3分钟了解什么是区块链中的DAO?

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很多人在讨论数字货币和区块链的时候,经常会将比特币、以太坊、或者某个项目称为DAO,而又听说有个叫DAO的众筹项目被黑客攻击,为什么有两个DAO?这两个DAO是一回事情吗?那么到底什么是DAO,让我来和大家解释一下。 


其实,这两个DAO是不一样的,前面说的DAO,是“分布式自治组织”(Distributed Autonomous Organization)的缩写,这是一种基于区块链的组织结构形式。而后面说的DAO仅仅是一个基于以太坊区块链的项目名称。为了区分这两个DAO,一般称第二个DAO为“the DAO”。 


DAO有时候也被称为DAC(Distributed Autonomous Corporation),意思是“分布式自治公司”,和DAO的含义差不多。无论是DAO还是DAC,都是指通过一系列公开公正的规则,可以在无人干预和管理的情况下自主运行的组织形式。这些规则往往会以开源软件的形式出现,每个人都可以通过购买该组织的股份权益,或者提供服务的形式来成为该组织的参与者。 


从某种角度来看,DAO就像一个全自动的机器人,当它全部的程序设定完成后,它就会按照既定的规则开始运作。值得一提的是,在运作的过程中,它还可以根据实际情况不断的自我维护和升级,通过不断的自我完善来适合它周围的环境。


事实上,DAO的形态非常广泛,它可能是某种数字货币,也可能是一个系统或者机构,甚至可能是无人驾驶汽车。他们为客户提供有价值的服务。这种服务可以是货币传输(如Bitcoin),应用平台(Ethereum),域名管理系统(Namecoin),或者是任意一种其他商业模式,这些商业模式显然更像是特定机构的股票而不是单一的货币。每个DAO都有其自己的条款和条件。你将永远有权查看你拥有的、可支配的、数字货币形式的DAO股份,并且有可能从中获得股息。


比特币和以太坊就是典型的DAO,绝大多数的规则都是公开透明的,如数量上限,竞争记账的共识方式和规则等,你从某种程度可以将它看成一个没有人控制的支付机构,而每个拥有比特币或以太币的人都会是该机构的股东,而那些矿工和开发者也通过贡献自己的服务成为该机构的参与者,当该机构被越多的人需要时,他们持有的股份权益就有可能会增值,增值之后他们就可以分享机构的收益,参与机构的成长。


总结地说,DAO是一种全新的机构形态,可能是未来互联网上组织形态的雏形,不受任何单个人的控制却有明确的目标,能够自己进化和发展。


What is DAO


When it comes to digital currencies and blockchain, it is often referred to a DAO for a certain project like bitcoin or ethereum. And you may have heard of the crowdfunding program called The DAO, which was hacked recently.So, Is it the same with DAO mentioned just now? What exactly DAO is remains a question that has refused so many people. Now I would like to give you an explanation.


Actually, there are differences between these two concepts. The former DAO is short for Distributed Autonomous Organizatio, a blockchain-based structure. The latter DAO is just the name of an ethereum-based blockchain program which is called The DAO generally to differentiate the two DAO. 


Sometimes we also call DAO as DAC, that is a Distributed Autonomous Corporation, similar to DAO. No matter it is a DAO or a DAC, it’s an organization that runs automatically without human intervention and management by a set of fair and open rules. These rules are usually appeared in open-sourced software, where everyone can become the participant in this organization through holding its share equities or providing services.


To some extent, DAO is more like a fully automatic robot. Once the program is set, the robot will start to operate in compliance with the established rules. And during the operation, it can also maintain and upgrade by itself continuously according to real  conditions around it, and enhance itself unceasingly to get adjusted to its surrounding. 


In fact, DAO has a broad explanation of its formation. It could be a digital currency, a system, an institute, or even a self-driving car. They offer services with values which could be money transfer like Bitcoin, application like Ethereum, domain name management system like Namecoin, or other business modes except being taken as a kind of digital currency. In a sense, it is more like the equity to those specific institutions. Each DAO has its own terms and conditions. You can always check the DAO shares you hold, which are disposable in the form of digital currency, and earn dividends from it.


Bitcoin and Ethereum are two typical DAOs, with a most rules like the upward bound of quantity, consensus algorithms and other rules are all open and transparent. So that you can see it as payment institution without man control in some way and everyone that holds bitcoins or ethers could be the shareholder of this institution. Those miners and developers can also become participant. When the demand in the institution increases, the value of the shares they hold rises. Besides, they can also share its profits and grow in line with the institution at the same time.


With that saying, DAO is a brandnew pattern for institution and could be an early form of online organization in the future, which has definite goals and can evolve and develop all by itself without being controlled by any individual.


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