
  REPLACE(str1, str2 [,str3]) -- r
 eplaces str2 with str3 in str1
 deletes str2 from str1 if str3 is omitted
  RPAD(str1, num [,str
(default spaces)
 2])   -- right pad str1 to

 length num with str2

  RTRIM(str [,set]) 
      -- remove set from

 right side of str (default

     -- phonetic represen
 tation of str
  SUBSTR(str, num2 [,n
 um1])  -- substring of str,
 starting with num2,
 num1 characters (to end of str if num1 is

  SUBSTRB(str, num2 [,
 num1]) -- same as substr bu

 t num1, num2 expressed in

  TRANSLATE(str, set1,
 set2) -- replaces set1 in
 str with set2
 if set2 is longer than set1, it will be

     -- str with all lett
 ers in uppercase


  * String Functions,
 Numeric Result :      



  -- ASCII value of str
  INSTR(str1, str2 [,num1 [,num2]]
 ) -- position of num2th occurrence of
   -- str2 in str1, starting at num1
   -- (num1, num2 default to 1)
  INSTRB(str1, str2 [,num1 [num2]]

 ) -- same as instr, byte values for num1, num2

         -- number of
 characters in str
  -- number of bytes in str
  NLSSORT(str [,nls_val])    
   -- nls_val byte value of str

  * SQL Conversion Functions   


   -- converts str to ROWID
  CONVERT(str, chr_set2 [,chr_set1
 ]) -- converts str to chr_set2
character set
         -- chr_set1

 default is the datbase

   -- converts hex string va
 lue to internal raw values
  RAWTOHEX(raw_val)   -- convert
 s raw hex value to hex string value
  -- converts rowid to 18 ch
 aracter string format
  TO_CHAR(expr [,fmt])
  -- converts expr(date or n

 umber) to format specified by

  TO_DATE(str [,fmt])
   -- converts string to dat
  TO_MULTI_BYTE(str)  -- convert
 s single byte string to multi byte string
  TO_NUMBER(str [,fmt]) -- convert
 s str to a number formatted by fmt
   -- converts multi byte st
 ring to single byte string

  * SQL Date Formats 




  BC, B.C.    BC indicator                             
  AD, A.D.    AD indicator                             
  CC, SCC     Cent
 ury Code (SCC includes space
 or - sign)
  YYYY, SYYYY   4 digit year (SY
 YYY includes space or - sign)
  IYYY      4 digit ISO year                         
  Y,YYY      4 digit year with comma         
  YYY, YY, or Y  last 3, 2, or 1
 digit of year
  YEAR, SYEAR   year spelled out
 (SYEAR includes space or - sign)
  RR       last 2 digits of
 year in prior or next century
  Q        quarter or year, 1 to 4             
  MM       month - from 01 to 12                 
  MONTH      month spelled out                     
  MON       month 3 letter abbreviation   
  RM       roman numeral for month             
  WW       week of year, 1 to 53                 
  IW       ISO week of year
 , 1 to 52 or 1 to 53
  W        week of month, 1
 to 5 (week 1 begins 1st day of the month)
  D        day of week, 1 to 7                     
  DD       day of month, 1 to 31                 
  DDD       day of year, 1 to 366               
  DAY       day of week spel
 led out, nine characters right padded
  DY       day abbreviation                           
  J        # of
 days since Jan 1, 4712 BC
  HH, HH12    hour of day, 1 to 12             
  HH24      hour of day, 0 to 23                 
  MI       minute of hour, 0 to 59             
  SS       second of minute, 0 to 59         
  SSSSS      seco
 nds past midnight, 0 to 8639
  AM, A.M.    am indicator                             
  PM, P.M.    pm indicator                             
  any puctuation punc
 tuation between format items
 , as in 'DD/MM/YY'
  any text    text between format items   
  TH       conv
 erts 1 to '1st', 2 to '2nd',
 and so on
  SP       converts 1 to 'o
 ne', 2 to 'two', and so on
  SPTH      converts 1 to 'F
 IRST', 2 to 'SECOND', and so on
  FX       fill
 exact : uses exact pattern
  FM       fill mode : tog
 gles suppression of blanks in output


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