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水洼 POJ2386 挑战程序设计竞赛

1.题目原文

Lake Counting
Time Limit: 1000MS   Memory Limit: 65536K
Total Submissions: 30088   Accepted: 15038

Description

Due to recent rains, water has pooled in various places in Farmer John's field, which is represented by a rectangle of N x M (1 <= N <= 100; 1 <= M <= 100) squares. Each square contains either water ('W') or dry land ('.'). Farmer John would like to figure out how many ponds have formed in his field. A pond is a connected set of squares with water in them, where a square is considered adjacent to all eight of its neighbors. 

Given a diagram of Farmer John's field, determine how many ponds he has.

Input

* Line 1: Two space-separated integers: N and M 

* Lines 2..N+1: M characters per line representing one row of Farmer John's field. Each character is either 'W' or '.'. The characters do not have spaces between them.

Output

* Line 1: The number of ponds in Farmer John's field.

Sample Input

10 12
W........WW.
.WWW.....WWW
....WW...WW.
.........WW.
.........W..
..W......W..
.W.W.....WW.
W.W.W.....W.
.W.W......W.
..W.......W.

Sample Output

3

Hint

OUTPUT DETAILS: 

There are three ponds: one in the upper left, one in the lower left,and one along the right side.

Source

2.解题思路

采用深度优先搜索,从任意的w开始,不断把邻接的部分用'.'代替,1次DFS后与初始这个w连接的所有w就全都被替换成'.',因此直到图中不再存在W为止,总共进行DFS的次数就是答案。8个方向对应8个状态转移,每个格子作为DFS的参数最多调用一次,因此时间复杂度为O(8nm)=O(nm)。

3.AC代码

#include <iostream>
#include<cstdio>
using namespace std;
#define maxn 105
char field[maxn][maxn];
int n,m;
void dfs(int x,int y)
{
    field[x][y]='.';
    //循环遍历八个方向
    for(int dx=-1;dx<=1;dx++){
        for(int dy=-1;dy<=1;dy++){
            int nx=x+dx,ny=y+dy;
            //判断(nx,ny)是否在园子里,以及是否有积水
            if(0<=nx&&nx<n&&0<=ny&&ny<m&&field[nx][ny]=='W'){
                dfs(nx,ny);
            }
        }
    }
}
void solve()
{
    int res=0;
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
        for(int j=0;j<m;j++){
            if(field[i][j]=='W'){
                //从有积水的地方开始深搜
                dfs(i,j);
                res++;
            }
        }
    }
    printf("%d\n",res);
}
int main()
{
    scanf("%d%d",&n,&m);
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
        for(int j=0;j<m;j++){
            cin>>field[i][j];
        }
    }
    solve();
    return 0;
}

4.类似题目:

题目和上述解法类似,直接贴代码。
#include <iostream>
#include<cstdio>
#include<cstring>
using namespace std;
#define maxn 25
char field[maxn][maxn];
bool mark[maxn][maxn];
int n,m;
int res;
int dx[]={1,-1,0,0};
int dy[]={0,0,1,-1};
void dfs(int x,int y)
{
    res++;
    mark[x][y]=true;
    //循环遍历八个方向
    for(int i=0;i<4;i++){
        int nx=x+dx[i],ny=y+dy[i];
        if(0<=nx&&nx<n&&0<=ny&&ny<m&&field[nx][ny]=='.'&&!mark[nx][ny]){
             //mark[x][y]=true;
             dfs(nx,ny);
        }
    }
}
void solve()
{
    int sx,sy;
    memset(mark,0,sizeof(mark));
    res=0;
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
        for(int j=0;j<m;j++){
            if(field[i][j]=='@'){
                sx=i;
                sy=j;
            }
        }
    }
    mark[sx][sy]=true;
    dfs(sx,sy);
    printf("%d\n",res);
}
int main()
{
    while(cin>>m>>n){
        if(n==0&&m==0) break;
        for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
            for(int j=0;j<m;j++){
                cin>>field[i][j];
            }
        }
        solve();
    }
    return 0;
}



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