Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(measure_map,train/test)5

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Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(IOU,RPN)1
Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(Batch Normalization)2
Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(loss,xml解析)3
Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(roipooling resnet/vgg)4
Keras版Faster-RCNN代码学习(measure_map,train/test)5

mAP

mAP是目标算法中衡量算法的精确度的指标,涉及两个概念:查准率Precision、查全率Recall。对于object detection任务,每一个object都可以计算出其Precision和Recall,多次计算/试验,每个类都 可以得到一条P-R曲线,曲线下的面积就是AP的值,这个mean的意思是对每个类的AP再求平均,得到的就是mAP的值,mAP的大小一定在[0,1]区间。
AP:Precision对Recall积分,可通过改变正负样本阈值求得矩形面积,进而求积分得到,也可以通过sklearn.metrics.average_precision_score函数直接得到。
mAP:每类AP求均值

measure_py

传入预测值和真实值和resize比例,得到可以传入sklearn.metrics.average_precision_score函数的值,即:真实值和预测概率

def get_map(pred, gt, f):
    T = {}
    P = {}
    fx, fy = f

    for bbox in gt:
        bbox['bbox_matched'] = False

    pred_probs = np.array([s['prob'] for s in pred])
    box_idx_sorted_by_prob = np.argsort(pred_probs)[::-1]

    for box_idx in box_idx_sorted_by_prob:
        pred_box = pred[box_idx]
        pred_class = pred_box['class']
        pred_x1 = pred_box['x1']
        pred_x2 = pred_box['x2']
        pred_y1 = pred_box['y1']
        pred_y2 = pred_box['y2']
        pred_prob = pred_box['prob']
        if pred_class not in P:
            P[pred_class] = []
            T[pred_class] = []
        P[pred_class].append(pred_prob)
        found_match = False

        for gt_box in gt:
            gt_class = gt_box['class']
            gt_x1 = gt_box['x1']/fx
            gt_x2 = gt_box['x2']/fx
            gt_y1 = gt_box['y1']/fy
            gt_y2 = gt_box['y2']/fy
            gt_seen = gt_box['bbox_matched']
            if gt_class != pred_class:
                continue
            if gt_seen:
                continue
            iou = data_generators.iou((pred_x1, pred_y1, pred_x2, pred_y2), (gt_x1, gt_y1, gt_x2, gt_y2))
            if iou >= 0.5:
                found_match = True
                gt_box['bbox_matched'] = True
                break
            else:
                continue

        T[pred_class].append(int(found_match))
        #漏检的计入
    for gt_box in gt:
        if not gt_box['bbox_matched'] and not gt_box['difficult']:
            if gt_box['class'] not in P:
                P[gt_box['class']] = []
                T[gt_box['class']] = []

            T[gt_box['class']].append(1)
            P[gt_box['class']].append(0)

    #import pdb
    #pdb.set_trace()
    return T, P

resize比例计算

def format_img(img, C):
    img_min_side = float(C.im_size)
    (height,width,_) = img.shape

    if width <= height:
        f = img_min_side/width
        new_height = int(f * height)
        new_width = int(img_min_side)
    else:
        f = img_min_side/height
        new_width = int(f * width)
        new_height = int(img_min_side)
    fx = width/float(new_width)
    fy = height/float(new_height)
    img = cv2.resize(img, (new_width, new_height), interpolation=cv2.INTER_CUBIC)
    img = img[:, :, (2, 1, 0)]
    img = img.astype(np.float32)
    img[:, :, 0] -= C.img_channel_mean[0]
    img[:, :, 1] -= C.img_channel_mean[1]
    img[:, :, 2] -= C.img_channel_mean[2]
    img /= C.img_scaling_factor
    img = np.transpose(img, (2, 0, 1))
    img = np.expand_dims(img, axis=0)
    return img, fx, fy

然后搭建网络,载入权重,传递参数,计算mAP~~

train_frcnn

from __future__ import division
import random
import pprint
import sys
import time
import numpy as np
from optparse import OptionParser
import pickle

from keras import backend as K
from keras.optimizers import Adam, SGD, RMSprop
from keras.layers import Input
from keras.models import Model
from keras_frcnn import config, data_generators
from keras_frcnn import losses as losses
import keras_frcnn.roi_helpers as roi_helpers
from keras.utils import generic_utils

sys.setrecursionlimit(40000)

parser = OptionParser()

parser.add_option("-p", "--path", dest="train_path", help="Path to training data.")
parser.add_option("-o", "--parser", dest="parser", help="Parser to use. One of simple or pascal_voc",
                default="pascal_voc")
parser.add_option("-n", "--num_rois", type="int", dest="num_rois", help="Number of RoIs to process at once.", default=32)
parser.add_option("--network", dest="network", help="Base network to use. Supports vgg or resnet50.", default='resnet50')
parser.add_option("--hf", dest="horizontal_flips", help="Augment with horizontal flips in training. (Default=false).", action="store_true", default=False)
parser.add_option("--vf", dest="vertical_flips", help="Augment with vertical flips in training. (Default=false).", action="store_true", default=False)
parser.add_option("--rot", "--rot_90", dest="rot_90", help="Augment with 90 degree rotations in training. (Default=false).",
                  action="store_true", default=False)
parser.add_option("--num_epochs", type="int", dest="num_epochs", help="Number of epochs.", default=2000)
parser.add_option("--config_filename", dest="config_filename", help=
                "Location to store all the metadata related to the training (to be used when testing).",
                default="config.pickle")
parser.add_option("--output_weight_path", dest="output_weight_path", help="Output path for weights.", default='./model_frcnn.hdf5')
parser.add_option("--input_weight_path", dest="input_weight_path", help="Input path for weights. If not specified, will try to load default weights provided by keras.")

(options, args) = parser.parse_args()

if not options.train_path:   # if filename is not given
    parser.error('Error: path to training data must be specified. Pass --path to command line')

if options.parser == 'pascal_voc':
    from keras_frcnn.pascal_voc_parser import get_data
elif options.parser == 'simple':
    from keras_frcnn.simple_parser import get_data
else:
    raise ValueError("Command line option parser must be one of 'pascal_voc' or 'simple'")

# pass the settings from the command line, and persist them in the config object
C = config.Config()

C.use_horizontal_flips = bool(options.horizontal_flips)
C.use_vertical_flips = bool(options.vertical_flips)
C.rot_90 = bool(options.rot_90)

C.model_path = options.output_weight_path
C.num_rois = int(options.num_rois)

if options.network == 'vgg':
    C.network = 'vgg'
    from keras_frcnn import vgg as nn
elif options.network == 'resnet50':
    from keras_frcnn import resnet as nn
    C.network = 'resnet50'
else:
    print('Not a valid model')
    raise ValueError


# check if weight path was passed via command line
if options.input_weight_path:
    C.base_net_weights = options.input_weight_path
else:
    # set the path to weights based on backend and model
    C.base_net_weights = nn.get_weight_path()

all_imgs, classes_count, class_mapping = get_data(options.train_path)

if 'bg' not in classes_count:
    classes_count['bg'] = 0
    class_mapping['bg'] = len(class_mapping)

C.class_mapping = class_mapping

inv_map = {v: k for k, v in class_mapping.items()}

print('Training images per class:')
pprint.pprint(classes_count)
print('Num classes (including bg) = {}'.format(len(classes_count)))

config_output_filename = options.config_filename

with open(config_output_filename, 'wb') as config_f:
    pickle.dump(C,config_f)
    print('Config has been written to {}, and can be loaded when testing to ensure correct results'.format(config_output_filename))

random.shuffle(all_imgs)

num_imgs = len(all_imgs)

train_imgs = [s for s in all_imgs if s['imageset'] == 'trainval']
val_imgs = [s for s in all_imgs if s['imageset'] == 'test']

print('Num train samples {}'.format(len(train_imgs)))
print('Num val samples {}'.format(len(val_imgs)))


data_gen_train = data_generators.get_anchor_gt(train_imgs, classes_count, C, nn.get_img_output_length, K.image_dim_ordering(), mode='train')
data_gen_val = data_generators.get_anchor_gt(val_imgs, classes_count, C, nn.get_img_output_length,K.image_dim_ordering(), mode='val')

if K.image_dim_ordering() == 'th':
    input_shape_img = (3, None, None)
else:
    input_shape_img = (None, None, 3)

img_input = Input(shape=input_shape_img)
roi_input = Input(shape=(None, 4))

# define the base network (resnet here, can be VGG, Inception, etc)
shared_layers = nn.nn_base(img_input, trainable=True)

# define the RPN, built on the base layers
num_anchors = len(C.anchor_box_scales) * len(C.anchor_box_ratios)
rpn = nn.rpn(shared_layers, num_anchors)

classifier = nn.classifier(shared_layers, roi_input, C.num_rois, nb_classes=len(classes_count), trainable=True)

model_rpn = Model(img_input, rpn[:2])
model_classifier = Model([img_input, roi_input], classifier)

# this is a model that holds both the RPN and the classifier, used to load/save weights for the models
model_all = Model([img_input, roi_input], rpn[:2] + classifier)

try:
    print('loading weights from {}'.format(C.base_net_weights))
    model_rpn.load_weights(C.base_net_weights, by_name=True)
    model_classifier.load_weights(C.base_net_weights, by_name=True)
except:
    print('Could not load pretrained model weights. Weights can be found in the keras application folder \
        https://github.com/fchollet/keras/tree/master/keras/applications')

optimizer = Adam(lr=1e-5)
optimizer_classifier = Adam(lr=1e-5)
model_rpn.compile(optimizer=optimizer, loss=[losses.rpn_loss_cls(num_anchors), losses.rpn_loss_regr(num_anchors)])
model_classifier.compile(optimizer=optimizer_classifier, loss=[losses.class_loss_cls, losses.class_loss_regr(len(classes_count)-1)], metrics={'dense_class_{}'.format(len(classes_count)): 'accuracy'})
model_all.compile(optimizer='sgd', loss='mae')

epoch_length = 1000
num_epochs = int(options.num_epochs)
iter_num = 0

losses = np.zeros((epoch_length, 5))
rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor = []
rpn_accuracy_for_epoch = []
start_time = time.time()

best_loss = np.Inf

class_mapping_inv = {v: k for k, v in class_mapping.items()}
print('Starting training')

vis = True

for epoch_num in range(num_epochs):

    progbar = generic_utils.Progbar(epoch_length)
    print('Epoch {}/{}'.format(epoch_num + 1, num_epochs))

    while True:
        try:

            if len(rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor) == epoch_length and C.verbose:
                mean_overlapping_bboxes = float(sum(rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor))/len(rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor)
                rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor = []
                print('Average number of overlapping bounding boxes from RPN = {} for {} previous iterations'.format(mean_overlapping_bboxes, epoch_length))
                if mean_overlapping_bboxes == 0:
                    print('RPN is not producing bounding boxes that overlap the ground truth boxes. Check RPN settings or keep training.')

            X, Y, img_data = next(data_gen_train)

            loss_rpn = model_rpn.train_on_batch(X, Y)

            P_rpn = model_rpn.predict_on_batch(X)

            R = roi_helpers.rpn_to_roi(P_rpn[0], P_rpn[1], C, K.image_dim_ordering(), use_regr=True, overlap_thresh=0.7, max_boxes=300)
            # note: calc_iou converts from (x1,y1,x2,y2) to (x,y,w,h) format
            X2, Y1, Y2, IouS = roi_helpers.calc_iou(R, img_data, C, class_mapping)

            if X2 is None:
                rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor.append(0)
                rpn_accuracy_for_epoch.append(0)
                continue

            neg_samples = np.where(Y1[0, :, -1] == 1)
            pos_samples = np.where(Y1[0, :, -1] == 0)

            if len(neg_samples) > 0:
                neg_samples = neg_samples[0]
            else:
                neg_samples = []

            if len(pos_samples) > 0:
                pos_samples = pos_samples[0]
            else:
                pos_samples = []

            rpn_accuracy_rpn_monitor.append(len(pos_samples))
            rpn_accuracy_for_epoch.append((len(pos_samples)))

            if C.num_rois > 1:
                if len(pos_samples) < C.num_rois//2:
                    selected_pos_samples = pos_samples.tolist()
                else:
                    selected_pos_samples = np.random.choice(pos_samples, C.num_rois//2, replace=False).tolist()
                try:
                    selected_neg_samples = np.random.choice(neg_samples, C.num_rois - len(selected_pos_samples), replace=False).tolist()
                except:
                    selected_neg_samples = np.random.choice(neg_samples, C.num_rois - len(selected_pos_samples), replace=True).tolist()

                sel_samples = selected_pos_samples + selected_neg_samples
            else:
                # in the extreme case where num_rois = 1, we pick a random pos or neg sample
                selected_pos_samples = pos_samples.tolist()
                selected_neg_samples = neg_samples.tolist()
                if np.random.randint(0, 2):
                    sel_samples = random.choice(neg_samples)
                else:
                    sel_samples = random.choice(pos_samples)

            loss_class = model_classifier.train_on_batch([X, X2[:, sel_samples, :]], [Y1[:, sel_samples, :], Y2[:, sel_samples, :]])

            losses[iter_num, 0] = loss_rpn[1]
            losses[iter_num, 1] = loss_rpn[2]

            losses[iter_num, 2] = loss_class[1]
            losses[iter_num, 3] = loss_class[2]
            losses[iter_num, 4] = loss_class[3]

            iter_num += 1

            progbar.update(iter_num, [('rpn_cls', np.mean(losses[:iter_num, 0])), ('rpn_regr', np.mean(losses[:iter_num, 1])),
                                      ('detector_cls', np.mean(losses[:iter_num, 2])), ('detector_regr', np.mean(losses[:iter_num, 3]))])

            if iter_num == epoch_length:
                loss_rpn_cls = np.mean(losses[:, 0])
                loss_rpn_regr = np.mean(losses[:, 1])
                loss_class_cls = np.mean(losses[:, 2])
                loss_class_regr = np.mean(losses[:, 3])
                class_acc = np.mean(losses[:, 4])

                mean_overlapping_bboxes = float(sum(rpn_accuracy_for_epoch)) / len(rpn_accuracy_for_epoch)
                rpn_accuracy_for_epoch = []

                if C.verbose:
                    print('Mean number of bounding boxes from RPN overlapping ground truth boxes: {}'.format(mean_overlapping_bboxes))
                    print('Classifier accuracy for bounding boxes from RPN: {}'.format(class_acc))
                    print('Loss RPN classifier: {}'.format(loss_rpn_cls))
                    print('Loss RPN regression: {}'.format(loss_rpn_regr))
                    print('Loss Detector classifier: {}'.format(loss_class_cls))
                    print('Loss Detector regression: {}'.format(loss_class_regr))
                    print('Elapsed time: {}'.format(time.time() - start_time))

                curr_loss = loss_rpn_cls + loss_rpn_regr + loss_class_cls + loss_class_regr
                iter_num = 0
                start_time = time.time()

                if curr_loss < best_loss:
                    if C.verbose:
                        print('Total loss decreased from {} to {}, saving weights'.format(best_loss,curr_loss))
                    best_loss = curr_loss
                    model_all.save_weights(C.model_path)

                break

        except Exception as e:
            print('Exception: {}'.format(e))
            continue

print('Training complete, exiting.')

test_frcnn

from __future__ import division
import os
import cv2
import numpy as np
import sys
import pickle
from optparse import OptionParser
import time
from keras_frcnn import config
from keras import backend as K
from keras.layers import Input
from keras.models import Model
from keras_frcnn import roi_helpers

sys.setrecursionlimit(40000)

parser = OptionParser()

parser.add_option("-p", "--path", dest="test_path", help="Path to test data.")
parser.add_option("-n", "--num_rois", type="int", dest="num_rois",
                help="Number of ROIs per iteration. Higher means more memory use.", default=32)
parser.add_option("--config_filename", dest="config_filename", help=
                "Location to read the metadata related to the training (generated when training).",
                default="config.pickle")
parser.add_option("--network", dest="network", help="Base network to use. Supports vgg or resnet50.", default='resnet50')

(options, args) = parser.parse_args()

if not options.test_path:   # if filename is not given
    parser.error('Error: path to test data must be specified. Pass --path to command line')


config_output_filename = options.config_filename

with open(config_output_filename, 'rb') as f_in:
    C = pickle.load(f_in)

if C.network == 'resnet50':
    import keras_frcnn.resnet as nn
elif C.network == 'vgg':
    import keras_frcnn.vgg as nn

# turn off any data augmentation at test time
C.use_horizontal_flips = False
C.use_vertical_flips = False
C.rot_90 = False

img_path = options.test_path

def format_img_size(img, C):
    """ formats the image size based on config """
    img_min_side = float(C.im_size)
    (height,width,_) = img.shape

    if width <= height:
        ratio = img_min_side/width
        new_height = int(ratio * height)
        new_width = int(img_min_side)
    else:
        ratio = img_min_side/height
        new_width = int(ratio * width)
        new_height = int(img_min_side)
    img = cv2.resize(img, (new_width, new_height), interpolation=cv2.INTER_CUBIC)
    return img, ratio   

def format_img_channels(img, C):
    """ formats the image channels based on config """
    img = img[:, :, (2, 1, 0)]
    img = img.astype(np.float32)
    img[:, :, 0] -= C.img_channel_mean[0]
    img[:, :, 1] -= C.img_channel_mean[1]
    img[:, :, 2] -= C.img_channel_mean[2]
    img /= C.img_scaling_factor
    img = np.transpose(img, (2, 0, 1))
    img = np.expand_dims(img, axis=0)
    return img

def format_img(img, C):
    """ formats an image for model prediction based on config """
    img, ratio = format_img_size(img, C)
    img = format_img_channels(img, C)
    return img, ratio

# Method to transform the coordinates of the bounding box to its original size
def get_real_coordinates(ratio, x1, y1, x2, y2):

    real_x1 = int(round(x1 // ratio))
    real_y1 = int(round(y1 // ratio))
    real_x2 = int(round(x2 // ratio))
    real_y2 = int(round(y2 // ratio))

    return (real_x1, real_y1, real_x2 ,real_y2)

class_mapping = C.class_mapping

if 'bg' not in class_mapping:
    class_mapping['bg'] = len(class_mapping)

class_mapping = {v: k for k, v in class_mapping.items()}
print(class_mapping)
class_to_color = {class_mapping[v]: np.random.randint(0, 255, 3) for v in class_mapping}
C.num_rois = int(options.num_rois)

if C.network == 'resnet50':
    num_features = 1024
elif C.network == 'vgg':
    num_features = 512

if K.image_dim_ordering() == 'th':
    input_shape_img = (3, None, None)
    input_shape_features = (num_features, None, None)
else:
    input_shape_img = (None, None, 3)
    input_shape_features = (None, None, num_features)


img_input = Input(shape=input_shape_img)
roi_input = Input(shape=(C.num_rois, 4))
feature_map_input = Input(shape=input_shape_features)

# define the base network (resnet here, can be VGG, Inception, etc)
shared_layers = nn.nn_base(img_input, trainable=True)

# define the RPN, built on the base layers
num_anchors = len(C.anchor_box_scales) * len(C.anchor_box_ratios)
rpn_layers = nn.rpn(shared_layers, num_anchors)

classifier = nn.classifier(feature_map_input, roi_input, C.num_rois, nb_classes=len(class_mapping), trainable=True)

model_rpn = Model(img_input, rpn_layers)
model_classifier_only = Model([feature_map_input, roi_input], classifier)

model_classifier = Model([feature_map_input, roi_input], classifier)

print('Loading weights from {}'.format(C.model_path))
model_rpn.load_weights(C.model_path, by_name=True)
model_classifier.load_weights(C.model_path, by_name=True)

model_rpn.compile(optimizer='sgd', loss='mse')
model_classifier.compile(optimizer='sgd', loss='mse')

all_imgs = []

classes = {}

bbox_threshold = 0.8

visualise = True

for idx, img_name in enumerate(sorted(os.listdir(img_path))):
    if not img_name.lower().endswith(('.bmp', '.jpeg', '.jpg', '.png', '.tif', '.tiff')):
        continue
    print(img_name)
    st = time.time()
    filepath = os.path.join(img_path,img_name)

    img = cv2.imread(filepath)

    X, ratio = format_img(img, C)

    if K.image_dim_ordering() == 'tf':
        X = np.transpose(X, (0, 2, 3, 1))

    # get the feature maps and output from the RPN
    [Y1, Y2, F] = model_rpn.predict(X)


    R = roi_helpers.rpn_to_roi(Y1, Y2, C, K.image_dim_ordering(), overlap_thresh=0.7)

    # convert from (x1,y1,x2,y2) to (x,y,w,h)
    R[:, 2] -= R[:, 0]
    R[:, 3] -= R[:, 1]

    # apply the spatial pyramid pooling to the proposed regions
    bboxes = {}
    probs = {}

    for jk in range(R.shape[0]//C.num_rois + 1):
        ROIs = np.expand_dims(R[C.num_rois*jk:C.num_rois*(jk+1), :], axis=0)
        if ROIs.shape[1] == 0:
            break

        if jk == R.shape[0]//C.num_rois:
            #pad R
            curr_shape = ROIs.shape
            target_shape = (curr_shape[0],C.num_rois,curr_shape[2])
            ROIs_padded = np.zeros(target_shape).astype(ROIs.dtype)
            ROIs_padded[:, :curr_shape[1], :] = ROIs
            ROIs_padded[0, curr_shape[1]:, :] = ROIs[0, 0, :]
            ROIs = ROIs_padded

        [P_cls, P_regr] = model_classifier_only.predict([F, ROIs])

        for ii in range(P_cls.shape[1]):

            if np.max(P_cls[0, ii, :]) < bbox_threshold or np.argmax(P_cls[0, ii, :]) == (P_cls.shape[2] - 1):
                continue

            cls_name = class_mapping[np.argmax(P_cls[0, ii, :])]

            if cls_name not in bboxes:
                bboxes[cls_name] = []
                probs[cls_name] = []

            (x, y, w, h) = ROIs[0, ii, :]

            cls_num = np.argmax(P_cls[0, ii, :])
            try:
                (tx, ty, tw, th) = P_regr[0, ii, 4*cls_num:4*(cls_num+1)]
                tx /= C.classifier_regr_std[0]
                ty /= C.classifier_regr_std[1]
                tw /= C.classifier_regr_std[2]
                th /= C.classifier_regr_std[3]
                x, y, w, h = roi_helpers.apply_regr(x, y, w, h, tx, ty, tw, th)
            except:
                pass
            bboxes[cls_name].append([C.rpn_stride*x, C.rpn_stride*y, C.rpn_stride*(x+w), C.rpn_stride*(y+h)])
            probs[cls_name].append(np.max(P_cls[0, ii, :]))

    all_dets = []

    for key in bboxes:
        bbox = np.array(bboxes[key])

        new_boxes, new_probs = roi_helpers.non_max_suppression_fast(bbox, np.array(probs[key]), overlap_thresh=0.5)
        for jk in range(new_boxes.shape[0]):
            (x1, y1, x2, y2) = new_boxes[jk,:]

            (real_x1, real_y1, real_x2, real_y2) = get_real_coordinates(ratio, x1, y1, x2, y2)

            cv2.rectangle(img,(real_x1, real_y1), (real_x2, real_y2), (int(class_to_color[key][0]), int(class_to_color[key][1]), int(class_to_color[key][2])),2)

            textLabel = '{}: {}'.format(key,int(100*new_probs[jk]))
            all_dets.append((key,100*new_probs[jk]))

            (retval,baseLine) = cv2.getTextSize(textLabel,cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_COMPLEX,1,1)
            textOrg = (real_x1, real_y1-0)

            cv2.rectangle(img, (textOrg[0] - 5, textOrg[1]+baseLine - 5), (textOrg[0]+retval[0] + 5, textOrg[1]-retval[1] - 5), (0, 0, 0), 2)
            cv2.rectangle(img, (textOrg[0] - 5,textOrg[1]+baseLine - 5), (textOrg[0]+retval[0] + 5, textOrg[1]-retval[1] - 5), (255, 255, 255), -1)
            cv2.putText(img, textLabel, textOrg, cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_DUPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 0), 1)

    print('Elapsed time = {}'.format(time.time() - st))
    print(all_dets)
    cv2.imshow('img', img)
    cv2.waitKey(0)
    # cv2.imwrite('./results_imgs/{}.png'.format(idx),img)

在train_frcnn中,保存了配置信息config.pickle,后续分类网络送入1:1的正负样本
在test_frcnn中,后续的分类网络全部为正样本
纵观整个keras代码,相较tensorflow版本,代码量小了很多,虽然一些代码写的繁琐(看起来有点绕,比如:IOU计算写了2遍,还有一些多余的转换),不过作为keras入手目标检测是相当不错的选择,对一些细节有了更深的把握~

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