大学英语综合教程二 Unit 1 到Unit 8 课文内容英译中 中英翻译

大学英语综合教程二 Unit 1 到Unit 8 课文内容英译中 中英翻译

 

  大家好,我叫亓官劼(qí guān jié ),在CSDN中记录学习的点滴历程,时光荏苒,未来可期,加油~博客地址为:亓官劼的博客

本文原创为亓官劼,请大家支持原创,部分平台一直在盗取博主的文章!!!

博主目前仅在CSDN中写博客,唯一博客更新的地址为:亓官劼的博客

文本为博主整理翻译所得,送给有需要的小伙伴,还有综合教程一到4的课文文本翻译,后续陆续整理更新,都是之前学习时使用的一些资料,最近在整理电脑时发现的。

如果有需要可以收藏,全部更新完之后,会在本文内加入各个单元翻译的链接

大学英语 综合教程 一到四 课文文章翻译 英译中 所有文章的目录导航为:大学英语 综合教程 一到四 课文文章翻译 英译中 目录导航  

导航的博客地址为:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_43422111/article/details/105754423 有需要有去查看

Book II Unit 1 Learning, Chinese Style

中国式的学习风格

Howard Gardner

 

1     For a month in the spring of 1987, my wife Ellen and I lived in the bustling eastern Chinese city of Nanjing with our 18-month-old son Benjamin while studying arts education in Chinese kindergartens and elementary schools. But one of the most telling lessons Ellen and I got in the difference between Chinese and American ideas of education came not in the classroom but in the lobby of the Jinling Hotel where we stayed in Nanjing.

      1987年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中美教育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大堂。

2     The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel, a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it.

      我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙,可以交给服务员,也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱。由于口子狭小,你得留神将钥匙放准位置才塞得进去。

3    Benjamin loved to carry the key around, shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to place it into the slot. Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot.

      本杰明爱拿着钥匙走来走去,边走边用力摇晃着。他还喜欢试着把钥匙往槽口里塞。由于他还年幼,不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成,因此总塞不进去。本杰明一点也不在意。他从钥匙声响中得到的乐趣大概跟他偶尔把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的乐趣一样多。

4     Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would hold onto Benjamin's hand and, gently but firmly, guide it directly toward the slot, reposition it as necessary, and help him to insert it. The "teacher" would then smile somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me, as if awaiting a thank you ─ and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to be neglecting our parental duties.

      我和埃伦都满不在乎,任由本杰明拿着钥匙在钥匙的槽口鼓捣。他的探索行为似乎并无任何害处。但我很快就观察到一个有趣的现象。饭店里任何一个中国工作人员若在近旁,都会走过来看着本杰明,见他初试失败,便都会试图帮忙。他们会轻轻握紧本杰明的手,直接将它引向钥匙的槽口,进行必要的重新定位,并帮他把钥匙插入槽口。然后那位“老师”会有所期待地对着我和埃伦微笑,似乎等着我们说声谢谢——偶尔他会微微皱眉,似乎觉得我俩没有尽到当父母的责任。

5    I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into my discussions with Chinese educators.      

我很快意识到,这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关 :考察儿童早期教育 (尤其是艺术教育)的方式,揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此,不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。

 

TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN 两种不同的学习方式

 

6    With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever enough to realize the desired action on his own, what possible gain is achieved by having him struggle? He may well get frustrated and angry ─ certainly not a desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner, and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like opening the door or asking for the key ─ both of which accomplishments can (and should) in due course be modeled for him as well.

      我的中国同行,除了少数几个人外,对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是处理槽口一事的最终目的, 既然孩子还很年幼,还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的动作,让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢?他很有可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当然不是所希望的结果。为什么不教他怎么做呢?他会高兴,他还能早些学会做这件事,进而去学做更复杂的事,如开门,或索要钥匙——这两件事到时候同样可以 (也应该)示范给他看。

7    We listened to such explanations sympathetically and explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He was having a good time and was exploring, two activities that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can solve a problem effectively by oneself. Such self-reliance is a principal value of child rearing in middle-class America. So long as the child is shown exactly how to do something ─ whether it be placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a misdeed ─ he is less likely to figure out himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more generally, he is less likely to view life ─ as Americans do ─ as a series of situations in which one has to learn to think for oneself, to solve problems on one's own and even to discover new problems for which creative solutions are wanted.

      我俩颇为同情地听着这一番道理,解释道,首先,我们并不在意本杰明能不能把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口。他玩得开心,而且在探索,这两点才是我们真正看重的。但关键在于,在这个过程中,我们试图让本杰明懂得,一个人是能够很好地自行解决问题的。这种自力更生的精神是美国中产阶级最重要的一条育儿观。如果我们向孩子演示该如何做某件事——把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口也好,画只鸡或是弥补某种错误行为也好——那他就不太可能自行想方设法去完成这件事。从更广泛的意义上说,他就不太可能——如美国人那样——将人生视为一系列的情境,在这些情境中,一个人必须学会独立思考,学会独立解决问题,进而学会发现需要创造性地加以解决的新问题。

  

TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND 把着手教

 

8    In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident was indeed key ─ and key in more than one sense. It pointed to important differences in the educational and artistic practices in our two countries.

      回想起来,当时我就清楚地意识到,这件事正是体现了问题的关键之所在——而且不仅仅是一种意义上的关键之所在。这件事表明了我们两国在教育和艺术实践上的重要差异。

9    When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came to Benjamin's rescue, they did not simply push his hand down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done. Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to realize that these Chinese were not just molding and shaping Benjamin's performance in any old manner: In the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao ─ "teaching by holding his hand" ─ so much so that he would happily come back for more.

      那些善意的中国旁观者前来帮助本杰明时,他们不是简单地像我可能会做的那样笨拙地或是犹犹豫豫地把他的手往下推。相反,他们极其熟练地、温和地把他引向所要到达的确切方向。我逐渐认识到,这些中国人不是简单地以一种陈旧的方式塑造、引导本杰明的行为:他们是在恪守中国传统,把着手教,教得本杰明自己会愉快地要求再来一次。

10    The idea that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding applies equally to the arts. Watching children at work in a classroom setting, we were astonished by their facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old were producing works that could have been displayed in a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young artists, we learned from their parents that they worked on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.

      学习应通过不间断的精心塑造与引导而得以实现,这一观念同样适用于艺术。我们观看了孩子们在教室里学习艺术的情景,他们的娴熟技艺令我们惊讶。年仅5、6岁的孩子就带着成人的那种技巧与自信在画花、画鱼和动物;9岁、10岁的小书法家写出的作品满可以在博物馆展示。有一次去两位小艺术家的家里参观,我们从孩子的父母处得知,他们每天练习数小时以完善他们的技艺。

  

CREATIVITY FIRST? 创造力第一?

 

11    In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a point equally original.

      从对创造力的态度来说,优先次序似乎是颠倒了:西方的年轻人先是大胆创新,然后逐渐深谙传统;而中国的年轻人则几乎离不开传统,但是,随着时间的推移,他们同样可能发展到具有创新的境界。

12    One way of summarizing the American position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can be picked up later.

      美国人的立场可以概括起来这么说,我们比中国人更重视创新和自立。我们两种文化的差异也可以从我们各自所怀的忧虑中显示出来。中国老师担心,如果年轻人不及早掌握技艺,就有可能一辈子掌握不了;另一方面,他们并不同样地急于促进创造力的发展。美国教育工作者则担心,除非从一开始就发展创造力,不然创造力就有可能永不再现;而另一方面,技艺可于日后获得。

13    However, I do not want to overstate my case. There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the "standing on the shoulders of giants" phenomenon).

      但我并不想夸大其辞。无论在过去还是在当今,中国在科学、技术和艺术革新方面都展示了巨大的创造力。而西方的创新突破则有被夸大的危险。如果仔细审视任何一项创新,其对以往成就的依赖则都显而易见(“站在巨人肩膀之上”的现象)。

14    But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?

      然而,假定我这里所说的反差是成立的,而培养技艺与创造力两者都是值得追求的目标,那么重要的问题就在于:我们能否从中美两个极端中寻求一种更好的教育方式,它或许能在创造力与基本技能这两极之间获得某种较好的平衡?

Book II Unit 2 A Life Full of Riches

1.    It was early December 2003, my first season as a Salvation Army bell ringer, when I was confronted with the question. I was standing just outside the doorway of a Wal-Mart, offering a "thank you" and a smile to each person who dropped a donation into my red kettle. A neatly dressed woman and her young son walked up to the kettle stand. While she searched her purse for some cash, the boy looked up at me. I can still see the confusion and curiosity in his eyes as he asked, "Are you poor?"

2.    "Well," I stammered, trying to think, "I have more than some people, but not as much as others." His mother scolded him for the social no-no, and they hurried off to do their shopping. His question, however, did not leave me.

3.    I've never thought of myself as "poor," but I can't deny certain facts. Every time I fill out my 1040 form, I fall into one of the lowest income brackets. In the past 35 years, I've taken just one vacation trip. My TV is a black-and-white set that someone gave me eight years ago.

4.    Yet I feel nothing more than a passing whim to attain the material things so many other people have. My 1999 car shows the wear and tear of 105,000 miles. But it is still dependable. My apartment is modest, but quiet and relaxing. My clothes are well suited to my work, which is primarily outdoors. My minimal computer needs can be met at the library.

5.    In spite of what I don't have, I don't feel poor. Why? I've enjoyed exceptionally good health for 53 years. It's not just that I've been illness-free, it's that I feel vigorous and spirited. Exercising is actually fun for me. I look forward to long, energizing walks. And I love the "can do" attitude that follows.

6.    I also cherish the gift of creativity. When I write a beautiful line of poetry, or fabricate a joke that tickles someone, I feel rich inside. I'm continually surprised at the insights that come through my writing process. And talking with so many interesting writer friends is one of my main sources of enjoyment.

7.    But there is one vital area of my life where I am not so well off. In a society that spends so much emotional energy on the pursuit of possessions, I feel out of place.

8.    When I was younger, there was an exceptionally interesting person I dated. What was most important to her, she told me, was "what's on the inside." I thought I had found someone special to share my life with. Then I took her to see my apartment. At the time, I lived in a basement efficiency with a few pieces of dated furniture. The only new, comfortable chair was the one at my desk. Shortly after her visit, our relationship went straight south.

9.    The seemingly abrupt change in her priorities was jolting. It remains a most memorable turning point in my personal journey.

10.    In contrast to relationships, stuff just doesn't mean that much to me. I think most people feel the same way—except when there are social consequences to not having particular items. There is a commercial on the radio that begins, "Everybody wants a high-end TV …" The pressure to purchase is real. It may be true that everybody wants a high-end TV. After all, nobody wants to be a nobody.

11.    But I'm happy to live without one. In fact, not being focused on material goods feels quite natural to me. There are many people throughout the world who would consider my lifestyle to be affluent.

12.    Near the end of the year, when I put on the Salvation Army's red apron, something changes inside me. Instead of feeling out of place economically, I begin to feel a genuine sense of belonging. As I ring my bell, people stop to share their personal stories of how much it meant to be helped when they were going through a rough time. People helping people is something I feel deeply connected to. While I'm ringing the bell, complete strangers have brought me hot chocolate, leaving me with a lingering smile. Countless individuals have helped to keep me warm with the sentiments of the season: "Thank you for ringing on such a cold day." "Can I get you a cup of coffee?" "Bless you for your good work." December is the time of year I feel wealthiest.

13.    Over the past four years, I've grown to understand more about myself because of a single question from a curious child. As I've examined what it means to be poor, it has become clear to me what I am most thankful for: both my tangible and my intangible good fortune.

富足的一生

 

 1.   首次面对这个问题,是在2003年12月初,我第一次为救世军摇铃募捐的时候。当时我就站在沃尔玛商场入口处门外,对每一位向我的红壶里投入捐款的人都报以一声“谢谢”和一个微笑。一位穿着整洁的妇人牵着她的幼子向放壶的台子走过来。她在钱包里摸着找钱时,孩子抬头看了我一眼, 问我:“你穷吗?”当时他眼里充满疑惑和好奇,时至今日仍历历在目。

  2. “嗯,”我结结巴巴,边想边回答,“我比有些人拥有的多,但比其他人拥有的少。”母亲因为孩子问了一个在社交上不该问的问题,训斥了他一顿,他俩便匆匆的赶去购物。但是孩子的问题却一直留在我的心头挥之不去。

  3. 我从不认为自己“穷”,但有些事实我不可否认。每当我填1040税务申报表时,我都属于收入最低的档次之一。在过去的三十五年中,我只出去度过一次假。我的电视机是黑白的,还是八年前别人送给我的。 

 4.  然而,想要得到其他那么多人都有的物质的东西,对我来说,只不过是转瞬即逝的念头而已。我的汽车是1999年的产品,到现在开了十万五千英里,已经很破很旧了,但是它依然可靠。我的住房不大,但是很安静,住着挺舒心。我的衣服很适合于我的工作,主要都在户外。我对计算机的很少的需求,可以在图书馆得到解决。

  5. 尽管有些东西我没有,我并不感到贫穷。这是为什么?五十三年来我一直非常健康。我不但不生病,而且精力充沛,情绪饱满。锻炼对我而言是确确实实的快事,我乐意长距离步行,越走越有劲。我喜爱步行后随之产生的一种“什么都干得了”的心态。

  6. 我还十分珍惜我的创作才能。当我写出美丽的诗句或编造出能把人逗乐的笑话时,我内心感到很富有。通过写作而获得的洞察力,不断地令我惊奇。而与那么多写作朋友交谈,是我乐趣的主要源泉之一。

  7. 但是在我生活中,有一个重要方面我并不那么富有。在一个对物资财富的追求投入如此之多心力的社会中,我觉得很不自在。

  8. 我年轻时曾与一位非常有趣的女士谈过朋友。她对我说,对她而言,最重要的是“一个人的内心”。我以为我找到了非同一般的生活伴侣。后来我就带她到我的寓所。当时我住的是一个地下室经济型小套间,只有几件陈旧的家具。唯一新而舒适的椅子是书桌旁的那把。她来访后不久,我们的关系就急转直下。

 9. 她所看重的东西似乎突然有了变化,使我大为震动。在我的人生旅途上,这仍然是一个最难以忘怀的转折点。

 10. 相对于人际关系而言,物质财富对我并不那么重要。我认为大多数人与我同感——除非当某一物品的缺失会引发社会后果时,人们才会有不同的想法。电台播放的一个商业广告开头这样说:“每个人都想拥有一台高档电视…”,购买这种电视机的压力千真万确。也许每个人真的都想要一台高档电视机,毕竟没有人想做一个无名之辈

11.   但是没有这样的电视机我也照样活得快乐。事实上不专注于物质财富,对我而言相当自然。在这个世界上有很多人认为我活得很富足。

 12. 临近岁末每当我系上救世军的红围裙时,我的内心会发生变化。我非但不感到经济上不自在,还开始感到一种真正的归属感。我摇铃时,人们会停下脚步,给我讲述他们的故事,讲述他们遇到困难时受到帮助对他们多么重要。我感到我与人助人这件事深深地联系在一起。在我摇铃的时候,从未谋面的陌生人给我拿来热乎乎的巧克力饮料,留给我一个久不消逝的微笑。无数的路人向我表达圣诞节的祝愿,使我感到温暖。“谢谢你在这样的冷天摇铃。”“要不要我给您弄一杯咖啡?”“你做好事,上帝保佑你。”十二月是一年中我感到最富足的时候。

 13. 由于一个好奇的孩子提了一个简单问题,我在过去的四年中对自己的了解进了一步。当我审视贫穷究竟意味着什么时,我清楚了我最应感恩的是什么:我的有形和无形的好运气。

Book II Unit 3 Father Knows Better  

老爸英明

Marsh Cassady

1

CHARACTERS: FATHER; MOTHER; HEIDI, 14; DIANE, 17; SEAN, 16; RESTAURANT MANAGER, 20s; MRS. HIGGINS.

 

SETTING: Various locations including a fast-food restaurant, the Thompson family dining room, and an office at a high school.

 

AT RISE: As the lights come up, HEIDI enters and crosses Down Right to the edge of the stage. SEAN and DIANE enter and cross Down Left to the edge of the stage. They listen as HEIDI addresses the audience.

 

人物: 父亲;母亲;海蒂,14岁;黛安,17岁;肖恩,16岁;饭店经理,20多岁;希金斯太太

场景: 快餐店,汤普森家餐厅,一所中学的办公室等

幕启: 随着灯光亮起,海蒂上,走至舞台右前方。肖恩与黛安上,走至舞台左前方。海蒂对观众说话,两人倾听。

    

2

HEIDI: My dad's a nice man. Nobody could possibly believe that he isn't. Yet he's...well, he's always doing these stupid things that end up really embarrassing one or more of us kids. One time, see, my brother wanted to buy this guitar. Been saving money for it for a long time. Then he got a job at this fast-food place, OK? Waiting tables. It was Sean's first actual job, and he was real happy about it. He figured in two or three months he'd have enough money to buy exactly the kind of guitar he wanted. Mom and Dad were proud of him, and well, OK, he's my big brother, and he's always pulling these dumb things on me. But, well, I was proud of him too. You know what happened? I hate to tell you because:

SEAN, DIANE and HEIDI: (In unison) Father knows better!

      海蒂: 我老爸是个大好人。没人会相信他不好。可是他……唉,他老是干那些蠢事,弄得我们当儿女的到头来无地自容。瞧,我哥曾一度想买把吉他。他都积攒了好一阵子钱了。后来他在这家快餐店找了份活,不错吧?当服务员。这是肖恩第一次正经打工,他真的挺开心。他算计着,再过两三个月,他就能攒够钱买他想要的那把吉他了。老爸老妈都为他感到骄傲。唔,是啊,他是大哥,老是要捉弄我。不过嘛,我也同样为他感到骄傲。你猜后来怎么了?我都不想说这事,因为:

      肖恩、黛安、海蒂:(齐声)老爸英明!

 

3

(The lights come Up Left on the fast-food restaurant where SEAN works. It consists of a counter and couple of small tables. The MANAGER stands behind the counter. SEAN is busily cleaning the tables when FATHER walks in.)

 

MANAGER: Good evening, sir. May I help you?

FATHER: Good evening.

SEAN: (To himself) Oh, no! (He squats behind one of the tables trying to hide from FATHER. )

FATHER: I'm looking for the manager.

MANAGER: That would be me, sir.

FATHER: I'm Sam Thompson. My son works here.

MANAGER: Oh, you're Sean's father.

FATHER: Yes. It's his first job, you know. I just wanted to check that he's doing OK.

MANAGER: Oh, fine. No problem.

      (左后方灯光亮起,肖恩打工的快餐店。有柜台和几张小桌子。经理站在柜台后面。父亲进店时,肖恩正忙着擦桌子。)

 

      经理: 晚上好,先生,能为您效劳吗?

      父亲: 晚上好。

      肖恩: (自言自语)噢,不!(他在一张桌子后蹲下,欲躲过父亲的视线。)

      父亲: 我找经理。

      经理: 我就是,先生。

      父亲: 我是萨姆·汤普森。我儿子在这儿打工。

      经理: 哦,您是肖恩的父亲。

      父亲: 是啊。知道嘛,这是他第一次打工。我只想看看他干得怎么样。

      经理: 噢,不错。没问题。

 

4

SEAN: (Spreading his hands, palms up, speaking to himself) What did I do to deserve this? Tell me what?

FATHER: Hiring him was a good thing then?

MANAGER: Well, yeah, I suppose so.

SEAN: (Still to himself) Go home, Dad. Go home. Go home.

FATHER: I'm sure he's a good worker but a typical teenager, if you know what I mean.

MANAGER: (Losing interest) I wouldn't know.

FATHER: He's a good boy. And I assure you that if there are any subjects that need to be addressed, Sean and I will have a man-to-man talk.

MANAGER: I don't think that will be necessary...

FATHER: Oh, no problem. I'm proud of my son. Very, very proud. And I just wanted you to know that I'll do anything I can to help him through life's dangerous sea.

      肖恩: (双手摊开,掌心向上,自言自语)我干了什么了要受这份罪?倒是告诉我啊?

      父亲: 那么雇用他没错啦?

      经理: 呃,对,我想是的。

      肖恩: (仍然自言自语)回家去,老爸。回家去。回家去。

      父亲: 我肯定他是一把干活的好手,可他也跟其他孩子一个样,明白我的意思吗?

      经理: (不再有兴趣)我怎么知道。

      父亲: 他是个好孩子。你放心,要是有什么问题需要解决的话,我和肖恩会开诚布公谈一谈的。

      经理: 我看没必要吧……

      父亲: 噢,没事儿。我为我儿子感到骄傲,我为他深感骄傲。我只是想让你知道,我将竭尽全力帮助他驶过人生的惊涛骇浪。

  

5

SEAN: (Standing up and screaming) Aaaargh! Aaaargh! Aaaaaaargh!

FATHER: Son, I didn't know you were here.

SEAN: It's where I work, Dad.

FATHER: Of course. I mean, I didn't see you.

SEAN: I can't imagine why.

FATHER: Your manager and I were just having a nice chat.

(DIANE enters Down Left just as HEIDI enters Down Right. They look at SEAN and FATHER. )

SEAN, DIANE, HEIDI: (In unison) Father, you know better than that.      

肖恩: (站起身,高声喊叫)唉!唉!唉!

      父亲: 儿子,不知道你在这儿。

      肖恩: 这是我打工的地方嘛,爸!

      父亲: 那自然。我是说,刚才没看见你。

      肖恩: 我真弄不明白。

      父亲: 经理和我正聊得起劲呢。

      (黛安从左前方上,海蒂自右前方上。两人看着肖恩和父亲。)

      肖恩、黛安、海蒂:(齐声)老爸,你这是干什么呀。

 

6

(The lights quickly fade to black and then come up a second or two later. SEAN stands alone at the Down Right edge of the stage. HEIDI and DIANE cross to Down Left edge of the stage. )

 

SEAN: If that sort of thing happened only once in a while, it wouldn't be so bad. Overall, I wouldn't want to trade my dad for anyone else's. He loves us kids and Mom too. But I think that's sometimes the problem. He wants to do things for us, things he thinks are good. But he needs to give them more thought because:

SEAN, HEIDI and DIANE: (In unison) Father knows better!

      (灯光迅速暗下,片刻之后又亮起。肖恩独自站在舞台右前边。海蒂、黛安走至舞台左前边。)

      肖恩: 这类事要是偶尔发生一两次,那倒也没什么。总的来说,我是不肯把自己老爸跟别人的老爸换的。他爱我们当子女的,也爱老妈。不过我想,有时问题就出在这儿。他一心想帮助我们,他自以为在为我们做好事呢。可他应该多想想才对,因为:

      肖恩、海蒂、黛安:(齐声)老爸英明!

 

7

(The lights fade to black and come up on the Center Stage area where FATHER and the three children are seated around the dining room table. MOTHER enters carrying a dish, which she sets on the table. FATHER quickly rises and pulls out her chair. She sits. The family starts eating dinner. )

FATHER: I have a surprise for you, Diane.

DIANE: (Knows it can't be good. ) You have... a surprise?

MOTHER: Well, whatever it is, dear, don't keep us in suspense.

FATHER: Well, you know, Dan Lucas and I work together?

DIANE: Kyle's father?

MOTHER: Don't interrupt, dear, your father is trying to tell you something.

HEIDI: (Stage whisper to SEAN) Something Diane won't want to know, I'll bet.

SEAN: (Whispering to HEIDI) Whatever would make you think that?

MOTHER: Sean, dear. Heidi, sweetheart, don't distract your father.

SEAN and HEIDI: (Simultaneously) Sorry, Mom.

      (灯光暗下,旋即又在舞台中央亮起。父亲与三个孩子围坐在餐桌旁。母亲端菜上,把菜放在桌上。父亲迅速起身为她拉出椅子。母亲坐下。全家开始用餐。)

      父亲: 我要给你一个惊喜,黛安。

      黛安: (知道不会有好事)你要给我……一个惊喜?

      母亲: 哎,是什么事啊,亲爱的,别卖关子了。

      父亲: 呃,你们知道,丹·卢卡斯和我是同事。

      黛安: 凯尔的父亲?

      母亲: 别插嘴,亲爱的,你父亲正有事要跟你们说呢。

      海蒂: (与肖恩耳语)我敢肯定准是黛安不要听的事儿。

      肖恩: (与海蒂耳语)你怎么会知道?

      母亲: 肖恩,亲爱的。海蒂,宝贝儿,别打扰你们的父亲。

      肖恩、海蒂:(同时地)对不起,妈妈。

 

8

FATHER: Now then. As I was saying, I know how much you like young Kyle.

DIANE: Father!

FATHER: It's true, isn't it? Didn't I hear you tell your mother that you wish Kyle would ask you to the senior prom?

SEAN: Uh-oh!

HEIDI: Oops!

MOTHER: Please, children, please. Your father is trying to speak.

DIANE: (Through clenched teeth, the words are in a monotone and evenly spaced.) Yes-I-said-that-why-are-you-asking?

FATHER: Well then.

DIANE: (Becoming hysterical)"Well then" what?!

FATHER: What did I say? Did I say something wrong?

HEIDI: (To SEAN) Not yet, he didn't.

SEAN: (To HEIDI) But you know it's coming.

MOTHER: Children, please. Do give your father the respect he deserves.

HEIDI and SEAN: (Rolling their eyes) Yes, Mother.

      父亲: 好吧。我说了,我知道你挺喜欢小凯尔。

      黛安: 爸爸!

      父亲: 是这么回事,对吗?我不是听你跟你妈说,你希望凯尔邀请你在高年级舞会上跳舞吗?

      肖恩: 喔!

      海蒂: 哎哟!

      母亲: 静一下,孩子们,静一下。你们父亲在说话呢。

      黛安: (咬紧牙,一字一顿地)对-我-是-说-过-你-问-这-干-嘛?

      父亲: 那就算了。

      黛安: (歇斯底里地)什么算了?

      父亲: 我说什么啦?我说错什么了吗?

      海蒂: (对肖恩)这会儿还没有,还没说错什么。

      肖恩: (对海蒂)等着吧,这就来了。

      母亲: 静一下,孩子们。对父亲应该尊敬一点。

      海蒂、肖恩:(一边转着眼珠)是,妈妈。

 

9

FATHER: Well, today I saw Dan and asked if he'd like to go to lunch at that French restaurant on Third Street. You know the one, Mother.

MOTHER: Well, yes, I believe I do.

FATHER: My treat, I told him. And, of course, he was glad to accept.

MOTHER: Why wouldn't he be?

FATHER: (Somewhat surprised) Well, yes.

DIANE: What-has-this-to-do-with me?!

MOTHER: Diane, sometimes I just don't understand your behavior. I try my best.

DIANE: (Very short with her) I'm sorry.

MOTHER: Thank you, Diane. (To FATHER) Please do go on, dear.

FATHER: As I said --

HEIDI: We know what you said, Daddy.

FATHER: Er...uh, what's that?

SEAN: She said,"We know what you said, Daddy."

FATHER: Yes, yes, of course.

MOTHER: Do get on with it, dear. I've made the most glorious dessert. An old recipe handed down to me by my great Aunt Hilda --

DIANE: Mother, please!

MOTHER: Yes, dear?

      父亲: 嗯,今天我见到丹时,问他想不想去第三街上的那家法国餐馆吃午饭。孩子他妈,你是知道那家餐馆的。

      母亲: 对,是啊,我知道。

      父亲: 我请客,我对他说。当然,他挺乐意去了。

      母亲: 他哪能不乐意呢?

      父亲: (略为惊讶地)对,是啊。

      黛安: 这-跟-我-有-什-么-关-系-呢?

      母亲: 黛安,你的行为有时我真弄不懂。无论怎样我就是弄不懂。

      黛安: (没好气地)那就抱歉了。

      母亲: 多谢了,黛安。(对父亲)请说下去,亲爱的。

      父亲: 我说过……

      海蒂: 我们知道你说过什么,爸爸。

      父亲: 嗯……哦,你说什么?

      肖恩:她说,“我们知道你说过什么,爸爸。”

      父亲: 是啊,是啊,当然。

      母亲: 快说吧,亲爱的。我做了特别好吃的甜点。是我姨祖母希尔达传下来的老配方……

      黛安: 妈妈,好了!

      母亲: 怎么啦,宝贝?

 

10

(DIANE shakes her head and lets her body fall against the back of the chair. )

FATHER: At any rate, Dan's a nice guy. Never knew him well. Found we have a lot of the same interests. Our families, our community, global peace, human welfare.

HEIDI: (Mumbling to herself) That narrows it down, all right.

SEAN: Father?

FATHER: Yes, son?

SEAN: I do believe Diane would like to know the surprise.

DIANE: (Breathing hard as if exhausted, she turns to SEAN, nodding her head up and down repeatedly.) Thank you, Sean. I owe you one.

      (黛安摇着头,身体仰靠在椅背上。)

      父亲: 不管怎么说,丹人不错。过去我跟他不熟。发现我俩还有不少志趣相同之处。家庭,社区,世界和平,人类幸福。

      海蒂: (咕哝着自言自语)就要说到正题了。

      肖恩: 爸爸?

      父亲: 嗳?儿子?

      肖恩: 我肯定黛安很想知道是什么惊喜。

      黛安: (粗粗地喘气,好像精疲力竭的样子,她转向肖恩,连连点头)多谢了,肖恩。我记着你的情。

 

11

FATHER: Well, yes. Here it is then. I told Dan of your interest in his son.

DIANE: You what?

MOTHER: Diane, what has come over you? I just don't understand the younger generation. Why back in my day --

DIANE: Mother, please!

MOTHER: What, what? What?

HEIDI: Mother, I believe she wants Father to continue.

SEAN: (To himself) Get this over with, more likely.

DIANE: Daddy, please, tell me. Now. Right away. What did you say, Daddy? Please. Tell me, what did you tell Mr. Lucas? Tell me, please. Please tell me.

FATHER: Well, now, isn't this nice. It looks like my little scheme is a success. You're so eager to find out... makes a man feel as if it's all worthwhile.

      父亲: 啊,对。我就说吧。我告诉丹,你对他儿子很感兴趣。

      黛安: 你说什么?

      母亲: 黛安,你怎么啦?我真不明白你们年轻人。唉,在我那个时候……

      黛安: 妈,好啦!

      母亲: 怎么啦,怎么啦?又怎么啦?

      海蒂: 妈妈,我知道她想听爸爸说完。

      肖恩: (自言自语)还不如说是快把这份罪受完算了。

      黛安: 爸爸,请你告诉我。现在,马上告诉我。你说什么啦,爸爸?求你了,快说,你跟卢卡斯先生说什么啦?请快告诉我。请快说。

      父亲: 嗨,瞧,太妙了。看来我的小计策成功了。如今你急着想知道……这可让人觉得我做的这一切还真值。

 

12

HEIDI: (To SEAN) Can you believe this?

SEAN: (To HEIDI) Oh, sure. Can't you?

FATHER: Yes, well, I told him how much you liked young Kyle, and how you'd been wishing he'd ask you to the prom.

DIANE: You didn't! Tell me you didn't!

FATHER: Oh, yes. Anything for my children.

DIANE: (Swallowing hard) And...and --

MOTHER: Diane, are you all right?

DIANE: (She juts out her chin at MOTHER and quickly jerks her head around to face FATHER. ) Well...what did he say?!

FATHER: Well, of course, being the sort of man he is -- frank, understanding, he said he'd speak to the young man, insist he give you a call.

DIANE: (Angry scream! ) Whaaaaaat!

SEAN and HEIDI: (Together) Father, you know better than that.

FATHER: I do? Yes, yes, I guess I do. I've...done it again, haven't I?

      海蒂: (对肖恩)你能相信吗?

      肖恩: (对海蒂)啊,当然。你还不信?

      父亲: 嗯,对了,我告诉他你是多么喜欢小凯尔,一心希望他邀你在班级舞会上跳舞。

      黛安: 你没这么说过!告诉我你没这么说过!

      父亲: 说了,当然说了。只要为了我孩子好嘛。

      黛安: (尽力忍住)那……那……

      母亲: 黛安,你没事吧?

      黛安: (冲着母亲撅起下巴,很快扭头面对父亲)那……他怎么说?!

      父亲: 嗯,当然啦,以他的为人——坦率,善解人意,他说他会去跟小伙子说的,一定让他给你打电话。

      黛安: (愤怒地高喊)什——么!

      肖恩、海蒂:(齐声)老爸,你这是干什么呀。

      父亲: 是吗?对,对,我想是。我又……弄糟了,是吗?

 

13

(The lights quickly fade to black and then come up a second or two later. DIANE stands alone at the Down Right edge of the stage. HEIDI and SEAN enter Down Left and cross to the edge of the stage. )

 

DIANE: Can you imagine how humiliated I was? An honor student, class president. And Father was out asking people to have their sons call and ask me to the prom! But that's dear old dad. Actually, he is a dear. He just doesn't stop to think. And it's not just one of us who've felt the heavy hand of interference. Oh, no, all three of us live in constant dread knowing that at any time disaster can strike because:

DIANE, HEIDI and SEAN: (Shouting in unison) Father knows better.

      (灯光迅速暗下,旋即重新亮起。黛安独自站在舞台右前边沿。海蒂、肖恩自左前方上,走至舞台边。)

      黛安: 你们能想象我觉得自己有多么丢人现眼吗?堂堂的优秀生,班主席。父亲竟然去求别人叫他们的儿子打电话来邀我跳舞!可这就是我那可爱的老爸。他其实挺可爱的。他就是不好好想一想。不止我一个人深受他横加干预之苦。哦,绝非我一个人,我们兄妹三个整天提心吊胆,知道倒霉的事随时可能来临,因为:

      黛安、海蒂、肖恩:(齐声)老爸英明!

 

14

(The lights fade to black and quickly come up again Stage Left where there is an executive-type desk and chair and two other chairs. Behind the desk sits MRS. HIGGINS, in charge of admitting new students to Benjamin Harrison High School. HEIDI and FATHER sit in the other chairs. )

 

MRS.HIGGINS: So this is our new student, is it?

FATHER: That's right.

MRS.HIGGINS: What's your name, young lady?

HEIDI: HEIDI Thompson.

MRS.HIGGINS: I'm sure you'll find the students friendly. And the teachers more than willing to answer questions.

FATHER: She is an exceptional young woman, you know.

HEIDI: Daddy!

      (灯光暗下,旋即在舞台左侧重新亮起。舞台左侧摆放着一套办公桌椅和另两张椅子。希金斯太太坐在办公桌旁办理本杰明·哈里森中学新生入学手续。海蒂和父亲坐在另外两张椅子上。)

      希金斯太太:你是我们新来的学生,是吗?

      父亲: 是的。

      希金斯太太:你叫什么名字,小姐?

      海蒂: 海蒂·汤普森。

      希金斯太太:我相信你一定会发现这里的同学们都挺友好。这里的老师也都乐意回答问题。

      父亲: 您知道,她是个出类拔萃的姑娘。

      海蒂: 爸爸!

 

15

FATHER: Very, very bright.

MRS.HIGGINS: Yes, now if we can get you to fill out --

FATHER: Don't know where she got her brains. Her mother, I suppose. Oh, I was bright enough. But nothing like HEIDI. All her teachers have told Mrs. Thompson -- that's her mother -- and me that she was just about the brightest --

MRS.HIGGINS: (Interrupts as she loses her patience, though trying to be pleasant) As I said, if you have proof of vaccinations --

FATHER: (Interrupts, carrying on with his line of thought) Besides being bright, she's very, very talented.

HEIDI: (Twists her hands over and over in front of her chest. ) Please, Daddy, don't do this.

FATHER: Well, of course I will, darling. I'm proud of you. Your mother and I are proud of you.

(Turns back to MRS. HIGGINS. ) Why just last year, in her last year of junior high school, before we moved, Heidi placed first in the county in the annual spelling bee! Isn't that wonderful? And she plays the piano like an angel. An absolute angel.

      父亲: 非常非常聪明!

      希金斯太太:一定是的,现在你是不是能填一下……

      父亲: 不知道她怎么会这么聪明。我想是她母亲的遗传。哦,我也不笨。可没法跟海蒂比。教过她的老师都对汤普森太太,就是她妈,还有我说,她差不多是最聪明的一个……

      希金斯太太:(不耐烦地打断,但口气仍尽量和缓)我刚才说了,如果你有疫苗接种证明……

      父亲: (打断希金斯太太,沿着自己的思路讲下去)她不仅聪明,而且才华出众。

      海蒂: (双手置于胸前,搓拧着)行了,爸爸,别说了。

      父亲: 啊,宝贝儿,我当然要说。我为你感到骄傲。我和你妈都为你感到骄傲。(转回身面向希金斯太太)嗳,就在去年,她初中最后一年,我们还没搬家的时候,海蒂在县里每年一度的拼单词比赛中得了第一名!了不起吧?而且她钢琴也弹得美妙之极。简直就是仙乐。

 

16

HEIDI: Daddy, please. Please, please. Daddy, I have to go to class. I want to go to class. Please let me go to class.

FATHER: See what I mean? Such an eager learner. I can't imagine anyone's being more eager for knowledge than my Heidi. My little girl.

MRS.HIGGINS: Yes, well, be that as it may --

HEIDI: Aaargh! Aaaaargh! Aaaargh!

(DIANE and SEAN enter Down Right. They look at HEIDI, FATHER, and MRS. HIGGINS. )

HEIDI, DIANE and SEAN: (Shouting in unison) Daddy, you know better than that!

FATHER: Er, uh, I do?

 (Curtain)

 

      海蒂: 爸爸,行了。求求你了,求求你了。爸爸,我得上课去了。我要去上课。请让我去上课吧。

      父亲: 瞧见了没有?一个多么好学的学生。我想不出还有谁比我家海蒂更好学了。我的好姑娘。

      希金斯太太:是的,嗯,不过……

      海蒂: 唉!唉!唉!

      (黛安、肖恩从右前方上。两人望着海蒂、父亲和希金斯太太。)

      海蒂、黛安、肖恩:(齐声喊)老爸,你这是干什么呀。

      父亲: 呃,嗯,是吗?

(幕落)

 

Book II Unit 4 A Virtual Life

虚拟世界的生活

Maia Szalavitz

 

1     After too long on the Net, even a phone call can be a shock. My boyfriend's Liverpool accent suddenly becomes impossible to interpret after his easily understood words on screen; a secretary's clipped tone seems more rejecting than I'd imagined it would be. Time itself becomes fluid -- hours become minutes, or seconds stretch into days. Weekends, once a highlight of my week, are now just two ordinary days.

      在网上呆了太久,听到电话铃声也会吓一大跳。显示屏上看多了我男朋友那些一目了然的文字,他的利物浦口音一下子变得难以听懂;而秘书的清脆快速的语调听上去比我想象的要生硬。时间本身变得捉摸不定——几小时变成几分钟,或几秒钟延伸为几天。周末原本是我一周的黄金时段,现在却不过是平平常常的两天。

2    For the last three years, since I stopped working as a television producer, I have done much of my work as a telecommuter. I submit articles and edit them via email and communicate with colleagues on Internet mailing lists. My boyfriend lives in England, so much of our relationship is also computer-assisted.

      在我不再当电视制片人的这三年间,我的大部分工作都是在家里使用计算机终端进行的。我通过电子邮件投稿和校订,利用互联网上的人名地址与同行交流。我男朋友住在英国,因此两人的关系也在很大程度上借助于电脑维系。

3    If I desired, I could stay inside for weeks without wanting anything. I can order food, and manage my money, love and work. In fact, at times I have spent as long as three weeks alone at home, going out only to get mail and buy newspapers and groceries. I watched most of the endless snowstorm of '96 on TV.

      我要是愿意的话,可以一连几个星期不出门而什么也不缺。我可以在网上订购食品、网上理财、网上恋爱、网上工作。事实上我有时独自呆在家里长达三个星期,只偶尔出去拿信、买报纸及日用品。1996年那一场接一场的暴风雪我大都是在电视上看到的。

4    But after a while, life itself begins to feel unreal. I start to feel as though I've become one with my machines, taking data in, spitting them back out, just another link in the Net. Others on line report the same symptoms. We start to feel an aversion to outside forms of socializing. We have become the Net critics' worst nightmare.

      然而,一段时间之后,生活本身就显得不那么真实了。我开始觉得自己似乎与机器融为一体了,我接收信息,再发送出去,就如同互联网的一个连接点。其他上网的人也谈到了同样的症状。我们开始厌恶外面的社交方式。我们的状况成了批评互联网的人们最害怕见到的一幕。

5    What first seemed like a luxury, crawling from bed to computer, not worrying about hair, and clothes and face, has become a form of escape, a lack of discipline. And once you start replacing real human contact with cyber-interaction, coming back out of the cave can be quite difficult.      

一下床就上机,不再为发型、服饰、面部化妆烦心,起初看似高级的享受如今却成为一种对生活的逃避,一种缺乏自律的表现。你一旦开始用网络交际取代人与人的真实接触,要走出这种穴居状态就会相当困难。

6    I find myself shyer, more cautious, more anxious. Or, conversely, when suddenly confronted with real live humans, I get overexcited, speak too much, interrupt. I constantly worry if I am dressed appropriately, that perhaps I've actually forgotten to put on a skirt and walked outside in the T-shirt and underwear I sleep and live in.

      我发现自己变得比以前怯生、谨慎、焦虑。或者,反过来,当我突然面对现实中活生生的人时,会变得过于兴奋,说个不停,爱打断别人的讲话。我老是担心自己衣着是否得体,担心自己会不会真的忘了穿裙子,只穿着夜间睡觉、白天活动的那件T恤和内衣就出门了。

7    At times, I turn on the television and just leave it to talk away in the background, something that I'd never done previously. The voices of the programs are comforting, but then I'm jarred by the commercials. I find myself sucked in by soap operas, or needing to keep up with the latest news and the weather. "Dateline," "Frontline," "Nightline," CNN, New York 1, every possible angle of every story over and over and over, even when they are of no possible use to me. Work moves into the background. I decide to check my email.

      有时我把电视机开着,让它作为背景声音一直响着,以前我从不这样做。电视节目中的说话声让人感到宽慰,可那些广告又叫我心烦。我发现自己沉浸在肥皂剧里,或者不停地收看最新的新闻报道和天气预报。一而再再而三地从“每日新闻”、“一线新闻”、 “夜间新闻”、 有线新闻电视网、纽约一套上收看有关每一条新闻的各种不同视角的报道,尽管它们对我毫无用处。工作成了次要的。我决定去看一下自己的电子信箱。

8    On line, I find myself attacking everyone in sight. I am bad-tempered, and easily angered. I find everyone on my mailing list insensitive, believing that they've forgotten that there are people actually reading their wounding remarks. I don't realize that I'm projecting until after I've been embarrassed by someone who politely points out that I've attacked her for agreeing with me.

      在网上,我发现自己见谁攻谁。我脾气暴躁,动辄生气。我觉得我与之通信的每一个人都麻木不仁,认为他们已经忘却还有人真会去读他们那些刻薄伤人的言辞。直到有人礼貌地指出,她同意我的观点却遭到我的抨击时,我才意识到,自己是在以己度人,不由得深感尴尬。

9    When I'm in this state, I fight my boyfriend as well, misinterpreting his intentions because of the lack of emotional cues given by our typed dialogue. The fight takes hours, because the system keeps crashing. I say a line, then he does, then crash! And yet we keep on, doggedly.

      在这种精神状态下,我也和男朋友吵架,常因键出的对话缺乏情感暗示而误解他的本意。由于系统常出故障,两人一争就是几个小时。我写一句,他回一句,接着系统失灵!可我们俩还是锲而不舍地接着吵。

10    I'd never realized how important daily routine is: dressing for work, sleeping normal hours. I'd never thought I relied so much on co-workers for company. I began to understand why long-term unemployment can be so damaging, why life without an externally supported daily plan can lead to higher rates of drug abuse, crime, suicide.

      以前我从未意识到日常的生活起居是多么重要,如穿戴整齐去上班,按时就寝。以前我从未想过自己会那么依赖同事做伴。我开始理解为什么长时间的失业会那么伤人,为什么一个人的生活缺少了外部支持的日常计划就会导致吸毒、犯罪、自杀率的增长。

11    To restore balance to my life, I force myself back into the real world. I call people, arrange to meet with the few remaining friends who haven't fled New York City. I try to at least get to the gym, so as to set apart the weekend from the rest of my week. I arrange interviews for stories, doctor's appointments -- anything to get me out of the house and connected with others.

      为了恢复生活的平衡,我强迫自己回到真实世界中去。我给别人打电话,与所剩无几的仍然住在纽约城的几个朋友安排见面。我至少设法去去健身房,以便使周末与工作日有所不同。我安排采访好写报道,预约看医生——安排任何需要我出门与他人接触的活动。

12    But sometimes being face to face is too much. I see a friend and her ringing laughter is intolerable -- the noise of conversation in the restaurant, unbearable. I make my excuses and flee. I re-enter my apartment and run to the computer as though it were a place of safety.

      但有时面对面地与人相处实在难以忍受。我与一位朋友见面,她那种响亮的笑声让人忍无可忍——饭店里的噪杂谈话声也让人受不了。我找了个藉口逃之夭夭。我重新回到我的公寓,冲向电脑,似乎那儿才是一个安全的地方。

13    I click on the modem, the once-annoying sound of the connection now as pleasant as my favorite tune. I enter my password. The real world disappears.

      我点击鼠标,打开调制解调器,曾经听了就烦的连接声此刻听起来就如同最心爱的曲子那么悦耳。我键入密码。真实世界转瞬便消逝了。

Book II Unit 5 True Height

真正的高度

David Naster

 

1     His palms were sweating. He needed a towel to dry his grip. The sun was as hot as the competition he faced today at the National Junior Olympics. The pole was set at 17 feet. That was three inches higher than his personal best. Michael Stone confronted the most challenging day of his pole-vaulting career.

      他手心在出汗。他需要用毛巾把握竿的手擦干。太阳火辣辣的,与他今天在全国少年奥林匹克运动会上所面临的竞争一样热烈。 横杆升到了17英尺。比他个人的最高纪录高出3 英寸。迈克尔·斯通面临的是其撑竿跳高生涯中最具挑战性的一天。

2    The stands were still filled with about 20,000 people, even though the final race had ended an hour earlier. The pole vault is truly the highlight of any track and field competition. It combines the grace of a gymnast with the strength of a body builder. It also has the element of flying, and the thought of flying as high as a two-story building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event.

      尽管赛跑决赛一小时前就已经结束,看台上仍然观众满座,足有20,000人上下。撑竿跳高确实是所有田径比赛中最精彩的项目。它融合了体操运动员的优雅与健美运动员的力量。它还具有飞翔的特征,对观看该项目比赛的观众来说,飞跃两层楼的高度简直是一件不可思议的事情。

3    As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying. Michael's mother read him numerous stories about flying when he was growing up. Her stories were always ones that described the land from a bird's-eye view. Her excitement and passion for details made Michael's dreams full of color and beauty. Michael had this one recurring dream. He would be running down a country road. As he raced between golden wheat fields, he would always outrun the locomotives passing by. It was at the exact moment he took a deep breath that he began to lift off the ground. He would begin soaring like an eagle.

      迈克尔自从能记事起就一直梦想着飞翔。从小到大,母亲给迈克尔念过无数关于飞翔的故事。她的故事总是从高空俯瞰描述大地。她对细节的激情和酷爱使得迈克尔的梦境色彩缤纷、绚丽无比。迈克尔总是重复做着一个梦。他在乡间大路上飞奔。当他奔跑在金色的麦田之间时,总是把开过的机车一路甩在身后。就在他深深吸上一口气的瞬间,他开始从地面一跃而起,就像一头雄鹰那样开始翱翔。

4    Where he flew would always coincide with his mother's stories. Wherever he flew was with a keen eye for detail and the free spirit of his mother's love. His dad, on the other hand, was not a dreamer. Bert Stone was a hard-core realist. He believed in hard work and sweat. His motto: If you want something, work for it!

      他飞越的都是母亲故事里描述的地方。无论他飞向何方,他都怀着母爱所赐予他的自由精神,用敏锐的目光观察入微。可他的父亲却不是个梦想家。伯特·斯通是个彻头彻尾的现实主义者。他信奉的是努力与苦干。他的格言是:要想有所收获,就得努力工作!

5    From the age of 14, Michael did just that. He began a very careful training program. He worked out every other day with weightlifting, with some kind of running work on alternate days. The program was carefully monitored by Michael's coach, trainer and father. Michael's dedication, determination and discipline was a coach's dream. Besides being an honor student and only child, Michael Stone continued to help his parents with their farm chores. Mildred Stone, Michael's mother, wished he could relax a bit more and be that "free dreaming" little boy. On one occasion she attempted to talk to him and his father about this, but his dad quickly interrupted, smiled and said, "You want something, work for it!"      

从14岁起,迈克尔就是这么做的。他开始按非常周密的计划训练。他每隔一天进行举重训练,其它的日子做些跑步训练。训练计划由迈克尔的教练、训练员兼父亲严加督导。迈克尔的投入、执着、自律正是每一个教练所梦寐以求的。迈克尔在学校是位优秀生,在家是个独生子,但他仍帮助父母在自家的农场上干些杂活。迈克尔的母亲米尔德里德·斯通希望他能更放松些,还是做那个“自由幻想”的小男孩。有一次,她试图跟他及其父亲好好谈一下,可当父亲的马上就打断了她,笑着说:“要想有所收获,就得努力工作!”

6    All of Michael's vaults today seemed to be the reward for his hard work. If Michael Stone was surprised, excited or vain about clearing the bar at 17 feet, you couldn't tell. As soon as he landed on the inflated landing mat, and with the crowd on its feet, Michael immediately began preparing for his next attempt at flight. He seemed unaware of the fact that he had just beaten his personal best by three inches and that he was one of the final two competitors in the pole-vaulting event at the National Junior Olympics.

      迈克尔今天跃过的所有高度显然都是对他刻苦努力的回报。迈克尔·斯通在成功跃过17英尺的横杆时是感到惊讶、激动还是得意,人们无从知晓。迈克尔身体刚刚落在充气垫上,观众还没坐下,他马上就开始准备下一次飞跃。他似乎并未意识到自己刚刚把个人最好成绩提高了3英寸,已经是全国少年奥林匹克运动会撑竿跳高项目最后两名决赛者之一。

7    When Michael cleared the bar at 17 feet 2 inches and 17 feet 4 inches, again he showed no emotion. As he lay on his back and heard the crowd groan, he knew the other vaulter had missed his final jump. He knew it was time for his final jump. Since the other vaulter had fewer misses, Michael needed to clear this vault to win. A miss would get him second place. Nothing to be ashamed of, but Michael would not allow himself the thought of not winning first place.

      当迈克尔成功跃过17英尺2英寸和17英尺4英寸高度的横杆时,他仍没有流露出丝毫感情。他仰面躺着,听到观众在叹息,他知道另一位撑竿跳运动员最后一跳没有成功。他知道自己最后一跳的时刻到了。由于那位运动员失败次数较少,迈克尔这一跳只有成功才能获胜。这一次跳不过就会使自己落到第二名。那也丝毫无愧,但迈克尔决不让自己产生哪怕一丝与冠军无缘的念头。

8    He rolled over and did his routine of three finger-tipped push-ups. He found his pole, stood and stepped on the runway that led to the most challenging event of his 17-year-old life.

      他翻了个身,照例指尖撑地做了三下俯卧撑。他找着了撑竿,站起身,踏上那引向其17年生命中最具挑战性的一跃的跑道。

9    The runway felt different this time. It startled him for a brief moment. Then it all hit him like a wet bale of hay. The bar was set at nine inches higher than his personal best. That's only one inch off the National record, he thought. The intensity of the moment filled his mind with anxiety. He began shaking the tension. It wasn't working. He became more tense. Why was this happening to him now, he thought. He began to get nervous. Afraid would be a more accurate description. What was he going to do? He had never experienced these feelings. Then out of nowhere, and from the deepest depths of his soul, he pictured his mother. Why now? What was his mother doing in his thoughts at a time like this? It was simple. His mother always used to tell him when you felt tense, anxious or even scared, take deep breaths.

      这一回,那跑道显得有些异样。刹那间,他感到一阵惊吓。一种惶惑不安的感觉向他袭来。横杆升在高出他个人最高纪录9英寸的高度。他想,这一高度与全国纪录只差1英寸了。这一刻紧张异常,他感到焦虑不安。他想摆脱紧张情绪。没有用。他更紧张了。在这种时刻怎么会这样呢,他暗暗思忖着。他有点胆怯起来。说是恐惧也许更为恰当。怎么办?他以前从来不曾有过这种感觉。这时,不知不觉地,在内心最深处,出现了他母亲的身影。为什么是在这一刻?记忆中,母亲在这种时刻会怎样做呢?很简单。母亲过去总跟他说,当你觉得紧张、焦虑、甚至害怕的时候,就深深地吸气。

10    So he did. Along with shaking the tension from his legs, he gently laid his pole at his feet. He began to stretch out his arms and upper body. The light breeze that was once there was now gone. He carefully picked up his pole. He felt his heart pounding. He was sure the crowd did, too. The silence was deafening. When he heard the singing of some distant birds in flight, he knew it was his time to fly.

      于是他深深吸了一口气。在摆脱腿部肌肉紧张的同时,他轻轻地把撑竿放在脚边。他开始舒展双臂和上身。刚才飘过一阵轻风,此刻消失了。他小心翼翼地拿起撑竿,只觉得心怦怦在跳。他相信观众们的心也在怦怦跳动。场上鸦雀无声,令人透不过气来。当他听见远处飞鸟啼鸣时,他知道,自己飞身起跃的时刻到了。

11    As he began sprinting down the runway, something felt wonderfully different, yet familiar. The surface below him felt like the country road he used to dream about. Visions of the golden wheat fields seemed to fill his thoughts. When he took a deep breath, it happened. He began to fly. His take-off was effortless. Michael Stone was now flying, just like in his childhood dreams. Only this time he knew he wasn't dreaming. This was real. Everything seemed to be moving in slow motion. The air around him was the purest and freshest he had ever sensed. Michael was soaring like an eagle.

      他沿着跑道起跑冲刺,那感觉奇特无比,妙不可言,而又似曾相识。脚下的地面就好似过去常常梦见的乡间大路。金色麦田的景象映现在他的脑海中。他深深吸了一口气,于是奇迹发生了。他飞起来了。他的起跳轻松自如。迈克尔·斯通此刻就像儿时梦境中的那般在飞行。不过这一次他知道自己不是在做梦。这一次他真的在飞。周围一切都似乎在缓缓移动。他感到周围空气从未像这样纯净清新。如同一头雄鹰,迈克尔在翱翔。

12    It was either the eruption of the people in the stands or the thump of his landing that brought Michael back to earth. On his back with that wonderful hot sun on his face, he knew he could only see in his mind's eye the smile on his mother's face. He knew his dad was probably smiling too, even laughing. What he didn't know was that his dad was hugging his wife and crying. That's right: Bert "If You Want It, Work For It" Stone was crying like a baby in his wife's arms. He was crying harder than Mildred had ever seen before. She also knew he was crying the greatest tears of all: tears of pride. Michael was immediately surrounded by people hugging and congratulating him on the greatest accomplishment of his life. He later went on that day to clear 17 feet 6? inches: a National and International Junior Olympics record.

      或许是看台上人们爆发出的欢呼声,或许是他着地时嘭的一声响使迈克尔回到现实之中。他仰面躺着,明媚的骄阳映照着他的脸。他知道自己只能想象母亲的笑靥,他知道爸爸或许也在微笑,甚或欢声大笑。他不知道的是,他爸爸正与妻子相拥而泣。没错,这位“要想有所收获,就得努力工作”的伯特·斯通在妻子怀里孩子似地泪流满面。米尔德里德从没见他那样哭过。她也知道,他流淌的是最难得的泪水:骄傲的泪水。迈克尔一下子被围住了,人们拥抱他,祝贺他所取得的一生中最辉煌的成就。那天稍后,他接着越过了17英尺6英寸半,创下了全国和世界少年奥林匹克撑杆跳高的新纪录。

13    With all the media attention and sponsorship possibilities, Michael's life would never be the same again. It wasn't just because he won the National Junior Olympics and set a new world record. And it wasn't because he had just increased his personal best by 9? inches. It was simply because Michael Stone is blind.

      随着媒体的关注以及可能随之而来的各种赞助,迈克尔的生活肯定会不同以往。这不仅仅是因为他获得了全国少年奥林匹克冠军并刷新了一项世界纪录,也不是因为他将自己的最高纪录提高了9英寸半,而是因为迈克尔·斯通是个盲人。

Book II Unit 6 A Woman can Learn Anything a Man Can

男人学得会的,女人也学得会

Carolyn Turk

 

1.       When I was a kid, everything in my bedroom was pink. I have two sisters and we had a complete miniature kitchen, a herd of My Little Ponies and several Barbie and Ken dolls. We didn't have any toy trucks, G.I. Joes or basketballs. We did have a Wiffle-ball set, but you would have been hard-pressed to find it in our playroom. Tomboys we weren't.

1. 我小时候卧室里的每样东西都是粉红色的。我有两个姐妹,我们有一个一应俱全的微型厨房,一群各种颜色的小马驹,还有好几个芭比和凯恩玩具娃娃。我们没有玩具卡车,没有玩具大兵,也没有篮球。我们确实有一套空心棒球,但是很难在我们的游戏室找到,毕竟我们不是假小子。

2.  So some people may find it ironic that I grew up to be a mechanical engineer. In fact, I am the only female engineer at my company. In order to get my college degree, I had to take a lot of math and science classes. I also had to work with a team of students as part of a national competition to convert a gas-guzzling SUV into a hybrid electric vehicle--that's where I learned how to fix cars. I'm proud to say that I got A's in all my classes, including multivariable calculus and differential equations. I've always been pretty good at math and design, but I didn't understand where that could take me. I was expected to go to college, but no one ever told me I'd make a good engineer someday.

2. 因为如此,有些人对我长大后成了一名机械工程师也许感到出乎意外。事实上,我是我公司里唯一的一个女工程师。为了取得大学文凭,我要上许多数学和自然科学方面的课程。我还得和几个学生一起工作,作为参与一次全国性竞赛的一部分,把一辆耗费汽油特多的运动型多用途汽车改装成混合型电动车——就这样我学会了修车。 我可以自豪地说,我门门功课都是A,包括多变量微积分和微分方程。我的数学和设计总是相当好,但是我不知道这些会给我带来什么样的结果。家里要我上大学,但是没人告诉我有一天会成为一名优秀的工程师。

3.       When I was in high school, I didn't know the first thing about engineering. I couldn't have distinguished a transmission from an alternator. The car I drove needed some work but I was afraid to take it to the mechanic. Because honestly, the mechanic could have shown me an electric can opener and said, "This is part of your car and it's broken--pay me to fix it," and I wouldn't have known any better.

3. 上高中时对工程一无所知。我那时不能辨别变速器和交流发电机。我开的车需要修理,但是我不敢把车开到修理工那里,因为说实话,如果修理工给我看一把电动开罐器并对我说:“这是你的汽车部件,坏了——你付钱我给你修,”我也不会知道他在敲诈。

4.       At the end of my junior year of high school, I heard about a summer program designed to interest girls in engineering. The six-week program was free, and students were given college credit and a dorm room at the University of Maryland. I applied to the program, not because I wanted to be an engineer, but because I was craving independence and wanted to get out of my parents' house for six weeks.

4. 在高中第三年末的时候,听说有一个暑期班,专门培养女孩对工程的兴趣。课程六周,不用缴费,学生还可获得大学学分,还可享受马里兰大学学生宿舍一个房间。我申请参加这个暑期班,这倒不是因为我想当工程师,而是因为我渴望独立,想离开父母的房子自己单独过上六周。

5.       I was accepted to the program and I earned six engineering credits. The next year I entered the university as an engineering major. Five years later I had a degree and three decent job offers.

5. 被这个暑期班录取了,得到了六个工程学分。第二年我上了这个大学,主修工程。五年后我获得学位,还有三个像样的就业机会。

6.       I can't help shuddering when I hear about studies that show that women are at a disadvantage when it comes to math. They imply that I am somehow abnormal. I'm not, but I do know that if I hadn't stumbled into that summer program, I wouldn't be an engineer.

6. 到有研究表明女性学数学处于劣势,我不禁不寒而栗。他们的言下之意是我有点反常。我一点也不反常,但是我知道,要不是我偶然闯进了那个暑期班,我是成不了工程师的。

7.       When I was growing up I was told, as many students are, to do what I am best at. But I didn't know what that was. Most people think that when you are good at something, it comes easily to you. But this is what I discovered: just because a subject is difficult to learn, it does not mean you are not good at it. You just have to grit your teeth and work harder to get good at it. Once you do, there's a strong chance you will enjoy it more than anything else.

7. 许多学生一样,我成长过程中,就有人告诉我要做自己最擅长的事。但是我不知道自己最擅长的是什么。许多人认为,如果你擅长某件事,那你就能轻而易举地把它学好。但是我的发现是:某一门课程难学,并不意味着你就不擅长它。你得咬紧牙加倍努力干,才能学好它。一旦你学好了,你就很可能喜欢上它,从中得到无与伦比的乐趣。

8.       In eighth grade I took algebra. On one test I got only 36 percent of the answers correct. I failed the next one, too. I started to think, Maybe I'm just no good at this. I was lucky enough to have a teacher who didn't take my bad grades as a judgment of my abilities, but simply as an indication that I should study more. He pulled me aside and told me he knew I could do better. He let me retake the tests, and I pulled my grade up to an A.

8. 年级时我修代数,有一次考试我只答对了百分之三十六的题目。接下去一次考试我又不及格。于是我想,也许我确实不擅长代数。值得庆幸的是我有一位老师,他没有根据我的低分来衡量我的能力,而认为低分只表示我应下更大的功夫。他把我叫到一旁,告诉我他知道我能学得更好。他让我重考,这次我把成绩提高到A。

9.       I studied a lot in college, too. I had moments of panic while sitting underneath the buzzing fluorescent lights in the engineering library on Saturday afternoons, when I worried that the estrogen in my body was preventing me from understanding thermodynamics. But the guys in my classes had to work just as hard, and I knew that I couldn't afford to lose confidence in myself. I didn't want to choose between my femininity and a good career. So I reminded myself that those studies, the ones that say that math comes more naturally to men, are based on a faulty premise: that you can judge a person's abilities separate from the cultural cues that she has received since she was an infant. No man is an island. No woman is, either.

9. 在大学也很努力。星期六下午坐在工程图书馆吱吱作响的荧光灯下学习时,我也有过恐惧的时候,担心我体内的雌激素妨碍我理解热动力学。但是我班上的男生也同样要下功夫,我知道我不能对自己丧失信心。我不想在女性的娇柔和一个好职业中间两者只取其一。因此我提醒自己,宣称男性天生更能学好数学的研究是基于一个错误的前提,那就是认为人们可以脱离一个人从孩提时代就受到的社会的文化熏陶而径直判断她的能力。男人不是孤岛,女人也不是。  

10.      Why are we so quick to limit ourselves? I'm not denying that most little girls love dolls and most little boys love videogames, and it may be true that some people favor the right side of their brain, and others the left. But how relevant is that to me, or to anyone, as an individual? Instead of translating our differences into hard and fast conclusions about the human brain, why can't we focus instead on how incredibly flexible we are? Instead of using what we know as a reason why women can't learn physics, maybe we should consider the possibility that our brains are more powerful than we imagine.

10. 们为何要那么快地限制自己呢?我不否认,大多数小女孩喜欢玩具娃娃,大多数小男孩喜欢电子游戏。也许真的是有人喜欢用大脑的右半球,有人则喜欢用左半球。但这与我,或任何其他个人有何相干?为什么要对人与人之间的区别下定结论,说成是与大脑有关, 而不能把注意力集中到我们所具备的难以置信的灵活性上去呢?也许我们应该考虑我们的大脑可能比我们想象的强大得多,而不应该用我们所知的一点东西来阐述女人学不会物理的理由。

11.      Here's a secret: math and science don't come easily to most people. No one was ever born knowing calculus. A woman can learn anything a man can, but first she needs to know that she can do it, and that takes a leap of faith. It also helps to have selective hearing.

11. 密在于:数学和自然科学都不是大多数人轻而易举就能学会的。没有人生来就懂微积分。男人学得会的女人也能学会。但是女人首先需要知道她能学会,而这需要有敢冒风险而为的精神。同时听别人的话也得有所选择才行。

 

Book II Unit 7 The Glorious Messiness of English

英语中绚丽多彩的杂乱无章现象

Robert MacNeil

 

1     The story of our English language is typically one of massive stealing from other languages. That is why English today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million words, while other major languages have far fewer.

      我们的英语的历史是典型的大量窃取其它语言的历史。正因为如此,今日英语的词汇量据估计超过一百万,而其它主要语言的词汇量都要小得多。

2    French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit parade. The French, however, do not like borrowing foreign words because they think it corrupts their language. The government tries to ban words from English and declares that Walkman is not desirable; so they invent a word, balladeur, which French kids are supposed to say instead -- but they don't.

      例如,法语只有约75,000个单词,其中还包括像snack bar(快餐店)和 hit parade(流行唱片目录)这样的英语词汇。但法国人不喜欢借用外来词,因为他们认为这样会损害法语的纯洁性。法国政府试图逐出英语词汇,宣称Walkman(随身听)一词有伤大雅,因此他们造了个新词balladeur让法国儿童用——可他们就是不用。

3    Walkman is fascinating because it isn't even English. Strictly speaking, it was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two simple English words together to name their product. That doesn't bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is the glorious messiness of English. That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language.

      Walkman一词非常耐人寻味,因为这个词连英语也不是。严格地说,该词是由日本制造商发明的,他们把两个简单的英语单词拼在一起来命名他们的产品。这事儿我们不介意,法国人却耿耿于怀。由此可见英语中绚丽多彩的杂乱无章现象。这种乐意包容的精神,这种不管源自何方来者不拒的精神,恰好解释了英语为什么会这么丰富,解释了英语缘何在很大程度上第一个成了真正的国际语言。

4    How did the language of a small island off the coast of Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely spoken and written than any other has ever been? The history of English is present in the first words a child learns about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities (food, water). These words all come from Old English or Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language. Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today for the things that really matter to us.

      欧洲沿海一个弹丸小岛的语言何以会成为地球上的通用语言,比历史上任何一种其他语言都更为广泛地被口头和书面使用?英语的历史体现在孩子最先学会用来表示身份(I, me, you)、所属关系(mine, yours)、身体部位(eye, nose, mouth)、大小高矮(tall, short),以及生活必需品(food, water)的词汇当中。这些词都来自英语的核心部分古英语或盎格鲁-萨克逊英语。这些词通常简短明了,我们今天仍然用这些词来表示对我们真正至关重要的事物。

5    Great speakers often use Old English to arouse our emotions. For example, during World War II, Winston Churchill made this speech, stirring the courage of his people against Hitler's armies positioned to cross the English Channel: "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender." 

     伟大的演说家常常用古英语来激发我们的情感。例如,在二战期间,温斯顿·丘吉尔作了如下的演讲来激励国民的勇气以抵抗屯兵英吉利海峡准备渡海作战的希特勒的军队:“我们要战斗在海滩上,我们要战斗在着陆场上,我们要战斗在田野和街巷,我们要战斗在群山中。我们决不投降。”

6    Virtually every one of those words came from Old English, except the last -- surrender, which came from Norman French. Churchill could have said, "We shall never give in," but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -- opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect, different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the earliest words in our language.

      这段文字中几乎每个词都来自古英语,只有最后一个词——surrender 是个例外,来自诺曼法语。丘吉尔原本可以说:“We shall never give in,”但这正是英语迷人之处和活力所在,作家为了加强效果可以糅合来自不同背景的不同词汇。而演说中使用古英语词汇具有直接拨动心弦的效果。

7     When Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C., English did not exist. The Celts, who inhabited the land, spoke languages that survive today mainly as Welsh. Where those languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.

      尤利乌斯·凯撒在公元前55年入侵不列颠时,英语尚不存在。当时不列颠的居民凯尔特人使用的那些语言流传下来主要成了威尔士语。这些语言的起源至今仍是个不解之谜,但有一种理论试图解开这个谜。

8    Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many modern languages descended from a common parent language, lost to us because nothing was written down.

      两个世纪前,在印度当法官的一位英国人注意到,梵文中有一些词与希腊语、拉丁语中的一些词极为相似。系统的研究显示,许多现代语言起源于一个共同的母语,但由于没有文字记载,该母语已经失传。

9    Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some established the languages of India and Pakistan, and others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe. Some who made the earliest move westward became known as the Celts, whom Caesar's armies found in Britain.

      语言学家找出了相似的词,提出这些语言的源头是他们称之为印欧母语的语言,这种语言使用于公元前3500年至公元前2000年。这些人使用同样的词表达“雪”、“蜜蜂”和“狼”,但没有表示“海”的词。因此有些学者认为,他们生活在寒冷的中北欧某个地区。一些人向东迁徙形成了印度和巴基斯坦的各种语言,有些人则向西漂泊,来到欧洲气候较为温暖的地区。最早西移的一些人后来被称作凯尔特人,亦即凯撒的军队在不列颠发现的民族。

10    New words came with the Germanic tribes -- the Angles, the Saxons, etc. -- that slipped across the North Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th century. Together they formed what we call Anglo-Saxon society.

      新的词汇随日尔曼部落——盎格鲁、萨克逊等部落——而来,他们在5世纪的时候越过北海定居在不列颠。他们共同形成了我们称之为盎格鲁-萨克逊的社会。

11    The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work. They must have also enjoyed themselves because they gave us the word laughter.

      盎格鲁-萨克逊人将他们的农耕词汇留传给我们,包括sheep, ox, earth, wood, field 和work等。他们的日子一定过得很开心,因为他们留传给我们laughter一词。

12    The next big influence on English was Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words from Greek and Latin, including angel, disciple and martyr.

      下一个对英语产生重大影响的是基督教。基督教以400至500个希腊语、拉丁语词汇丰富了盎格鲁-萨克逊词汇,如angel(天使), disciple(门徒) 和 martyr(殉难者)等。

13    Then into this relatively peaceful land came the Vikings from Scandinavia. They also brought to English many words that begin with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old Norse and English both survived, and so you can rear a child (English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such pairs survive: wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each such addition gave English more richness, more variety.

      接着北欧海盗从斯堪的纳维亚来到了这块相对和平的土地。他们也给英语带来了许多以sk开头的词汇,如sky 和 skirt。但古斯堪的纳维亚语和英语同时留传下来,因此你可以说rear a child(英语),也可以说raise a child(斯堪的纳维亚语)。其他留传下来的这类同义词组有:wish 和 want,craft 和 skill,hide 和 skin。每一个类似的词的增添都使英语更加丰富,更加多样化。

14    Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when the Normans conquered England. The country now had three languages: French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and English for the common people. With three languages competing, there were sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example, Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans, royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives. The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed French, and by the end of the 15th century what had developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -- Middle English -- with about 10,000 "borrowed" French words.

      另一次新词的大量涌入发生在1066年,诺曼人征服英国的时候。这时英国三种语言并用:贵族使用法语,教会使用拉丁语,平民使用英语。由于三种语言相互竞争,有时同一事物就出现了不同的名称。例如,盎格鲁-萨克逊语有kingly一词,但诺曼人入侵后,royal 和 sovereign作为替代词进入了英语。不同寻常的是,法语没有取代英语。三个多世纪后,英语逐渐吞并了法语,到15世纪末,发展成为一种经过改进,大大丰富了的拥有一万多个“借来”的法语词汇的语言——中古英语。

15    Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in England and started a communications revolution. Printing brought into English the wealth of new thinking that sprang from the European Renaissance. Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured onto the printed page, and with them thousands of Latin words like capsule and habitual, and Greek words like catastrophe and thermometer. Today we still borrow from Latin and Greek to name new inventions, like video, television and cyberspace.

      大约在1476年,威廉·卡克斯顿在英国制造了一台印刷机,由此掀起了一场信息传播技术的革命。印刷术把欧洲文艺复兴运动中涌现的大量新思想传入英国。希腊罗马经典著作的译文纷纷印成书册,成千上万的拉丁词,如capsule (密封小容器;航天舱) 和 habitual (惯常的),希腊词,如catastrophe (大灾难) 和 thermometer(温度计)等也随之涌入。今天我们仍借用拉丁、希腊语命名新的发明创造,如video, television 和 cyberspace(虚拟空间)等。

16    As settlers landed in North America and established the United States, English found itself with two sources -- American and British. Scholars in Britain worried that the language was out of control, and some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has never been put into practice.

      随着移民在北美登陆并建立美国,英语出现了两个源头——美式英语和英式英语。英国的学者担心英语会失控,有人想成立一个有权威的学会,决定哪些词汇合适,哪些词汇不合适。幸运的是,他们的设想从未付诸实施。

17    That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, "The English language would not have been what it is if the English had not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of each individual and if everybody had not been free to strike out new paths for himself."

      这种对变化的包容态度也体现了根深蒂固的自由精神。丹麦学者奥托·叶斯柏森在1905年写道:“如果不是多少世纪以来英国人一向崇尚个人自由,如果不是人人都能自由地为自己开拓新的道路,英语就不会成为今天的英语。”

18    I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil producing the English language also nourished the great principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world. The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.

      我喜欢这一观点。想想吧,孕育英语的文化土壤也同样为现今的世界培育了伟大的自由精神及人权准则。最初的根芽在英国萌发,接着在美国生长壮大。英语国家的人民挫败了种种意欲建立语言保护的企图。

19    Indeed, the English language is not the special preserve of grammarians, language police, teachers, writers or the intellectual elite. English is, and always has been, the tongue of the common man.

      事实上,英语不是语法学家、语言卫道士、教师、作家或知识精英的特殊领地。英语是,而且一向是,人民大众的语言。

Book II Unit 8 A Fable for Tomorrow

一个关于明天的寓言

Rachel Carson

 

There was once a town in the heart of America where all life seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings. The town lay in the midst of a checkerboard of prosperous farms, with fields of grain and hillsides of orchards where, in spring, white clouds of bloom drifted above the green fields. In autumn, oak and maple and birch set up a blaze of color that flamed and flickered across a backdrop of pines. Then foxes barked in the hills and deer silently crossed the fields, half hidden in the mists of the fall mornings.

从前在美国中心有一个小镇,那里的万物看上去都与其四周的环境融洽相处。小镇的四周是像棋盘交错的生意盎然的农庄,还有一块块的田地和一座座遍布山坡的果园。春天来了,白色的鲜花云彩般地漂浮在田野上;秋天到了,橡树、枫树和桦树色彩斑斓,在一片松树林间火焰般地燃烧与跳跃。小山上狐狸吠叫,田野间小鹿静静地跃过,所有的一切都在秋天清晨的薄雾中半隐半现。

Along the roads, laurel, viburnum and alder, great ferns and wildflowers delighted the traveler's eye through much of the year. Even in winter the roadsides were places of beauty, where countless birds came to feed on the berries and on the seed heads of the dried weeds rising above the snow. The countryside was, in fact, famous for the abundance and variety of its bird life, and when the flood of migrants was pouring through in spring and fall people traveled from great distances to observe them. Others came to fish the streams, which flowed clear and cold out of the hills and contained shady pools where trout lay. So it had been from the days many years ago when the first settlers raised their houses, sank their wells, and built their barns.

在路的两旁,一年中许多时候,月桂树、荚莲、桤木、蕨类植物和各样的野花都能让过往的行人赏心悦目。即使是冬天,路边的景色依旧是美不胜收,那里无数的小鸟来觅取浆果莓和露在雪地上的枯枝上的种子。事实上,这乡村正是由于鸟类的数量和种类之繁多而出名的。在候鸟群潮涌而来的春秋季节,人们从大老远的地方慕名前来欣赏。还有的人来这里的小溪垂钓。清冽的溪水从山中流出,溪水中有许多鳟鱼藏身的背阴的水潭。所以,从许多年前开始,第一批居住者就在这里盖房挖井,搭起了自己的谷仓。

Then a strange blight crept over the area and everything began to change. Some evil spell had settled on the community: mysterious maladies swept the flocks of chickens; the cattle and sheep sickened and died. Everywhere was a shadow of death. The farmers spoke of much illness among their families. In the town the doctors had become more and more puzzled by new kinds of sickness appearing among their patients. There had been several sudden and unexplained deaths, not only among adults but even among children, who would be stricken suddenly while at play and die within a few hours.

后来,一种奇怪的摧毁力悄然袭击了这个地区,所有的一切都开始变了。某种邪恶的符咒笼罩了这个社区:神秘的疾病攻击了鸡群,牛、羊也纷纷病死,到处都有一层死亡的阴影。农夫们谈论着家中的许多疾病;镇上的医生也越来越因病人中出现的新的病症而感到迷惑。在成人和孩子中发生了好几起突发的不明其由的死亡,那些孩子在玩耍中突然病倒,几小时后就死去了。

There was a strange stillness. The birds, for example - where had they gone? Many people spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund; they trembled violently and could not fly. It was a spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now no sound; only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.

这里是一派奇怪的寂静。就说鸟儿们吧---它们都去哪儿了?许多人说起鸟儿的时候都充满了迷惑与不安。他们后院的饲养站已经没有鸟儿光顾了。随处能见到的几只鸟都奄奄一息。他们猛烈地颤抖,却飞不起来。这是一个无声的春天。曾经是震动着画眉鸟、猫鸟、鸽子、樫鸟、欧鹪和许多鸟儿的黎明合唱声的清晨如今却寂然无声。田野间、树林中和沼泽地里也是一片寂静。

On the farms the hens brooded, but no chicks hatched. The farmers complained that they were unable to raise any pigs - the litters were small and the young survived only a few days. The apple trees were coming into bloom but no bees droned among the blossoms, so there was no pollination and there would be no fruit.

在农庄,母鸡下蛋却孵不出小鸡。农夫们抱怨无法养猪,因为刚生下的猪崽太小了,小猪也只能活几天的功夫。苹果树开花了,可是没有蜜蜂在花丛中嗡嗡地采蜜,没有蜜蜂的授粉,也就没有任何果子。

The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things. Even the streams were now lifeless. Anglers no longer visited them, for all the fish had died.

曾经是如此迷人的路旁如今却铺着黑黑的枯干的草木,仿佛是被一场大火烧过一般。那里也是一片寂静,因为所有的生物都遗弃了它。即使是溪流中也没有了生命。因为所有的鱼都已经死了,垂钓者也就不再来了。

In the gutters under the eaves and between the shingles of the roofs, a white granular powder still showed a few patches; some weeks before it had fallen like snow upon the roofs and the lawns, the fields and streams.

在屋檐下的天沟里,屋顶的木瓦之间仍旧可见几片白色的粒状的粉末。几个星期之前,它像白雪一样洒在了屋顶上、草地上、田野里和溪流里。

No witchcraft, no enemy action had silenced the rebirth of new life in this stricken world. The people had done it themselves.

在这个遭受袭击的地球上,没有巫术,也没有敌人的行动抑制了新生命的复苏;这一切都是人自身造成的。

Since the mid-1940's, over 500 basic chemicals have been created for use in killing insects, weeds, rodents, and other organisms described in the modern vernacular as "pests", and they are sold under thousand different brand names.

自20世纪40年代中期起,人们制造了500多种基本的化学药品来杀死在现代语言中被称作"害虫"的昆虫、杂草、啮齿动物和其他的生物体,以几千种的品牌名称来出售它们。

These sprays, dusts, and aerosols are now applied almost universally to farms, gardens, forests, and homes - nonselective chemicals that have the power to kill every insect, the "good" and the "bad," to still the song of birds and the leaping of fish in the streams, to coat the leaves with a deadly film, and to linger on in soil - all this though the intended target may be only a few weeds or insects. Can anyone believe it is possible to lay down such a barrage of poisons on the surface of the earth without making it unfit for all life?

这些液体喷剂、粉末和雾状喷剂现在几乎普遍使用于农庄、花园、森林和家庭。非选择性的化学药品能杀死每只昆虫(不管是"好"的还是"坏"的),能使鸟儿不再歌唱,溪流中的鱼儿不再跳跃,能在树叶上覆盖一层致命的薄膜,并能存留在土地中。而造成这一切的预定的目标可能仅仅是一些杂草和昆虫。难道真的有人认为,我们在地球的表面撒下如此多的毒药,同时还能使它继续成为一个任何生命都能存活的地方吗?

This town does not actually exist, but it might easily have a thousand counterparts in America or elsewhere in the world. I know of no community that has experienced all the misfortunes I describe. Yet every one of these disasters has actually happened somewhere, and many real communities have already suffered a substantial number of them. A grim specter has crept upon us almost unnoticed, and this imagined tragedy may easily become a stark reality we all shall know.

这个小镇事实上并不存在,但是在美国或地球的别的地方我们能轻易地找到一千个与它对应的地方。我知道没有一个社区经历了我所描述的所有不幸,但是其中的每一个灾难都已经在某个地方发生了,许多社区已经遭受了相当多的灾难。一个冷酷的幽灵几乎是在不经意间已悄悄向我们走来了,而这个想像的悲剧也许很容易就成为一个我们都应该知道的严酷的事实。

 

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