【php手册:类与对象】对象和引用

版权声明:本文为ywcmoon原创文章,未经允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/qq_39251267/article/details/79977644

对象和引用

PHP 的引用是别名,就是两个不同的变量名字指向相同的内容。
在 PHP 5,一个对象变量已经不再保存整个对象的值。只是保存一个标识符来访问真正的对象内容。 当对象作为参数传递,作为结果返回,或者赋值给另外一个变量,另外一个变量跟原来的不是引用的关系,只是他们都保存着同一个标识符的拷贝,这个标识符指向同一个对象的真正内容。

Example #1 引用和对象

<?php
class A {
    public $foo = 1;
}  

$a = new A;
$b = $a;     // $a ,$b都是同一个标识符的拷贝
             // ($a) = ($b) = <id>
$b->foo = 2;
echo $a->foo."\n";


$c = new A;
$d = &$c;    // $c ,$d是引用
             // ($c,$d) = <id>

$d->foo = 2;
echo $c->foo."\n";


$e = new A;

function foo($obj) {
    // ($obj) = ($e) = <id>
    $obj->foo = 2;
}

foo($e);
echo $e->foo."\n";

?>

User Contributed Notes

/*
Notes on reference:
A reference is not a pointer. However, an object handle IS a pointer. Example:
*/

<?php
class Foo {
  private static $used;
  private $id;
  public function __construct() {
    $id = $used++;
  }
  public function __clone() {
    $id = $used++;
  }
}

$a = new Foo; // $a is a pointer pointing to Foo object 0
$b = $a; // $b is a pointer pointing to Foo object 0, however, $b is a copy of $a
$c = &$a; // $c and $a are now references of a pointer pointing to Foo object 0
$a = new Foo; // $a and $c are now references of a pointer pointing to Foo object 1, $b is still a pointer pointing to Foo object 0
unset($a); // A reference with reference count 1 is automatically converted back to a value. Now $c is a pointer to Foo object 1
$a = &$b; // $a and $b are now references of a pointer pointing to Foo object 0
$a = NULL; // $a and $b now become a reference to NULL. Foo object 0 can be garbage collected now
unset($b); // $b no longer exists and $a is now NULL
$a = clone $c; // $a is now a pointer to Foo object 2, $c remains a pointer to Foo object 1
unset($c); // Foo object 1 can be garbage collected now.
$c = $a; // $c and $a are pointers pointing to Foo object 2
unset($a); // Foo object 2 is still pointed by $c
$a = &$c; // Foo object 2 has 1 pointers pointing to it only, that pointer has 2 references: $a and $c;
const ABC = TRUE;
if(ABC) {
  $a = NULL; // Foo object 2 can be garbage collected now because $a and $c are now a reference to the same NULL value
} else {
  unset($a); // Foo object 2 is still pointed to $c
}

<?php

//The two are meant to be the same
$a = "Clark Kent"; //a==Clark Kent
$b = &$a; //The two will now share the same fate.

$b="Superman"; // $a=="Superman" too.
echo $a; 
echo $a="Clark Kent"; // $b=="Clark Kent" too.
unset($b); // $b divorced from $a
$b="Bizarro";
echo $a; // $a=="Clark Kent" still, since $b is a free agent pointer now.

//The two are NOT meant to be the same.
$c="King";
$d="Pretender to the Throne";
echo $c."\n"; // $c=="King"
echo $d."\n"; // $d=="Pretender to the Throne"
swapByValue($c, $d);
echo $c."\n"; // $c=="King"
echo $d."\n"; // $d=="Pretender to the Throne"
swapByRef($c, $d);
echo $c."\n"; // $c=="Pretender to the Throne"
echo $d."\n"; // $d=="King"

function swapByValue($x, $y){
$temp=$x;
$x=$y;
$y=$temp;
//All this beautiful work will disappear
//because it was done on COPIES of pointers.
//The originals pointers still point as they did.
}

function swapByRef(&$x, &$y){
$temp=$x;
$x=$y;
$y=$temp;
//Note the parameter list: now we switched 'em REAL good.
}

?>
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