Okay. Hello everyone. How are you?
Happy anniversary of the Satoshi’s White paper. Ten years!
Yeah. They are 10 in binary counting.
Okay. So today I’m going to basically talk about Ethereum theory 2.0, but not just from a technical point of view, but more from the point of view of why Ethereum 2.0, what is Ethereum 2.0, and kind of how we got here.
Right, so what is Ethereum 2.0? First of all, Ethereum 2.0 is this kind of combination of a bunch of different features that we’ve been talking about for several years, researching for several years, actively building for several years that are finally going to come together into this one coherent whole, and these features include:
Proof of stake (Casper),
Virtual Machine improvements (eWASM),
Improvements to cross-channel contract logic,
Improvements to protocol economics,
And like really the list goes on and on and there is some parallel distribution. So lots of great stuff.
Now, how did we get here?
Right. So the road to proof of stake actually started way back in 2014 with this blog post that I published in January describing this algorithm called Slasher, which is, introduced kind of the really most basic concept in a lot of proof of stake algorithms which is this idea that if you get caught doing something wrong then this can be proven and you can be penalized for it, and how this can be used to increase security.
其实概念证明可以追溯到2014年1月，当时我发布的了一篇博客文章描述了一种称为 Slasher 的算法，引入了许多的权益证明算法最基本的概念，即如果你做了违反协议的事情并且被抓住了，那你将受到处罚，且这一概念可以用来增加网络的安全。
But at the time as you can see from this slide, I believe that quote Slasher is a useful construct to have in our war chest in case proof of stake mining becomes substantially more popular or a compelling reason is provided to switch, but we’re not doing that yet. So at the time it was not even clear yet that proof of stake is even the direction that we’re going, but as we know now over time that changed quite a lot.
So what happened in 2014? So first of all we went through a bunch of kind interesting and aborted ideas:
“proof of proof of work” was this kind of suggestion to try to improve scalability, and “Hub-and-spoke chains” so basically you kind of have one chain in the middle and a bunch of chains on the edges. This was a kind of very early scalability and sharding proposal that tried to improve scalability for local transactions, but not for transactions that are global, so not for transactions that jump from one shard to another.
“工作量证明的证明”是一种用于改善扩展性的建议；“轮辐式链（Hub-and-spoke chains）”实质上就是有一条链在中心，一些链在边缘。这是一种早期的、用于提升本地交易的扩展性的扩展性解决方案和 Sharding 提案，但并不是针对全球交易，因此也不是针对跨分片的交易。
Hypercubes. So basically except the cube should have 12 dimensions instead of 3, so we can get more scale even more scalability with hubs and spokes by going with Hypercubes. Now unfortunately for various reasons this idea ended up getting abandoned, but someone has a big ICO to make it work, so happy someone’s trying it out.
Hypercubes（超级立方体）：实质上每个立方体有12个维度，而非三维，因此Hypercubes甚至可以使轮辐式链获得更多的扩展性。不幸的是，由于很多原因，这个想法最终被废弃了，但有人想通过 ICO 来实现这个想法，我很高兴有人愿意去尝试这个想法。
So in 2014, there were still some progress, right? So there was this concept of weak subjectivity that we came up with which was this kind of semi-formal security model that tries to capture this idea of kind of under what conditions are proof of stake deposits and slashing and all of these concepts actually secure.
但2014年我们依旧取得了不小的进展，是吧？我们提出了 Weak Subjectivity（弱主观性）这一概念，它是一种半形式化的安全模型，探讨 PoS 中的保证金的罚没条件，以及这些概念在什么条件下能够保证安全。
Also I know we’ve got more and more certain that algorithms which much with much stronger properties than the proof of stake algorithms that existed at the time, so things like pure coin and all of its derivatives were actually possible, and kind of growing understanding that there was some kind of proof of stake scalability strategy that you could somehow do is through random sampling but we had no idea how, and we had a roadmap.
同时，我知道我们已经越来越确定有些算法要比当时的PoS 算法拥有更强劲的属性。因此，pure coin（纯粹的币）及其所有的衍生物实际上是可行的。并且我们逐渐了解到，PoS 扩展性可以通过随机抽样的方式来实现，但我们当时并不知道怎么实践，虽然当时我们制定了一个路线图。
So there was this nice blog post from Vinay Gupta in March 2015 where he outlined the four big stages of Ethereum’s roadmap at the time.
之后在2015年3月 Vinay Gupta 在其发表的一篇博客文章中概括了当时以太坊路线图的四个重要阶段：
Stage 1, Frontier, Ethereum launching, yeah!
Stage 2, Homestead, which is kind of going from alpha to beta.
阶段2：Homestead，即从 alpha 走向 beta 版；
Stage 3, Metropolis, which at the time was supposed to be about Mist and user interfaces and improving user experience. But since then, the focus has kind of switched more to kind of enabling stronger cryptocurrency, but interface is still going forward in parallel.
阶段3，Metropolis，那时候的预期是开发 Mist 和用户界面并提升用户体验。但自那以来，我们将重心转移至实现更强劲的加密货币，尽管用户界面依旧是处于并行发展中。
And stage 4, Serenity, proof of stake. Right. So from now on we’re not gonna call it Ethereum 2.0. I will also refuse to use the word Shasper because I find it insanely and we’ll call it Serenity.
阶段4：Serenity，权益证明。是的，从现在起，我们将称之为 Ethereum 2.0（以太坊2.0）。同时我将不再使用“Shasper（Sharding+Casper）”这个术语，因为我觉得这个术语很不合适，我们将称之为“Serenity”。
So after this came a bit of a winter, we had a bunch of different kind of abortive attempts at solving some of the core problems in proof of stake, some of the core problems with scalability, research on Casper quietly Vlad kind of quietly began to hang all of his work on Casper CBC.
之后，我们经历了一个低谷期。在解决权益证明中的一些关键问题（其中有些是关于扩展性的问题）的过程中，我们的很多尝试都遭遇了失败，Vlad 也悄然暂停了他对Casper CBC 的研究。
One of the first interesting ideas was this kind of idea of Consensus by Bet where people would kind of bet on which block becomes finalized next and then once more people bet on a block that itself becomes information that gets fed into other people’s bets, and so the idea is that you would have this kind of recursive formula where more and more people would bet more and more strongly on a block over time, and after a logarithmic number of rounds everyone would be betting their entire money on a block and that would be called finality.
This we actually took this idea really far. We created an entire proof of concept for it and you could see it finalizing, and you can see here is a signature function, I mean it burns most of our time on this, but then that in whole idea kind of ended up going away basically once we realized how to make kind of proper BFT inspired consensus actually works sanely.
Um, Rent, so this is the idea that instead of charging a big one-time fee for filling storage we would kind of charge fees over time, so basically for every day or every block or whatever that some storage slot is filled you would have to kind of pay some amount of Ether for it.
There was this one EIP number 35 that I tried to call EIP 103. But really it was EIP number 35 because that was the issue number that takes precedence. And this was one of the really early ideas trying to kind of formalize this concept and we’ve had many iterations on the idea of how to implement can rent maximally nicely since then.
我在上面（至幻灯片中）写的是 EIP 103，但其实应该是EIP 35。35才是这个EIP（以太坊改进提案）的发布编码。这是最早的一个想法，用于形成一个正式的概念，从那时开始，我们在如何才能最好地利用 Rent(租金)这一点上迭代了很多想法。
There was also this scalability paper that we tried to do back in 2015. And this tried to kind of formalize the idea of kind of quadratic sharding, super quadratic sharding, but it was very complicated. It had these kind of very complicated escalation games. It had a lot of them were kind of inspired by the ideas of how escalation works in court systems, an analogy that I know Joseph with philosopher really loves to use. But we tried to use it for the base layer, deep layer reversions, so basically if something goes wrong, then potentially large portions of the state could and if get reverted even fairly into the future. So there was a bunch of complexity, right?
Now one of the fundamental problems that we couldn’t quite capture but we kind of invent slowly inching towards was this idea of the fisherman’s dilemma and this is a fundamentally and very fundamental concept in Sharding research that basically describes the difference between scaling execution of state and scaling execution of programs versus availability of data. And the problem basically is that with an execution of programs you can have people commit to what the answer is and you can later kind of play a game and try to kind of binary search your way to who actually made a mistake, and you can penalize everyone who made a mistake after the fact.
The problem with data availability is whatever the game is, you can cheat the game because you can just not publish any data at all until the mechanism tries to check if you published it and only then do you publish just the data that the mechanism checked for. And this turns out to be a fairly large flaw in a fairly large class of scalability algorithms.
And I wrote this a blog post if you want to search for it you can call it. It’s called A Note on Erasure Coding and Data Availability that describes some of the issues and more details. But still this was one of the things that delayed us. But even still we were happily making progress. Ethereum was moving forward. We were on our way.
为此，我还写了这篇文章，即A Note on Erasure Coding and Data Availability。文章描述了其中的一些问题和其他细节。这也是拖慢我们进度的一件事情。尽管如此，我们依旧很高兴继续前行。以太坊在继续发展，我们依然在路上。
Wait, then this happened (referring to the DAO attack). Okay, no more problems. Oh, wait, then this happened (referring to the Shanghai DOS Attacks). So the DAO hacked, the DOS attacks, all of that ended up delaying a lot people’s time and attention by potentially up to six months.
But even still work move forward, eWASM moved forward, the work on virtual machine moved forward, and work on kind of alternatives things like EVM 1.5 moved forward, and people were still continuing to kind of get a better and better idea of look basically what a more optimal blockchain algorithms would look like from many different angles.
但尽管如此，工作依旧继续，eWASM工作继续前行，以太坊虚拟机的相关工作也在继续开展，还有一些诸如EVM 1.5 等替代方案也在向前推进。在更优化的区块链算法方面，人们也继续从不同的角度来获取更好的想法。
So after this that we started making huge progress and very quickly. Right, so during all of this time there were these different strands of research that we’re going on. Some of them were around prof of stake, and trying to do base layer consensus more efficiently. Some of them were around scalability and trying to shard base layer consensus. Some of them were around improving the efficiency of virtual machine. Some of them were around things like abstraction that would allow people to use whatever signature algorithms they wanted for their accounts which could provide post-quantum security. It would make it easier to make privacy solutions, among a bunch of other benefits and protocol economic improvements. And really all these things were still happening all the way through.
So at some point around the beginning of 2017, we finally came up with this protocol that we gave this very kind of unambitious name of Minimal Slashing Conditions. And Minimal Slashing Conditions was basically a kind of translation of PBFT style traditional Byzantine consensus. So the same sort of stuff that was great done by Lamport or Shostak, and all those wonderful people back in the 1980s. But Simplifying it and kind of carrying it forward into more of a blockchain context.
在2017年年初时，我们最终开发出了一个协议，我们给这个协议起了个不是很霸气的名字：Minimal Slashing Conditions（最小罚没条件）。它其实是一种由PBFT（实用拜占庭容错算法）转化而来的传统拜占庭容错共识算法。早在20世纪80年代，Lamport、Shostak 等伟人便创建了同类的算法，但我们将之进行了简化和改进，使之更适用于区块链领域。
So the idea basically is that in a blockchain you just keep on having these new blocks appear over time and you can gain these kind of nice pipelining efficiencies by merging sequence numbers and viewers. Every time a new round starts you would add new data into the round. You can also have the second kind of round of confirmation for one piece of data be the first round of confirmation for the next piece of data, and you can really kind of get a huge amount of efficiency gained out of all of that.
So the first step was Minimal Slashing Conditions which had six slashing conditions. Then it went down to four, and finally about half a year later we ended up merging prepares and comments. And this gave us Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget (Casper FFG).
一开始，最小罚没小件包含了6个罚没条件，之后减少至4个条件。再过了半年之后，我们合并了之前的准备事项和其他人的评论，最终形成了 Casper FFG。
So last year at Devcon I presented this new Sharding design that basically kept the main chain and then created sharding as a kind of layer two system on top of the existing main chain that would then kind of get upgraded to being the layer one once it gets solid enough.
在去年的 Devcon 会议上，我讲述了这种新的分片设计，实际就是保留主链，然后创建分片来作为现有主链的第二层系统，在确认足够稳固时升级成为第一层。
From Vlad, the Casper CBC paper. The Casper FFG Concept, so December 31st, 2017, 23:40, Bangkok time, because we happen to be Thailand at the time.
之后Vlad发表了 Casper CBC 论文。Casper FFG 这一概念在泰国时间2017年12月31日23:40横空出世，当时我们恰好在泰国。
Basically what happened here is we pretty much to nail down what the spec of a version of a hybrid proof of stake would look like, and this version of hybrid proof of stake would basically use the ideas from Casper FFG, use this kind of traditional Byzantine fault tolerant consensus inspired ideas of how to do proof of stake on top of the existing proof of work chain. So this would be a mechanism that would allow us to get to hybrid proof of stake fairly quickly with actually a fairly minimal level of disruption to the existing blockchain. And then the theory is that we would be able to upgrade to full proof of stake over time. And we got really far along this direction, and there was a test that there were Python clients, there were messages going between like different VPSs and different servers, and different computers. And it got very far.
那时候我们很想知道，一种混合PoW和PoS的共识算法会是怎样的。这种混合共识算法实质上使用了Casper FFG 中的理念，以及受传统拜占庭容错共识算法启发，实现在现有 PoW 链上使用混合 PoW 和 PoS 算法。这是一种将允许我们快速地转向混合共识的机制，同时对现有区块链造成最小的干扰。之后我们将可能升级为完全的权益证明机制。我们沿着这个方向走了很远，我们还做了一个 Python 测试客户端，通过在不同的 VPS、服务器和计算机之间传递消息来进行测试。这个想法走了很远。
And at the same time, we were making a lot of progress on Sharding. So we continued working on the Sharding spec. Eventually we had this retreat in Taipei in March, and around here a lot of the ideas around how to implement a sharded blockchain seems to solidify, seemed to solidify. So in June we made this kind of very difficult but I think in the long term really beneficial and valuable decision which is that we said that hey, over here we have a bunch of teams that are trying to implement hybrid proof of stake and they’re trying to do the Casper FFG thing, build the Casper FFG implementation as a smart contract inside of the existing blockchain, make a few tweaks to the fork choice rule.
同时，我们在分片技术上也取得了很多的进展。因此我们继续致力于对分片进行技术规范。最终我们在今年3月份汇聚于台北。在这里，许多围绕如何实现一个载有分片的区块链的想法似乎稳固了下来。因此，在6月份，我们做了一个尽管困难，但从长远来看却非常有益且有价值的决定。由于我们发现：嘿，这里有一些团队在尝试实现混合权益证明，他们试图做一些 Casper FFG 的事情，试图将 Casper FFG 开发为一个现有区块链中的智能合约，对分叉选择规则作出一些调整。
Then over here we had a completely separate group that was trying to make a sharding system, that was trying to make a validator or manager contract so that was later renamed into a sharding manager contract on the main chain, and that was trying to build a sharding system on top of that. These groups were kind of not talking to each other too much.
Then on the sharding side, it eventually became clear that we would get much efficiency by making the kind of core of the sharding system not be a contract on the proof of work chain, but instead be its own proof of stake chain.
And because that way we could make validation much more efficient. We did not have to deal with EVM overhead. We did not have to deal with gas. We would not have to deal with unpredictable proof of work block times. We can make block times faster, along with a whole bunch of other efficiencies.
And we realized hey, we’re working on proof of stake here, we’re working proof of stake here. Why we doing two separate proof of stake things again? And so we decided to just merge the two together.
我们意识到，嘿，这边有一个团队致力于 PoS 开发，那边也有一个团队致力于 PoS 开发。为何我们要做重复工作呢？因此我们决定把这两边的工作合并起来。
This did end up nullifying a lot of work that came before. But what it meant is that instead of having it working on these two separate implementations we have working together on this one spec, this one protocol that would gets us the benefits of Casper proof of stake and Sharding essentially at the same time.
这个决定最终让之前的很多工作都作废了。但其意义在于，我们会在一起工作，开发同一份技术规范、同一份协议，让我们同时获得 Casper权益证明和 Sharding 所带来的好处。
Right so basically instead of trying to go to one destination, then go to another destination, and later on have this massive work of figuring out how to merge the two, we would just take a path which would take a little longer at the beginning, but the place it gets to actually is a proof of stake and sharded blockchain with the properties that we’re looking for.
So in the meantime, we spent a lot of time arguing about fork choice rules. We ended up kind of getting closer and closer and deeper into realizing that fork choice rules based on GHOST, the agreed and heaviest observed sub-tree algorithm that was originally intended to proof of work, but repurposed by us for proof of stake, made a huge amount of sense.
同时，我们花了大量时间来讨论分叉选择规则。最终我们越来越意识到，基于 GHOST 的分叉选择规则是非常有意义的，虽然这个算法最初是针对工作量证明的，但之后我们又将之用于权益证明中。
We were just in the start of doing research on Verifiable Delay Functions. We had this workshop at Stanford, and we made a lot of progress on Verifiable Delay Functions there and just is still collaborating with a lot of researchers there. More ideas on how to do abstraction, how to do this idea where individual users can choose their own signature algorithms for their accounts. More ideas on Rent which we decided to rename to “storage maintenance fees” for political reasons.
And research. So there’s a lot of work on Cross-shard transactions. So for example, there is this suppose I made on cross-shard contract yanking which kind of generalizes the traditional distributed system’s concept of locking into something that makes sense in this kind of asynchronous for cross-shard context.
Also I wrote this paper on Resource Pricing which includes ideas, ability kind of optimized and my ends up much more efficient fee market along with storage, how to do storage maintenance fees and why, and the different trade-offs between different ways of setting them. And in a case here Cdetrio wrote this post on doing Synchronous cross-shard transactions.
我还写了一篇有关资源定价（Resource Pricing）的文章，包括一些有关有效的存储费用市场、如何以及为何要实践存储维护费用、不同的设置方式所涉及到的折衷性等想法。Cdetrio 还写了一篇有关进行同步跨分片交易的博客文章。
So of course in the meantime, Casper CBC research also expanded into kind of Casper CBC’s own brand of Sharding which is totally not called Vlading, because Vlad absolutely hates that term.
当然，同时有关Casper CBC的研究扩大到了“Casper CBC领域的分片”，但不要称之为Vlading，因为Vlad真的很讨厌这个词。
So development right.
So there’s one of the kind of key strategies that we really tried to push forward in the Ethereum 2.0 path is the idea of creative multi-client decentralized development. And this wasn’t just a kind of because we have an ideological belief in decentralization, this is also a kind of very pragmatic strategy to like basically hedge your bet, first of all hedge your bets against the possibility that anyone software development team would not perform well.
Second we already have plenty of experience from the Shanghai DOS attacks, of how you know there are plenty of cases where if one client has a bug, having other clients being available allows the network to continue running better, also wanting to kind of make the development ecosystem less dependent on the Foundation itself.
此外，我们已经从上海 DOS 攻击事件中获得了很多经验，包括如何才能知晓当某个客户端存在漏洞，而其他客户端没有漏洞可以使整个网络继续运行良好，同时也让整个生态系统的开发更少地依赖于以太坊基金会。
So the client the Ethereum Foundation works on is actually the Python client and so it has plenty of use cases, but in Python, just as a language has inherent performance limitations, and so there’s always going to be an incentive to try running the stuff built by the wonderful folks at Prysmatic and Lighthouse, Status and Pegasus and all the other teams that are popping up seemingly every month.
以太坊发基金会开发的客户端实际上是 Python 客户端，因此它由很多的用例。但 Python 作为一种开发语言，存在其固有的性能限制，因此，Prysmatic、Lighthouse、Status、Pegasus等项目以及众多不断涌现的其他团队，总是会提供激励机制来让用户运行他们搭建的东西。
So soon something which is totally not going to be called Shasper. Serenity begins. Yeah!
What is Serenity?
So first of all, it’s the fourth stage after frontier and homestead and metropolis, and where metropolis is broken down into Byzantium and Constantinople with Constantinople coming very soon as well.
首先，它是以太坊依次经历过 Frontier、Homestead和Metropolis 阶段发展的第四个阶段。其中 Metropolis 阶段分成两个部分：君士坦丁堡和拜占庭。而君士坦丁堡升级很快就会与大家见面。
And some realization of all of these different strands of research that we have been spending all of our time on for the last four years. So this includes Casper (not just hybrid Casper, 100% organic genuine pure Casper), sharding, EWASM and all of these other form of protocol research ideas.
This is a new blockchain for in the sense of being a data structure, but it has this kind of link to the existing proof-of-work chain, so the proof of stake chain would be aware of the block hashes of the proof-of-work chain, you would be able to move ether from the proof-of-work chain into the proof-of-stake chain, so it’s a new system, but it’s a connected system, and the kind of long long term goal is that once this new system is stable enough, then basically all of the applications on the existing blockchain can be folded into a contract on one shard of the new system that would kind of be an EVM interpreter written in EWASM. And (it’s) not finalized but this seems to kind of roughly be where the road map is going at this point.
从数据结构来说，这是一个全新的区块链，但它与现有的PoW 链有保持着一定的联系。因此，PoS 链能够读取PoW 链的区块哈希，这也将使得用户能够将以太币从 PoW 链上转移到 PoS 链上。它是一个新系统，但它与旧系统相联系。我们希望这个系统能达到的最长远目标是：当这个系统足够稳定的时候，所有在现有以太坊区块链上的应用，都将可以通过一个用 EWASM 写成的 EVM 解释器，存入新链某一个分片上的合约中。
Serenity is also the world computer at it’s really meant to be, not a smartphone from 1999 that can process 15 transactions per second and maybe potentially play snake.
And it’s still decentralized and we hope that in many metrics that can be even more decentralized than today. So for example, as a beacon chain validator, your storage requirements at this point seem like they’ll be under one gigabyte as compared to something like 8 gigabytes of state storage today and the 1.8 terabytes that trolls on the internet seems to think the ethereum blockchain require for some stupid reason.
So phase 0 beacon chain proof-of-stake.
阶段0: PoS 信标链
And beacon chain proof-of-stake is actually kind of the blockchain is not, kind of hold any information, it’s kind of like a dummy chain, so all that you have is you have validators and these validators are executing and they’re running the proof-of-stake algorithm.
从某种角度讲，PoS 信标链实际上不会存储任何信息。它像是一条假链，而在这条链上有的只是一些验证者，这些验证者运行的是 PoS 算法。
So this is kind of like halfway between a testnet and the mainnet. It’s not quite a testnet because you would be able to actually stake a real ether and earn real rewards on it. But it’s also not quite a mainnet, because it doesn’t have applications, so if it breaks, people are hopefully not going to cry too badly as they did when the Shanghai DOS attacks made everyone’s ICO go slowly.
它就像是一个介于测试网和主网之间的网络。不能说它是一个测试网，因为你真的可以抵押以太币进去并获得真实的收益。但也不能说它是一个主网，因为这上面一个应用都没有，因此当它崩溃的时候，人们不会像当初以太坊被上海 DOS 攻击时那样痛哭流涕。
Phase 1: shards as data chains.
So basically the idea here is that this is where the kind of sharding part turns on. Here it’s just a kind of simplified version that doesn’t do sharding of state. It does sharding of data, so you can throw data on the chain, you could try to make just do a state execution engine yourself, but really the simplest thing to use it for is data. So if you want to do decentralized whatever on a blockchain you’ll now have the scalability to do this. But you won’t really have the kind of all of state execution capability to build smart contract applications and all of the really fancy complex stuff.
Phase 2: enable state transitions.
This includes enabling the virtual machine, enabling accounts, contract, ether-ether moving between shards, all of this cool stuff.
Phase 3 and beyond: iterate, improve, add technology.
So excepted features: pure proof-of-stake, faster time to synchronous confirmation (about 8-16 seconds). Now notice that, because of how the fork choice rule and the signing mechanism works in the beacon chain, one confirmation in the beacon chain involves messages from hundreds of validators, so for all probabilistic point of view, it’s actually equivalent to hundreds of confirmations of the Ethereum proof-of-work chain. So under a synchronous model you should be able to treat one block as being closed to final.
我们希望Serenity有这些特征：纯粹的 PoS 共识以及更快的同步确认时间（大概8-16秒完成确认）。请注意，由于信标链上的分叉选择规则和签名机制，在信标链上的一次确认将涉及到来自成百上千验证者的验证信息。因此，从概率学角度来说，这跟 PoW 链上成百上千的确认是一样的。因此，在这种同步模型之下，你可以将一个区块当作已敲定的区块。
Economic finality and safety under a synchrony comes after 10 to 20 minutes, and fast virtual machine execution via EWASM and hopefully a thousand times higher scalability. We will see.
Improvements in privacy,
So there’s already been a lot of work done. For example, in Byzatium we activated the pre-compiles for elliptic curve operation and elliptic curve pairings and Barry White has been doing great work on building layer 2 solutions to preserve privacy of coin transfers, voting, reputation systems, and all of these work could be carried over.
我们对此已做了大量工作。例如，在拜占庭阶段中，我们激活了椭圆曲线运算以及与椭圆曲线匹配的预编译。Barry White 在搭建 Layer-2 方面做得非常好，Layer-2 是用来保护代币交易、投票、信誉系统等涉及的隐私内容。这些工作对以太坊今后的发展都有很大的借鉴意义。
Semi-private chains. So the idea here is that if you want to build some application where the data is kept private between a few users, you could still dump all the data on the public chain, but you would just dump it in an encrypted form, or you can dump hashes of it then use your zero knowledge proof, so it’s your choice.
Proof of Stake improvements.
There is definitely a place in our heart and at the roadmap’s heart for Casper CBC， when it becomes clear that there is a kind of a version that makes sense from an overhead point of view.
从全局角度来看，当 Casper CBC 存在一个更加合理的版本是，那么在我们心中，以及在整个路线图的中心，一定留有Casper CBC 的位置。
At some point we have all what we want to and we do have a door open to kind of upgrade everything that STARKs. So using STARKs for signature aggregation, for verifying erasure codes, for data availability checks, maybe eventually for checking correctness of state execution, maybe stronger forms of cross-shard transactions, faster single-confirmations getting the confirmation time down from 8 seconds to even lower.
从某种意义来讲，我们确实想要也计划要将所有的东西都升级到 STARK。例如，将 STARK 用于聚合签名、用语验证纠删码、用语检查数据是否可用、或许最后能用它来检查状态执行是否正确、最后实现更强的跨分片交易形式、更短的单次确认时间（把确认时间从8秒降到更低）。
Eventually stabilize at least the kind of functionality of layer 1, think about issuance, think about fees, agree more and more over time on kind of what specific guarantees people expect from the protocol and things that people expect as features for the protocols to have for a long time, think about governance.
我们将最终至少稳定第一层的功能，我们将考虑 Serenity 的发布、费用，并随着时间的推移，在人们期望从协议层获得的具体保证和从长远来看协议应具备的属性方面达成越来越多的共识，我们还会考虑治理问题。
Now what’s next immediately? What happens before kind of the big launch?
Well, first of all, stabilizing the protocol spec. So for those who have been watching github.com/ethereum/, if -2.0, or sorry if 2.0- backslash dream master specs, beacon chain, md something like that, this spec has been kind of moving fairly quickly, but you know it will stabilize fairly soon. Continue development and testing. There is something like 8 implementations of the Ethereum 2.0 protocol happening now.
So I believe Alfred made a statement that he hopes to see a cross-client work like really picking up in Q1 next year. I mean, we’ll see. That would be definitely nice to see a kind of testnet working between two implementations.
In earnest, we’re gonna be nice to see a testnet working between one implementation. As as a kind of quick historian aside, the ethereum 1.0 development, time between the conception of white paper and launch, 19 months. Part of the reason why it took so long is because we tried to get kind of cross-client compatibility way before the spec even finished, and so we had to agree test, release testnet or wait protocol changes, agree test, release testnet, or wait more protocol changes. And we had about five cycles of this.
This time around we have the luxury of kind of learning from that lesson, and we don’t really need to kind of focus on cross-client compatibility, until we have something close to a release candidate of the spec. But I think we're actually not that far from a release candidate of the spec at least for kind of limited portions that don’t include a state execution, so we’ll see.
Who thinks security audits are important? Who here thinks security audits are not important? Who here thinks the world is a literally controlled by Lizardmen? Okay, so more people for the third of the second, that’s good to hear. And once we’re done that launch. Who here thinks that launching is not important? Okay. Who here fix that your favorite political candidate is literally a Lizardman?
在座的有谁认为安全审计很重要？有谁认为不重要？谁认为我们的世界实际上是被蜥蜴人（Lizardmen）所控制？好吧，认同第三个问题的人要比认同第二个问题的人更多，很高兴是这样的。那当我们发布了 Serenity 之后，有人会认为发布并不重要吗？好吧，在座的有谁知道自己最喜欢的政治候选人实际上是个蜥蜴人呢？
Okay. So launch, there we go. I mean that’s basically the milestone that we’ve all been waiting for that we’ve been working toward for the last four to five years, and a milestone which is really no longer so far away. Thank you.
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