操作系统概念(Operating System Concepts Ninth Edition恐龙书)第一章课后题答案

Chapter 1 introduces the general topic of operating systems and a handful of important 
concepts (multiprogramming, time sharing, distributed system, and so on). The purpose is 
to show why operating systems are what they are by showing how they developed. In 
operatingsystems, as in much of computer science, we are led to the present by the paths 
we took in the past, and we can better understand both the present and the future by 
understanding the past.  
Additional work that might be considered is learning about the particular systems that 
the students will have access to at your institution. This is still just a general 
overview, as specific interfaces are considered in Chapter 3. 

1.1 In a multiprogramming and time-sharing environment, several users share the system 
simultaneously. This situation can result in various security problems. 
    a. What are two such problems? 
    a. 列出两个这类问题
    b. Can we ensure the same degree of security in a time-shared machine as 
in a dedicated machine? Explain your answer. 
    b. 我们是否能够确保分时系统达到如同专用系统一样的安全程度?请解释你的答案

    a. Stealing or copying one’s 
programs or data; using system resources (CPU, memory, disk space, peripherals) without 
proper accounting. 
    a. 偷窃或抄袭某人的程序或数据(数据安全,代码漏洞等等);没有统计下地使用系统资源
    b. Probably not, since any protection scheme devised by humans can 
inevitably be broken by a human, and the more complex the scheme, the more difficult 
it is to feel confident of its correct implementation. 

1.2 The issue of resource utilization shows up in different forms in different types of 
operating systems. List what resources must be managed carefully in the following 
    a. Mainframe or minicomputer systems  
    b. Workstations connected to servers 
    b. 连接服务器的工作站
    c. Handheld computers

    a. Mainframes: memory and CPU resources, storage, network 
    a. 大型机: 内存和CPU资源、存储、网络带宽
    b. Workstations: memory and CPU resources 
    b. 工作站: 内存和CPU资源
    c. Handheld computers: power 
consumption, memory resources
    c. 掌上电脑: 电源消耗,内存资源

1.3 Under what circumstances would a user be better off using a timesharing system 
rather than a PC or a single-user workstation? 
    When there are few other users, the task is large, and the hardware is fast, time-sharing 
makes sense. The full power of the system can be brought to bear on the user’s problem.
The problem can be solved faster than on a personal computer. Another case occurs when 
lots of other users need resources at the same time. A personal computer is best when the 
job is small enough to be executed reasonably on it and when performance is sufficient to 
execute the program to the user’s satisfaction. 

1.4 Describe the differences between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. What are t
hree advantages and one disadvantage of multiprocessor systems? 
    Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors as equals, and I/O can be processed on 
any CPU. Asymmetric multiprocessing has one master CPU and the remainder CPUs are slaves. 
The master distributes tasks among the slaves, and I/O is usually done by the master only. 
Multiprocessors can save money by not duplicating power supplies, housings, and 
peripherals. They can execute programs more quickly and can have increased reliability. 
They are also more complex in both hardware and software than uniprocessor systems. 

1.5 How do clustered systems differ from multiprocessor systems? What is required for two 
machines belonging to a cluster to cooperate to provide a highly available service? 
    Clustered systems are typically constructed by combining multiple computers into a single 
system to perform a computational task distributed across the cluster. Multiprocessor 
systems on the other hand could be a single physical entity comprising of multiple CPUs. 
A clustered system is less tightly coupled than a multiprocessor system. Clustered 
systems communicate using messages, while processors in a multiprocessor system could 
communicate using shared memory.  In order for two machines to provide a highly available 
service, the state on the two machines should be replicated and should be consistently 
updated. When one of the machines fails, the other could then takeover the functionality 
of the failed machine. 

1.6 Consider a computing cluster consisting of two nodes running a database. Describe two 
ways in which the cluster software can manage access to the data on the disk. Discuss the 
benefits and disadvantages of each. 
    Consider the following two alternatives: asymmetric clustering and parallel clustering. 
With asymmetric clustering, one host runs the database application with the other host 
simply monitoring it. If the server fails, the monitoring host becomes the active server. 
This is appropriate for providing redundancy. However, it does not utilize the potential 
processing power of both hosts. With parallel clustering, the database application can 
run in parallel on both hosts. The difficulty in implementing parallel clusters is 
providing some form of distributed locking mechanism for files on the shared disk. 
    考虑一下两种选择: 非对称集群和并行集群。使用非对称集群,一个主机与另一个主机一

1.7 How are network computers different from traditional personal computers? Describe 
some usage scenarios in which it is advantageous to use network computers. 
    A network computer relies on a centralized computer for most of its services. It 
can therefore have a minimal operating system to manage its resources. A personal 
computer on the other hand has to be capable of providing all of the required 
functionality in a stand-alone manner without relying on a centralized manner. Scenarios 
where administrative costs are high and where sharing leads to more efficient use of 
resources are precisely those settings where network computers are preferred. 

1.8 What is the purpose of interrupts? What are the differences between a trap and an 
interrupt? Can traps be generated intentionally by a user program? If so, for what purpose? 
    An interrupt is a hardware-generated change of flow within the system. An interrupt 
handler is summoned to deal with the cause of the interrupt; control is then returned 
to the interrupted context and instruction. A trap is a software-generated interrupt. 
An interrupt can be used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need for 
device polling. A trap can be used to call operating system routines or to catch 
arithmetic errors

1.9 Direct memory access is used for high-speed I/O devices in order to avoid 
increasing the CPU’s execution load. 
    a. How does the CPU interface with the device to coordinate the transfer? 
    a. CPU与设备如何协作传递?
    b. How does the CPU know when the memory operations are complete? 
    b. CPU如何得知内存操作何时结束?
    c. The CPU is allowed to execute other programs while the DMA controller is 
transferring data. Does this process interfere with the execution of the user 
programs? If so, describe what forms of interference are caused.
    c. 当DMA控制传递数据时,允许CPU执行用户程序。这两者会不会冲突? 如果会,讨论会产生
    The CPU can initiate a DMA operation by writing values into special registers 
that can be independently accessed by the device. The device initiates the corresponding 
operation once it receives a command from the CPU. When the device is finished with its 
operation, it interrupts the CPU to indicate the completion of the operation. Both the
device and the CPU can be accessing memory simultaneously. The memory controller provides 
access to the memory bus in a fair manner to these two entities. A CPU might therefore be 
unable to issue memory operations at peak speeds since it has to compete with the device 
in order to obtain access to the memory bus. 
    CPU 可以通过将值写入可以被设备独立访问的特殊寄存器来启动DMA操作。当它从CPU接收

1.10 Some computer systems do not provide a privileged mode of operation in hardware. 
Is it possible to construct a secure operating system for these computer systems? Give 
arguments both that it is and that it is not possible. 
    An operating system for a machine of this type would need to remain in control (or 
monitor mode) at all times. This could be accomplished by two methods: 
    a. Software interpretation of all user programs (like some BASIC, Java, and LISP 
systems, for example). The software interpreter would provide, in software, what the 
hardware does not provide. 
    a. 为所有用户程序提供软件解释器(Basic, java, Lisp系统等)。软件解释器将在软
    b. Require that all programs be written in high-level languages so that all object 
code is compilerproduced. The compiler would generate (either in-line or by function 
calls) the protection checks that the hardware is missing. 
    b. 要求所有的程序用高级语言编写,所有的对象代码可以被编译生成。编译器可以产生

1.11 Many SMP systems have different levels of caches; one level is local to each 
processing core, and another level is shared among all processing cores. Why are caching 
systems designed this way? 
    The different levels are based on access speed as well as size. In general, the 
closer the cache is to the CPU, the faster the access. However, faster caches are 
typically more costly. Therefore, smaller and faster caches are placed local to each CPU, 
and shared caches that are larger, yet slower, are shared among several different 

1.12 Consider an SMP system similar to the one shown in Figure 1.6. Illustrate with an 
example how data residing in memory could in fact have a different value in each of the 
local caches. 
    Say processor 1 reads data A with value 5 from main memory into its local cache. 
Similarly, processor 2 reads data A into its local cache as well. Processor 1 then 
updates A to 10. However, since A resides in processor 1’s local cache, the update only 
occurs there and not in the local cache for processor 2. 
保证变量的可见性,详见Java volatile)

1.13 Discuss, with examples, how the problem of maintaining coherence of cached data
manifests itself in the following processing environments: 
    a. Single-processor systems 
    a. 单处理器系统
    b. Multiprocessor systems 
    b. 多处理器系统
    c. Distributed systems 
    c. 分布式系统
    In single-processor systems, the memory needs to be updated when a processor issues 
updates to cached values. These updates can be performed immediately or in a lazy manner. 
In a multiprocessor system, different processors might be caching the same memory location 
in its local caches. When updates are made, the other cached locations need to be 
invalidated or updated. In distributed systems, consistency of cached memory values is 
not an issue. However, consistency problems might arise when a client caches file data. 

1.14 Describe a mechanism for enforcing memory protection in order to prevent a program 
from modifying the memory associated with other programs. 
    The processor could keep track of what locations are associated with each process and 
limit access to locations that are outside of a program’s extent. Information regarding 
the extent of a program’s memory could be maintained by using base and limits registers 
and by performing a check for every memory access. 

1.15 Which network configuration—LAN or WAN—would best suit the following environments? 
    a. A campus student union 
    a. 大学校园的学生会
    b. Several campus locations across a statewide university system 
    b. 一个大学的多个省内校园
    c. A neighborhood 
    c. 邻里之间
    a. LAN 
    b. WAN 
    c. LAN or WAN 

1.16 Describe some of the challenges of designing operating systems for mobile devices 
compared with designing operating systems for traditional PCs.
    The greatest challenges in designing mobile operating systems include:  Less storage 
capacity means the operating system must manage memory carefully.  The operating system 
must also manage power consumption carefully.  Less processing power plus fewer 
processors mean the operating system must carefully apportion processors to applications. 
    在设计移动操作系统最大的挑战包括: 更少的存储容量意味着操作系统必须仔细管

 1.17 What are some advantages of peer-to-peer systems over client-server systems? 
     Peer-to-peer is useful because services are distributed across a collection of peers, 
 rather than having a single, centralized server. Peer-to-peer provides fault tolerance 
 and redundancy. Also, because peers constantly migrate, they can provide a level of 
 security over a server that always exists at a known location on the Internet. 
 Peer-to-peer systems can also potentially provide higher network bandwidth because you 
 can collectively use all the bandwidth of peers, rather than the single bandwidth that 
 is available to a single server. 

1.18 Describe some distributed applications that would be appropriate for a 
peer-to-peer system. 
    Essentially anything that provides content, in addition to existing services such 
as file services, distributed directory services such as domain name services, and 
distributed e-mail services.

1.19 Identify several advantages and several disadvantages of open-source operating 
systems. Include the types of people who would find each aspect to be an advantage or 
a disadvantage. 
    Open source operating systems have the advantages of having many people working 
on them, many people debugging them, ease of access and distribution, and rapid update 
cycles. Further, for students and programmers, there is certainly an advantage to being 
able to view and modify the source code. Typically open source operating systems are 
free for some forms of use, usually just requiring payment for support services. 
Commercial operating system companies usually do not like the competition that open source 
operating systems bring because these features are difficult to compete against. Some 
open source operating systems do not offer paid support programs. Some companies avoid 
open source projects because they need paid support, so that they have some entity to 
hold accountable if there is a problem or they need help fixing an issue. Finally, 
some complain that a lack of discipline in the coding of open source operating systems 
means that backward compatibility is lacking making upgrades difficult, and that the 
release cycle exacerbates these issues by forcing users to upgrade frequently.