Linux下的make命令使用心得

make menuconfig 是执行makefile里面的menuconfig目标.
如果后面ARCH =arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-的话表明: 编译出来的目标是针对ARM体系结构的。因为是针对ARM体系结构,所以需要使用交叉编译器。使用CROSS_COMPILE=xxx来指定交叉编译器。
CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux- 意思是制定交叉编译器为arm-linux-XXX。 如:makefile里面会指定CC为arm-linux-gcc




本文译至:http://d.hatena.ne.jp/embedded/20140829/p1

为了使make命令执行并行处理,-j 选项可以用来指定作业数。

$ make -j4 

作业数是在编译的时候指定主机的CPU个数,所以在脚本中写成一个常量很糟糕。(特别是把编译脚本给其他人的时候。)并行处理的作业数和编译的效率直接相关,所以需要设置合适的作业数量。

昨天的文章中在编译perf时,make的任务数能自动设置成CPU的数量。调查了一下它是怎么做的。

linux/tools/perf/Makefile

#
# Do a parallel build with multiple jobs, based on the number of CPUs online
# in this system: 'make -j8' on a 8-CPU system, etc.
#
# (To override it, run 'make JOBS=1' and similar.)
#
ifeq ($(JOBS),)
  JOBS := $(shell grep -c ^processor /proc/cpuinfo 2>/dev/null)
  ifeq ($(JOBS),)
    JOBS := 1
  endif
endif

这种计算了/proc/cpuinfo以processor开头的行的数量。

这里不使用wc命令来计算匹配的行数,而是用grep -c来获取。

这里JOBS是CPU的个数,用这个变量在子进程中使用make命令。

$(MAKE) -f Makefile.perf --no-print-directory -j$(JOBS) O=$(FULL_O) $(SET_DEBUG) $@
 

关于make时,通过-j参数指定多线程数目

 

之前在折腾crosstool-ng:

【记录】crosstool为xscale编译(ct-ng build)过程

时,就偶尔看到别人用

ct-ng build.4

意思是多线程去编译

估计底层就是调用的makefile的支持多线程的这个功能。

后来又在别处看到类似的写法了:

Introduction to Cross Compilation

中的:

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make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabi- uImage -j4

此时,才想到,去查查make的参数:

(此处是在cygwin中)

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Administrator@PC-20130611GART /cygdrive/e/Dev_Root
$ make --help
Usage: make [options] [target] ...
Options:
   -b, -m                      Ignored for compatibility.
   -B, --always- make           Unconditionally make all targets.
   -C DIRECTORY, --directory=DIRECTORY
                               Change to DIRECTORY before doing anything.
   -d                          Print lots of debugging information.
   --debug[=FLAGS]             Print various types of debugging information.
   -e, --environment-overrides
                               Environment variables override makefiles.
   -- eval =STRING               Evaluate STRING as a makefile statement.
   -f FILE, -- file =FILE, --makefile=FILE
                               Read FILE as a makefile.
   -h, --help                  Print this message and exit .
   -i, --ignore-errors         Ignore errors from recipes.
   -I DIRECTORY, --include- dir =DIRECTORY
                               Search DIRECTORY for included makefiles.
   -j [N], --jobs[=N]          Allow N jobs at once; infinite jobs with no arg.
   -k, --keep-going            Keep going when some targets can't be made.
   -l [N], --load-average[=N], --max-load[=N]
                               Don't start multiple jobs unless load is below N.
   -L, --check- symlink - times   Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.
   -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
                               Don't actually run any recipe; just print them.
   -o FILE, --old- file =FILE, --assume-old=FILE
                               Consider FILE to be very old and don't remake it.
   -p, --print-data-base       Print make 's internal database.
   -q, --question              Run no recipe; exit status says if up to date .
   -r, --no- builtin -rules      Disable the built- in implicit rules.
   -R, --no- builtin -variables  Disable the built- in variable settings.
   -s, --silent, --quiet       Don't echo recipes.
   -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
                               Turns off -k.
   -t, -- touch                 Touch targets instead of remaking them.
   --trace                     Print tracing information.
   - v , --version               Print the version number of make and exit .
   -w, --print-directory       Print the current directory.
   --no-print-directory        Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.
   -W FILE, --what- if =FILE, --new- file =FILE, --assume-new=FILE
                               Consider FILE to be infinitely new.
   --warn-undefined-variables  Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.
 
This program built for i686-pc-cygwin
Report bugs to <bug- make @gnu.org>
 
Administrator@PC-20130611GART /cygdrive/e/Dev_Root
$

果然对应的-j==–jobs,指的是多线程的意思:

-j [N], –jobs[=N] Allow N jobs at once; infinite jobs with no arg.

用法即:

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make –j 4

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make –jobs=4

 

make加上-s,表示silent,不输出详细log信息

之前折腾:

【记录】尝试用QEMU模拟ARM开发板去加载并运行Uboot,kernel,rootfs

参考的:

Virtual Development Board

中就用到:

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sudo make install -s
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-linux-gnueabi- versatile_defconfig -s
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-linux-gnueabi- uImage -s

其中的-s参数,之前就猜测是silent的意思。

根本上面的–help输出的信息,果然是:

-s, –silent, –quiet Don’t echo recipes.

 

-f指定makefile文件

之前就知道的,可以通过-f指定特定的makefile文件的。

背景是:

当执行make时,默认会去(当前文件夹下)找名为Makefile的文件

如果此处你需要去运行特定文件名的makefile文件,比如my.mk

那么就可以通过-f去指定:

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make –f my.mk

即可。

 make help可以用来查看当前支持哪些目标

一般来说,多数的makefile文件,除了最常见的make all,make clean等最常见的目标之外,往往都会有自己不同的目标供执行,即:

make xxx

make yyy

等等。

而想要去查看,有哪些xxx和yyy供你使用,可以通过make help去查看。

举例:

最近折腾的:

【记录】Ubuntu下为QEMU的arm平台交叉编译BusyBox

中的make help的输出,就是:

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crifan@ubuntu:busybox-1.16.0$ make help
Cleaning:
   clean         - delete temporary files created by build
   distclean     - delete all non- source files (including .config)
   doc-clean     - delete all generated documentation
  
Build:
   all           - Executable and documentation
   busybox       - the swiss-army executable
   doc           - docs /BusyBox .{txt,html,1}
   html          - create html-based cross-reference
  
Configuration:
   allnoconfig       - disable all symbols in .config
   allyesconfig      - enable all symbols in .config (see defconfig)
   config        - text based configurator (of last resort)
   defconfig     - set .config to largest generic configuration
   menuconfig        - interactive curses-based configurator
   oldconfig     - resolve any unresolved symbols in .config
   hosttools         - build sed for the host.
               You can use these commands if the commands on the host
               is unusable. Afterwards use it like:
               make SED= "/home/crifan/develop/embedded/qemu/rootfs/busybox/busybox-1.16.0/sed"
  
Installation:
   install       - install busybox into CONFIG_PREFIX
   uninstall
  
Development:
   baseline      - create busybox_old for bloatcheck.
   bloatcheck        - show size difference between old and new versions
   check         - run the test suite for all applets
   checkhelp     - check for missing help-entries in Config. in
   randconfig        - generate a random configuration
   release       - create a distribution tarball
   sizes         - show size of all enabled busybox symbols
   objsizes      - show size of each .o object built
   bigdata       - show data objects, biggest first
   stksizes      - show stack users , biggest first

如此,就知道了:

当前的busybox的makefile中,支持如此多的目标,而想要查看当前busybox的各种stack信息,就可以去试试那个stksizes了:

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crifan@ubuntu:busybox-1.16.0$ make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-xscale-linux-gnueabi- stksizes
arm-xscale-linux-gnueabi-objdump -d busybox_unstripped | /home/crifan/develop/embedded/qemu/rootfs/busybox/busybox-1 .16.0 /scripts/checkstack .pl arm | uniq
buffered_vfprintf [busybox_unstripped]:         8384
phys_pages_info [busybox_unstripped]:           8192
__get_nprocs [busybox_unstripped]:          8192
__res_vinit [busybox_unstripped]:           8192
_IO_wfile_seekoff [busybox_unstripped]:         4224
__unix_grantpt [busybox_unstripped]:            4224
_IO_vfwprintf [busybox_unstripped]:         4224
grantpt [busybox_unstripped]:               4160
bb_full_fd_action [busybox_unstripped]:         4096
find_list_entry2 [busybox_unstripped]:          4096
readlink_main [busybox_unstripped]:         4096
pid_is_exec [busybox_unstripped]:           4096
execle [busybox_unstripped]:                4096
execl [busybox_unstripped]:             4096
execlp [busybox_unstripped]:                4096
_dl_get_origin [busybox_unstripped]:            4096
ipaddr_list_or_flush [busybox_unstripped]:      3664
iproute_list_or_flush [busybox_unstripped]:     3648
__c32 [busybox_unstripped]:             3600
buffered_vfprintf [busybox_unstripped]:         3302
__mpatan [busybox_unstripped]:              2976
fallbackSort [busybox_unstripped]:          2928
atan2Mp.constprop.0 [busybox_unstripped]:       2304
__mpsqrt [busybox_unstripped]:              2304
__slowpow [busybox_unstripped]:             2304
cal_main [busybox_unstripped]:              2288
internal_fnmatch [busybox_unstripped]:          2144
doCommands [busybox_unstripped]:            2112
__slowexp [busybox_unstripped]:             1984
__mpexp [busybox_unstripped]:               1984
normalized [busybox_unstripped]:            1968
get_next_block [busybox_unstripped]:            1968
identify_from_stdin [busybox_unstripped]:       1792
__ieee754_log [busybox_unstripped]:         1648
huft_build [busybox_unstripped]:            1488
iproute_modify [busybox_unstripped]:            1376
svc_getreq_common [busybox_unstripped]:         1328
__mpatan2 [busybox_unstripped]:             1312
inflate_block [busybox_unstripped]:         1296
_IO_vfprintf [busybox_unstripped]:          1296
__libc_message [busybox_unstripped]:            1280
getlogin_r [busybox_unstripped]:            1280
mainQSort3.constprop.2 [busybox_unstripped]:        1264
__gettextparse [busybox_unstripped]:            1248
iproute_get [busybox_unstripped]:           1184
rx_main [busybox_unstripped]:               1152
ether_wake_main [busybox_unstripped]:           1152
procps_scan [busybox_unstripped]:           1152
unwind_phase2_forced [busybox_unstripped]:      1152
build_trtable [busybox_unstripped]:         1126
wget_main [busybox_unstripped]:             1120
iprule_modify [busybox_unstripped]:         1120
getopt32 [busybox_unstripped]:              1104
_svcauth_des [busybox_unstripped]:          1088
two_way_long_needle [busybox_unstripped]:       1056
ether_hostton [busybox_unstripped]:         1056
check_existence_through_netlink [busybox_unstripped]:   1040
two_way_long_needle [busybox_unstripped]:       1040
clnt_sperror [busybox_unstripped]:          1040
clnt_spcreateerror [busybox_unstripped]:        1040
_dl_signal_error [busybox_unstripped]:          1040
internal_fnwmatch [busybox_unstripped]:         1030
bad_zone [busybox_unstripped]:              1024
get_dirsize [busybox_unstripped]:           1024
map_block2 [busybox_unstripped]:            1024
map_block [busybox_unstripped]:             1024
addLines [busybox_unstripped]:              1024
getNum [busybox_unstripped]:                1024
perror_internal [busybox_unstripped]:           1024
__getmntent_r [busybox_unstripped]:         1024
__mpsin [busybox_unstripped]:               996
__mpcos [busybox_unstripped]:               996
__mpsin1 [busybox_unstripped]:              992
__mpcos1 [busybox_unstripped]:              992
__sin32 [busybox_unstripped]:               988
__cos32 [busybox_unstripped]:               988
__mpranred [busybox_unstripped]:            988
__mplog [busybox_unstripped]:               984
udhcpc_main [busybox_unstripped]:           884
dhcprelay_main [busybox_unstripped]:            836
udhcpd_main [busybox_unstripped]:           824
sha512_process_block128 [busybox_unstripped]:       812
glob_in_dir [busybox_unstripped]:           804
init_exec [busybox_unstripped]:             788
write_wtmp [busybox_unstripped]:            780
nfsmount [busybox_unstripped]:              732
do_tunnels_list [busybox_unstripped]:           724
print_tunnel [busybox_unstripped]:          712
pututline_file [busybox_unstripped]:            708
if_readlist_proc [busybox_unstripped]:          696
udhcp_send_raw_packet [busybox_unstripped]:     692
arp_show [busybox_unstripped]:              684
__inv [busybox_unstripped]:             664
__gnu_Unwind_Backtrace [busybox_unstripped]:        664
udhcp_recv_raw_packet [busybox_unstripped]:     660
print_login_issue [busybox_unstripped]:         656
send_ACK [busybox_unstripped]:              644
send_release [busybox_unstripped]:          644
send_offer [busybox_unstripped]:            640
send_renew [busybox_unstripped]:            640
send_NAK [busybox_unstripped]:              636
send_discover [busybox_unstripped]:         636
send_inform [busybox_unstripped]:           632
send_decline [busybox_unstripped]:          632
send_select [busybox_unstripped]:           632
ash_main [busybox_unstripped]:              632
dnsd_main [busybox_unstripped]:             604
_dl_start_profile [busybox_unstripped]:         604
sha_crypt [busybox_unstripped]:             596
__gnu_Unwind_RaiseException [busybox_unstripped]:   580
_dl_map_object [busybox_unstripped]:            580
inetd_main [busybox_unstripped]:            576
readtoken1 [busybox_unstripped]:            572
_dl_debug_vdprintf [busybox_unstripped]:        556
process_dev [busybox_unstripped]:           544
get_header_tar [busybox_unstripped]:            540
uname_main [busybox_unstripped]:            540
last_main [busybox_unstripped]:             532
glob_in_dir [busybox_unstripped]:           532
dir_act [busybox_unstripped]:               524
retrieve_file_data [busybox_unstripped]:        524
log_option [busybox_unstripped]:            524
gaih_inet [busybox_unstripped]:             520
readprofile_main [busybox_unstripped]:          516
writeTarHeader [busybox_unstripped]:            516
_IO_vfscanf [busybox_unstripped]:           516
handle_net_output [busybox_unstripped]:         512
writeLongname [busybox_unstripped]:         512
getnameinfo [busybox_unstripped]:           484
print_addrinfo [busybox_unstripped]:            480
_nl_load_locale_from_archive [busybox_unstripped]:  460
read_alias_file [busybox_unstripped]:           460
_dl_discover_osversion [busybox_unstripped]:        460
authunix_create [busybox_unstripped]:           456
login_main [busybox_unstripped]:            452
print_route [busybox_unstripped]:           444
evalfun [busybox_unstripped]:               440
_dl_catch_error [busybox_unstripped]:           440
brctl_main [busybox_unstripped]:            420
evalbltin.isra.1 [busybox_unstripped]:          420
evaltree [busybox_unstripped]:              420
setvarsafe [busybox_unstripped]:            416
redirectsafe [busybox_unstripped]:          416
crond_main [busybox_unstripped]:            412
modprobe_main [busybox_unstripped]:         412
ipaddr_modify [busybox_unstripped]:         412
scan_proc_net [busybox_unstripped]:         412
_Unwind_VRS_Pop [busybox_unstripped]:           412
__sleep [busybox_unstripped]:               408
____strtod_l_internal [busybox_unstripped]:     404
exitshell [busybox_unstripped]:             404
bb_ask [busybox_unstripped]:                404
get_linux_version_code [busybox_unstripped]:        396
safe_gethostname [busybox_unstripped]:          396
safe_getdomainname [busybox_unstripped]:        396
getdomainname [busybox_unstripped]:         396
runsv_main [busybox_unstripped]:            392
__gethostname [busybox_unstripped]:         392
update_utmp [busybox_unstripped]:           384
print_rule [busybox_unstripped]:            384
parse_config_file [busybox_unstripped]:         380
reread_config_file [busybox_unstripped]:        380
set_loop [busybox_unstripped]:              380
fbset_main [busybox_unstripped]:            372
find_block_device [busybox_unstripped]:         372
arping_main [busybox_unstripped]:           364
_IO_vdprintf [busybox_unstripped]:          364
md5_crypt [busybox_unstripped]:             356
passwd_main [busybox_unstripped]:           348
__mbsrtowcs_l [busybox_unstripped]:         348
list_devs_in_proc_partititons [busybox_unstripped]: 344
sha1_process_block64 [busybox_unstripped]:      340
__glob64 [busybox_unstripped]:              340
display_process_list [busybox_unstripped]:      332
__wcsrtombs [busybox_unstripped]:           332
INET6_displayroutes [busybox_unstripped]:       328
__dvd [busybox_unstripped]:             328
mainSort [busybox_unstripped]:              324
__mbsnrtowcs [busybox_unstripped]:          324
__ttyname_r [busybox_unstripped]:           324
glob [busybox_unstripped]:              324
sulogin_main [busybox_unstripped]:          316
makedevs_main [busybox_unstripped]:         316
re_compile_fastmap_iter.isra.40 [busybox_unstripped]:   316
do_lzo_decompress [busybox_unstripped]:         312
do_system [busybox_unstripped]:             312
do_lzo_compress [busybox_unstripped]:           308
updwtmp_file [busybox_unstripped]:          308
getutline_r_file [busybox_unstripped]:          308
correct_password [busybox_unstripped]:          304
__libc_start_main [busybox_unstripped]:         304
telnetd_main [busybox_unstripped]:          300
read_line_input [busybox_unstripped]:           300
re_search_internal [busybox_unstripped]:        300
internal_getut_r [busybox_unstripped]:          300
crifan@ubuntu:busybox-1.16.0$

 

转自: http://www.crifan.com/summary_usage_about_make_linux_command/

                
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