(3)二进制文件方式部署Kubernetes高可用集群----------创建TLS证书和秘钥

目录

2 创建TLS证书和秘钥

2.1 生成的CA证书和密钥文件

2.2 使用证书的组件

2.3 二进制源码包安装cfssl

2.3.1 二进制源码包下载

2.3.2 默认安装路径

2.3.3 自定义安装路径

2.4 创建CA证书和私钥

2.4.1 生成CA配置文件

2.4.2 编辑CA配置文件(ca-config.json)

2.4.2 编辑CA签名请求文件(ca-config.json)

2.4.3 生成CA证书和私钥

2.5 创建kubernets证书和私钥

2.5.1 创建kuberne证书签名请求文件(kubernetes-csr.json)

2.5.2 生成kubernetes证书和私钥

2.6 创建admin证书和私钥

2.6.1 创建admin证书签名请求文件(admin-csr.json)

2.6.2 生成kube-proxy客户端证书和私钥

2.7 创建kube-proxy证书和私钥

2.7.1 创建kube-proxy证书签名请求文件(kube-proxy-csr.json)

2.7.2 生成kube-proxy客户端证书和私钥

2.8 生成的证书列表

2.9 检验证书

2.9.1 使用openssl命令

2.9.2 使用cfss-certinfo命令

2.10 分发证书

2.11 需要TLS证书认证的组件


kubernetes系统的各组件需要使用TLS证书对通信进行加密,每个k8s集群都需要有独立的CA证书体系。这里,我们的集群部署采用CloudFlare的PKI工具集cfssl来生成Certificate Authority(CA)证书和秘钥文件(CA 是自签名的证书,用来签名后续创建的其它 TLS 证书。)。

2 创建TLS证书和秘钥

2.1 生成的CA证书和密钥文件

※ca-key.pem

※ca.pem

※kubernetes-key.pem

※kubernetes.pem

※kube-proxy.pem

※kube-proxy-key.pem

※admin.pem

※admin-key.pem

2.2 使用证书的组件

※etcd:使用ca.pem、kubernetes-key.pem、kubernetes.pem(etcd对外提供服务、节点间通信(etcd peer)使用同一套证书)

※kube-apiserver:使用ca.pem、kubernetes-key.pem、kubernetes.pem

※kubelet:使用ca.pem

※kube-proxy:使用ca.pem、kube-proxy-key.pem、kube-proxy.pem

※kubectl:使用ca.pem、admin-key.pem、admin.pem

kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler当前需要和kube-apiserver部署在同一台机器上并且使用非安全端口通信,因此不需要证书。注意证书只需要创建一次即可,以后向集群中添加新节点时,只要将/opt/kubernetes/ssl目录下的证书拷贝到新的节点上即可。

2.3 二进制源码包安装cfssl

这里直接采用这里cfssl的二进制源码包安装,不同之处实际上就是两种方式下的环境变量配置。

2.3.1 二进制源码包下载

wget -P /root/kubernetes/cfssl https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64

wget -P /root/kubernetes/cfssl https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64

wget -P /root/kubernetes/cfssl https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64

2.3.2 默认安装路径

默认路径:/usr/local/bin

文件拷贝:

chmod 777 /root/kubernetes/cfssl -R

cp ./cfssl/cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl

cp ./cfssl/cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson

cp ./cfssl/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo

临时配置环境变量:“[root@master01 /]# export PATH=/usr/local/bin/:$PATH”

2.3.3 自定义安装路径

路径:/opt/kubernetes/bin/cfssl

文件拷贝:

chmod 777 /root/kubernetes/cfssl -R

cp ./cfssl/cfssl_linux-amd64 /opt/kubernetes/bin/cfssl

cp ./cfssl/cfssljson_linux-amd64 /opt/kubernetes/bin/cfssljson

cp ./cfssl/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /opt/kubernetes/bin/cfssl-certinfo

如果临时环境变量不生效,就修改profile配置文件。

[root@master01 /]# vi /etc/profile

永久环境变量配置:

export PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin:/opt/kubernetes/bin

2.4 创建CA证书和私钥

2.4.1 生成CA配置文件

保存路径:/root/kubernetes/cajson【路径看个人喜好自行设置即可】

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl print-defaults config > ca-config.json

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl print-defaults csr > ca-csr.json  

2.4.2 编辑CA配置文件(ca-config.json)

ca-config.json:可以定义多个 profiles,分别指定不同的过期时间、使用场景等参数;后续在签名证书时使用某个 profile。修改后内容如下:

{

    "signing": {

        "default": {

            "expiry": "43800h"

        },

        "profiles": {

            "kubernetes": {

                "expiry": "43800h",

                "usages": [

                    "signing",

                    "key encipherment",

                    "server auth",

                    "client auth"

                ]

            }

        }

    }

}

字段说明:

signing:表示该证书可用于签名其它证书;生成的ca.pem证书中CA=TRUE;

server auth:表示client可以用该CA证书对server提供的证书进行验证;

client auth:表示server可以用该CA证书对client提供的证书进行验证;

2.4.2 编辑CA签名请求文件(ca-config.json)

修改后内容如下:

{

    "CN": "kubernetes",

    "key": {

        "algo": "rsa",

        "size": 2048

    },

    "names": [

        {

            "C": "CN",

            "ST": "ChengDu",

            "L": "ChengDu",

            "O": "k8s",

            "OU": "System"

        }

    ]

}

字段说明:

"CN":Common Name,kube-apiserver从证书中提取该字段作为请求用户名(User Name);浏览器使用该字段验证网站是否合法。

“O”:Organization,kube-apiserver从证书中提取该字段作为请求用户所属的组(Group);

2.4.3 生成CA证书和私钥

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca

[root@master01 cajson]# ls  ca*

ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem

2.5 创建kubernets证书和私钥

2.5.1 创建kuberne证书签名请求文件(kubernetes-csr.json)

修改后内容:

{

    "CN": "kubernetes",

"hosts": [

        "127.0.0.1",

        "master01",

        "192.168.0.143",

        "master02",

        "192.168.0.144",

        "master03",

        "192.168.0.145",

        "192.168.0.140"

        "10.10.10.1",

        "kubernetes",

        "kubernetes.default",

        "kubernetes.default.svc",

        "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",

        "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"

    ],

    "key": {

        "algo": "rsa",

        "size": 2048

    },

    "names": [

        {

            "C": "CN",

            "ST": "ChengDu",

            "L": " ChengDu ",

            "O": "k8s",

            "OU": "System"

        }

    ]

}

字段说明:

如果hosts字段不为空,则需要指定授权使用该证书的IP或者域名列表,由于该证书后续被etcd集群和kubernetes master集群使用,所有上面指定了etcd集群、kubernetes master集群的主机IP和kubernetes服务的服务IP

(一般是  kube-apiserver  指定的service-cluster-ip-range  网段的第一个IP,如 10.10.10.1)

2.5.2 生成kubernetes证书和私钥

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kubernetes

[root@master01 cajson]# ls  kubernetes*

kubernetes.csr  kubernetes-csr.json  kubernetes-key.pem  kubernetes.pem

2.6 创建admin证书和私钥

2.6.1 创建admin证书签名请求文件(admin-csr.json)

修改后内容:

{

    "CN": "admin",

    "hosts": [],

    "key": {

        "algo": "rsa",

        "size": 2048

    },

    "names": [

        {

            "C": "CN",

            "ST": "ChengDu",

            "L": "ChengDu",

            "O": "system:masters",

            "OU": "System"

        }

    ]

}

说明:

后续kube-apiserver使用RBAC对客户端(如kubelet、kube-proxy、Pod)请求进行授权;

Kube-apiserver预定义了一些RBAC使用的RoleBindings

OU指定该证书的用户所属组为system:master,kubelet使用该证书访问kube-apiserver时,由于该证书被CA签名,所有认证通过,同时由于证书用户组为经过预授权的system:masters,所以被授权访问所有API的权限;

2.6.2 生成kube-proxy客户端证书和私钥

 

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

[root@master01 cajson]# ls admin*

admin.csr  admin-csr.json  admin-key.pem  admin.pem 

 

2.7 创建kube-proxy证书和私钥

2.7.1 创建kube-proxy证书签名请求文件(kube-proxy-csr.json)

修改后的内容:

{

    "CN": "system:kube-proxy",

    "hosts": [],

    "key": {

        "algo": "rsa",

        "size": 2048

    },

    "names": [

        {

            "C": "CN",

            "ST": "ChengDu",

            "L": "ChengDu",

            "O": "k8s",

            "OU": "System"

        }

    ]

}

字段说明:

“CN”:指定该证书的User为system:kube-proxy

kube-apiserver预定义的RoleBinding cluster-admin将User system:kube-proxy与Role  system:node-proxier绑定,该 Role授予了调用kube-apiserver Proxy 相关API的权限;

2.7.2 生成kube-proxy客户端证书和私钥

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

[root@master01 cajson]# ls kube-proxy*

kube-proxy.csr  kube-proxy-csr.json  kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem

2.8 生成的证书列表

-rw-------. 1 root root 1679 May 26 10:44 admin-key.pem

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1403 May 26 10:44 admin.pem

-rw-------. 1 root root 1679 May 26 09:31 ca-key.pem

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1363 May 26 09:31 ca.pem

-rw-------. 1 root root 1675 May 26 10:52 kube-proxy-key.pem

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1403 May 26 10:52 kube-proxy.pem

-rw-------. 1 root root 1679 May 26 09:31 kubernetes-key.pem

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1635 May 26 09:31 kubernetes.pem

 当然,如果感觉上边的证书和私钥生成麻烦,可以把生成命令编辑到脚本中,一次生成.

#!/bin/sh
echo '生成证书和私钥'
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kubernetes
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
echo '证书和私钥生成成功'

2.9 检验证书

以kubernetes证书为例

2.9.1 使用openssl命令

[root@master01 cajson]# openssl x509 -noout -text -in kubernetes.pem

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number:

            5b:72:5d:00:64:c5:12:39:ae:d4:da:bb:e0:ec:70:8e:54:6d:96:2c

    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=ChengDu, L=ChengDu, O=k8s, OU=System, CN=kubernetes

        Validity

            Not Before: May 28 14:04:00 2019 GMT

            Not After : May 27 14:04:00 2020 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=ChengDu, L=ChengDu, O=k8s, OU=System, CN=kubernetes

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption

                Public-Key: (2048 bit)

                Modulus:

                    00:c0:f0:54:bc:02:99:5a:a5:96:51:7e:b9:94:75:

                    65:07:a6:18:dd:85:3a:07:2d:49:2d:f2:79:e6:42:

                    39:75:cf:41:de:42:5e:6b:20:c3:a0:0e:20:02:2b:

                    cd:82:8f:10:9c:8e:ad:fc:24:d1:59:40:3c:b6:92:

                    09:34:8d:2b:6a:d1:4c:e6:02:b1:f7:58:ee:80:0b:

                    96:6d:90:53:52:34:66:41:48:dc:a3:6e:93:93:10:

                    eb:ed:98:77:cf:3e:be:45:20:61:39:3d:01:f2:a0:

                    9e:91:67:b2:aa:a9:b5:6a:54:16:dc:3e:f1:c6:b7:

                    3d:08:01:58:b4:bd:a0:56:da:6c:d3:65:b2:d4:09:

                    35:dd:b1:eb:ad:e3:1d:97:1e:f5:50:bd:8e:6c:a6:

                    88:a2:8c:13:c5:2a:ac:cd:4b:3c:f1:ef:4f:33:6d:

                    43:06:c5:6d:d5:cf:1a:e8:9a:12:39:17:5e:9a:98:

                    1f:c7:94:33:5f:4f:fc:8b:93:83:e1:d1:19:35:b3:

                    db:0a:aa:71:9a:45:54:10:70:b7:95:27:a5:38:88:

                    6b:f9:21:d1:99:19:4e:0b:59:4e:47:e9:bc:d8:79:

                    f8:de:35:b5:94:71:cf:84:d3:3d:77:07:ea:28:c2:

                    5e:99:26:4f:89:4b:63:39:84:4e:bf:dd:5b:1f:c2:

                    61:ff

                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Key Usage: critical

                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment

            X509v3 Extended Key Usage:

                TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical

                CA:FALSE

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                3E:A9:A4:2D:ED:CA:02:15:CB:F7:FD:3C:0D:D4:52:3F:F0:18:5C:6C

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:93:B1:C8:5B:46:33:FD:44:3B:6D:3E:09:B7:BE:FC:4C:A3:59:A8:69

 

            X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:

                DNS:master01, DNS:master02, DNS:master03, DNS:kubernetes, DNS:kubernetes.default, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local, IP Address:127.0.0.1, IP Address:192.168.72.143, IP Address:192.168.72.144, IP Address:192.168.72.145

    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption

         5e:21:e4:48:51:30:98:7e:80:c5:0a:48:ca:63:c7:9d:cd:2b:

         60:f5:32:ec:00:27:71:a0:c5:60:36:bd:a0:f5:0a:4c:69:f6:

         bc:b9:60:ad:5f:ff:8d:6a:16:a7:45:97:d8:6f:3b:3d:42:13:

         49:a2:1f:55:59:c2:2b:67:e3:4b:c9:e9:28:93:85:9c:4c:80:

         58:aa:36:5b:b2:c4:84:37:73:7c:11:d4:fa:89:92:44:8f:3d:

         a6:24:f4:85:59:53:79:16:c7:86:56:ae:26:b5:a1:0d:4d:6e:

         09:de:a9:93:c6:af:6a:d3:06:8a:17:d5:7e:a3:2a:aa:d4:da:

         4b:98:54:89:7e:e6:dd:29:ba:62:73:ae:5e:38:90:0d:09:0a:

         61:22:80:4a:a1:35:8c:13:96:e4:8e:7e:15:3c:ed:87:c6:b2:

         a4:49:cd:18:8b:8c:68:56:6b:96:fb:e1:69:4d:0e:05:aa:fe:

         eb:01:2f:73:c5:55:8f:10:03:ab:0a:2e:5d:05:56:4a:dc:a2:

         01:cb:ad:ba:a6:24:ce:3f:a3:68:f6:47:31:2c:da:ae:24:6b:

         45:c0:49:38:e1:50:79:06:a0:ff:fc:1b:29:f3:95:13:a1:b8:

         60:4b:5a:d5:b5:11:15:f4:ba:b9:12:07:66:fa:6a:92:73:c4:

         ab:1d:6b:73

确认Issuer字段的内容和ca-csr.json一致;

确认Subject字段的内容和kubernetes-csr.json一致;

确认X509v3 Subject Alternative Name字段的内容和kubernetes-csr.json一致;

确认X509v3 Key Usage、Extended Key Usage字段的内容和ca-config.json中kubernetes-profile一致;

2.9.2 使用cfss-certinfo命令

[root@master01 cajson]# cfssl-certinfo -cert kubernetes.pem

{

  "subject": {

    "common_name": "kubernetes",

    "country": "CN",

    "organization": "k8s",

    "organizational_unit": "System",

    "locality": "ChengDu",

    "province": "ChengDu",

    "names": [

      "CN",

      "ChengDu",

      "ChengDu",

      "k8s",

      "System",

      "kubernetes"

    ]

  },

  "issuer": {

    "common_name": "kubernetes",

    "country": "CN",

    "organization": "k8s",

    "organizational_unit": "System",

    "locality": "ChengDu",

    "province": "ChengDu",

    "names": [

      "CN",

      "ChengDu",

      "ChengDu",

      "k8s",

      "System",

      "kubernetes"

    ]

  },

  "serial_number": "522068546674139593159398095086002169705095075372",

  "sans": [

    "master01",

    "master02",

    "master03",

    "kubernetes",

    "kubernetes.default",

    "kubernetes.default.svc",

    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",

    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local",

    "127.0.0.1",

    "192.168.72.143",

    "192.168.72.144",

    "192.168.72.145"

  ],

  "not_before": "2019-05-28T14:04:00Z",

  "not_after": "2020-05-27T14:04:00Z",

  "sigalg": "SHA256WithRSA",

  "authority_key_id": "93:B1:C8:5B:46:33:FD:44:3B:6D:3E:9:B7:BE:FC:4C:A3:59:A8:69",

  "subject_key_id": "3E:A9:A4:2D:ED:CA:2:15:CB:F7:FD:3C:D:D4:52:3F:F0:18:5C:6C",

  "pem": "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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\nBqD//Bsp85UTobhgS1rVtREV9Lq5Egdm+mqSc8SrHWtz\n-----END CERTIFICATE-----\n"

}

2.10 分发证书

将生成的证书和秘钥文件(后缀名为.pem)拷贝到所有机器的/opt/kubernetes/ssl 目录下备用

本机复用节点:

[root@master01 cajson]# cp *.pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

分给其他节点:

[root@master01 cajson]# scp *.pem 192.168.0.144: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

[root@master01 cajson]# scp *.pem 192.168.0.145:/opt/kubernetes/ssl/

注意:

集群中的node节点复用master节点的证书

2.11 需要TLS证书认证的组件

Kube-scheduler、kube-controller-manager一般和kube-apiserver部署在同一台机器上,它们使用非安全端口和kube-apiserver通信,非安全端口默认为http的8080,可以使用--insure-port指定,监听非安全端口的地址默认为127.0.0.1,可以使用--insure-bind-address指定。

Kubelet、kube-proxy、kubectl部署在其它Node节点上,如果通过安全端口访问kube-apiserver,则必须通过TLS证书认证,再通过RBAC授权。安全端口默认为https的6443,可以使用--secure-port指定,监听安全端口的地址默认为0.0.0.0(监听所有接口),可以使用—bind-address指定。


愿你就像早晨八九点钟的太阳,活力十足,永远年轻。

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