鲸鱼算法优化LSTM超参数-神经元个数-dropout-batch_size

1、摘要

本文主要讲解:使用鲸鱼算法优化LSTM超参数-神经元个数-dropout-batch_size
主要思路:

  1. 鲸鱼算法 Parameters : 迭代次数、鲸鱼的维度、鲸鱼的数量, 参数的上限,参数的下限
  2. LSTM Parameters 神经网络第一层神经元个数、神经网络第二层神经元个数、dropout比率、batch_size
  3. 开始搜索:初始化所鲸鱼的位置、迭代寻优、返回超出搜索空间边界的搜索代理、计算每个搜索代理的目标函数、更新 Alpha, Beta, and Delta
  4. 训练模型,使用鲸鱼算法找到的最好的全局最优参数
  5. plt.show()

2、数据介绍

zgpa_train.csv
DIANCHI.csv

需要数据的话去我其他文章的评论区
可接受定制

3、相关技术

WOA算法设计的既精妙又富有特色,它源于对自然界中座头鲸群体狩猎行为的模拟, 通过鲸鱼群体搜索、包围、追捕和攻击猎物等过程实现优时化搜索的目的。在原始的WOA中,提供了包围猎物,螺旋气泡、寻找猎物的数学模型。
鲸鱼优化算法
在这里插入图片描述
PS:如陷入局部最优建议修改参数的上下限或者修改鲸鱼寻优的速度

4、完整代码和步骤

代码输出如下:

此程序运行代码版本为:

tensorflow==2.5.0
numpy==1.19.5
keras==2.6.0
matplotlib==3.5.2

在这里插入图片描述

主运行程序入口

import math
import os

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
from tensorflow.python.keras.callbacks import EarlyStopping
from tensorflow.python.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, LSTM
from tensorflow.python.keras.layers.core import Activation
from tensorflow.python.keras.models import Sequential

os.chdir(r'D:\项目\PSO-LSTM\具体需求')
'''
灰狼算法优化LSTM
'''
plt.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['SimHei']  # 用来正常显示中文标签
plt.rcParams['axes.unicode_minus'] = False  # 用来正常显示负号


def creat_dataset(dataset, look_back):
    dataX, dataY = [], []
    for i in range(len(dataset) - look_back - 1):
        a = dataset[i: (i + look_back)]
        dataX.append(a)
        dataY.append(dataset[i + look_back])
    return np.array(dataX), np.array(dataY)


dataframe = pd.read_csv('zgpa_train.csv', header=0, parse_dates=[0], index_col=0, usecols=[0, 5], squeeze=True)
dataset = dataframe.values
data = pd.read_csv('DIANCHI.csv', header=0)
z = data['fazhi']

scaler = MinMaxScaler(feature_range=(0, 1))
dataset = scaler.fit_transform(dataset.reshape(-1, 1))

train_size = int(len(dataset) * 0.8)
test_size = len(dataset) - train_size
train, test = dataset[0: train_size], dataset[train_size: len(dataset)]
look_back = 10
trainX, trainY = creat_dataset(train, look_back)
testX, testY = creat_dataset(test, look_back)


def build_model(neurons1, neurons2, dropout):
    X_train, y_train = trainX, trainY
    X_test, y_test = testX, testY
    model = Sequential()

    model.add(LSTM(units=neurons1, return_sequences=True, input_shape=(10, 1)))
    model.add(LSTM(units=neurons2, return_sequences=True))
    model.add(LSTM(111, return_sequences=False))
    model.add(Dropout(dropout))
    model.add(Dense(55))
    model.add(Dense(units=1))
    model.add(Activation('relu'))
    model.compile(loss='mean_squared_error', optimizer='Adam')
    return model, X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test


def training(X):
    neurons1 = int(X[0])
    neurons2 = int(X[1])
    dropout = round(X[2], 6)
    batch_size = int(X[3])
    print([neurons1,neurons2,dropout,batch_size])
    model, X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test = build_model(neurons1, neurons2, dropout)
    model.fit(
        X_train,
        y_train,
        batch_size=batch_size,
        epochs=10,
        validation_split=0.1,
        verbose=0,
        callbacks=[EarlyStopping(monitor='val_loss', patience=22, restore_best_weights=True)])

    pred = model.predict(X_test)
    temp_mse = mean_squared_error(y_test, pred)
    print(temp_mse)
    return temp_mse




class woa():
    # 初始化
    def __init__(self, LB, UB, dim=4, b=1, whale_num=20, max_iter=500):
        self.LB = LB
        self.UB = UB
        self.dim = dim
        self.whale_num = whale_num
        self.max_iter = max_iter
        self.b = b
        # Initialize the locations of whale
        self.X = np.random.uniform(0, 1, (whale_num, dim)) * (UB - LB) + LB

        self.gBest_score = np.inf
        self.gBest_curve = np.zeros(max_iter)
        self.gBest_X = np.zeros(dim)

    # 适应度函数 max_depth,min_samples_split,min_samples_leaf,max_leaf_nodes
    def fitFunc(self, para):
        # 建立模型
        mse = training(para)
        return mse
        # 优化模块
    def opt(self):
        t = 0
        while t < self.max_iter:
            print('At iteration: ' + str(t))
            for i in range(self.whale_num):
                # 防止X溢出
                self.X[i, :] = np.clip(self.X[i, :], self.LB, self.UB)  # Check boundries
                fitness = self.fitFunc(self.X[i, :])
                # Update the gBest_score and gBest_X
                if fitness <= self.gBest_score:
                    self.gBest_score = fitness
                    self.gBest_X = self.X[i, :].copy()
            print('self.gBest_score: ', self.gBest_score)
            print('self.gBest_X: ', self.gBest_X)
            a = 2 * (self.max_iter - t) / self.max_iter
            # Update the location of whales
            for i in range(self.whale_num):
                p = np.random.uniform()
                R1 = np.random.uniform()
                R2 = np.random.uniform()
                A = 2 * a * R1 - a
                C = 2 * R2
                l = 2 * np.random.uniform() - 1
                # 如果随机值大于0.5 就按以下算法更新X
                if p >= 0.5:
                    D = abs(self.gBest_X - self.X[i, :])
                    self.X[i, :] = D * np.exp(self.b * l) * np.cos(2 * np.pi * l) + self.gBest_X
                else:
                    # 如果随机值小于0.5 就按以下算法更新X
                    if abs(A) < 1:
                        D = abs(C * self.gBest_X - self.X[i, :])
                        self.X[i, :] = self.gBest_X - A * D
                    else:
                        rand_index = np.random.randint(low=0, high=self.whale_num)
                        X_rand = self.X[rand_index, :]
                        D = abs(C * X_rand - self.X[i, :])
                        self.X[i, :] = X_rand - A * D
            self.gBest_curve[t] = self.gBest_score
            t += 1
        return self.gBest_curve, self.gBest_X


if __name__ == '__main__':
    '''
    神经网络第一层神经元个数
    神经网络第二层神经元个数
    dropout比率
    batch_size
    '''

    # ===========主程序================
    Max_iter = 3  # 迭代次数
    dim = 4  # 鲸鱼的维度
    SearchAgents_no = 2  # 寻值的鲸鱼的数量
    # 参数的上限
    UB = np.array([20, 100, 0.01, 36])
    # 参数的下限
    LB = np.array([5, 20, 0.00001, 5])
    # best_params is [2.e+02 3.e+02 1.e-03 1.e+00]
    fitnessCurve, para = woa(LB, UB, dim=dim, whale_num=SearchAgents_no, max_iter=Max_iter).opt()
    print('best_params is ', para)

    # 训练模型  使用PSO找到的最好的神经元个数
    neurons1 = int(para[0])
    neurons2 = int(para[1])
    dropout = para[2]
    batch_size = int(para[3])
    model, X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test = build_model(neurons1, neurons2, dropout)
    history = model.fit(X_train, y_train, epochs=100, batch_size=batch_size, validation_split=0.2, verbose=1,
                        callbacks=[EarlyStopping(monitor='val_loss', patience=29, restore_best_weights=True)])
    trainPredict = model.predict(trainX)
    testPredict = model.predict(testX)
    trainPredict = scaler.inverse_transform(trainPredict)
    trainY = scaler.inverse_transform(trainY)
    testPredict = scaler.inverse_transform(testPredict)
    testY = scaler.inverse_transform(testY)

    trainScore = math.sqrt(mean_squared_error(trainY, trainPredict[:, 0]))
    # print('Train Score %.2f RMSE' %(trainScore))
    testScore = math.sqrt(mean_squared_error(testY, testPredict[:, 0]))
    # print('Test Score %.2f RMSE' %(trainScore))

    trainPredictPlot = np.empty_like(dataset)
    trainPredictPlot[:] = np.nan
    trainPredictPlot = np.reshape(trainPredictPlot, (dataset.shape[0], 1))
    trainPredictPlot[look_back: len(trainPredict) + look_back, :] = trainPredict

    testPredictPlot = np.empty_like(dataset)
    testPredictPlot[:] = np.nan
    testPredictPlot = np.reshape(testPredictPlot, (dataset.shape[0], 1))
    testPredictPlot[len(trainPredict) + (look_back * 2) + 1: len(dataset) - 1, :] = testPredict

    plt.plot(history.history['loss'])
    plt.title('model loss')
    plt.ylabel('loss')
    plt.xlabel('epoch')
    plt.show()

    fig2 = plt.figure(figsize=(20, 15))
    plt.rcParams['font.family'] = ['STFangsong']
    ax = plt.subplot(222)
    plt.plot(scaler.inverse_transform(dataset), 'b-', label='实验数据')
    plt.plot(trainPredictPlot, 'r', label='训练数据')
    plt.plot(testPredictPlot, 'g', label='预测数据')
    plt.plot(z, 'k-', label='寿命阀值RUL')
    plt.ylabel('capacity', fontsize=20)
    plt.xlabel('cycle', fontsize=20)
    plt.legend()
    name = 'neurons1_' + str(neurons1) + 'neurons2_' + str(neurons2) + '_dropout' + str(
        dropout) + '_batch_size' + str(batch_size)
    plt.savefig('D:\项目\PSO-LSTM\具体需求\photo\\' + name + '.png')
    plt.show()

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