2020-11-17

Trust is a tricky business.
信任是件棘手的事。

On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition for many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc.
一方面,这是许多有价值的事情的必要条件:照顾孩子、交朋友等等。

On the other hand, putting your faith, in the wrong place often carries a high price.
另一方面,把你的信仰放在错误的地方往往会付出高昂的代价。

Then, why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good.
那么,我们为什么要信任呢?因为感觉很好。

When people place their trust in an individual or an institution,
当人们信任个人或机构时,

their brains release oxytocin,
他们的大脑释放催产素,

a hormone that produces peasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to connect with one another.
一种荷尔蒙,能产生可繁殖的感觉,并触发促使人类相互联系的放牧指令。

Scientists have found that exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting mood:
科学家发现,接触这种激素会让我们产生一种信任的情绪:

In a Swiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects;
在瑞士的一项研究中,研究人员将催产素喷到一半受试者的鼻子里;

those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their counterparts who inhaled something else.
这些受试者愿意借给陌生人的钱要比吸入其他东西的人高得多。

Lucky for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may protect us.
幸运的是,我们对不诚实也有第六感,可以保护我们。

A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate between a credible person and a dishonest one.
加拿大的一项研究发现,14个月大的孩子可以区分可信的人和不诚实的人。

Sixty toddlers were each introduced to an adult tester holding a plastic container.
60名幼儿被介绍给一名手持塑料容器的成人测试仪。

The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking into the container,
测试人员会问:“这里有什么?”在检查容器之前,

smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look inside.
笑着说,“哇!”然后每个受试者都被邀请去看里面。

Half of them found a toy; the other half discovered the container was empty—and realized the tester had fooled them.
他们中的一半找到了一个玩具;另一半发现容器是空的,并意识到测试人员欺骗了他们。

Among the children who had not been tricked,
在没有被骗的孩子中,

the majority were willing to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill,
大多数人愿意配合测试人员学习新技能,

demonstrating that they trusted his leadership.
证明他们信任他的领导。

In contrast, only five of the 30 children paired with the “unreliable” tester participated in a follow-up activity.
相比之下,30名与“不可靠”测试者配对的儿童中只有5名参加了后续活动。

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