pat-甲级1016-Phone Bills

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1016. Phone Bills (25)

时间限制
400 ms
内存限制
65536 kB
代码长度限制
16000 B
判题程序
Standard
作者
CHEN, Yue

A long-distance telephone company charges its customers by the following rules:

Making a long-distance call costs a certain amount per minute, depending on the time of day when the call is made. When a customer starts connecting a long-distance call, the time will be recorded, and so will be the time when the customer hangs up the phone. Every calendar month, a bill is sent to the customer for each minute called (at a rate determined by the time of day). Your job is to prepare the bills for each month, given a set of phone call records.

Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. Each case has two parts: the rate structure, and the phone call records.

The rate structure consists of a line with 24 non-negative integers denoting the toll (cents/minute) from 00:00 - 01:00, the toll from 01:00 - 02:00, and so on for each hour in the day.

The next line contains a positive number N (<= 1000), followed by N lines of records. Each phone call record consists of the name of the customer (string of up to 20 characters without space), the time and date (mm:dd:hh:mm), and the word "on-line" or "off-line".

For each test case, all dates will be within a single month. Each "on-line" record is paired with the chronologically next record for the same customer provided it is an "off-line" record. Any "on-line" records that are not paired with an "off-line" record are ignored, as are "off-line" records not paired with an "on-line" record. It is guaranteed that at least one call is well paired in the input. You may assume that no two records for the same customer have the same time. Times are recorded using a 24-hour clock.

Output Specification:

For each test case, you must print a phone bill for each customer.

Bills must be printed in alphabetical order of customers' names. For each customer, first print in a line the name of the customer and the month of the bill in the format shown by the sample. Then for each time period of a call, print in one line the beginning and ending time and date (dd:hh:mm), the lasting time (in minute) and the charge of the call. The calls must be listed in chronological order. Finally, print the total charge for the month in the format shown by the sample.

Sample Input:
10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 30 20 15 15 10 10 10
10
CYLL 01:01:06:01 on-line
CYLL 01:28:16:05 off-line
CYJJ 01:01:07:00 off-line
CYLL 01:01:08:03 off-line
CYJJ 01:01:05:59 on-line
aaa 01:01:01:03 on-line
aaa 01:02:00:01 on-line
CYLL 01:28:15:41 on-line
aaa 01:05:02:24 on-line
aaa 01:04:23:59 off-line
Sample Output:
CYJJ 01
01:05:59 01:07:00 61 $12.10
Total amount: $12.10
CYLL 01
01:06:01 01:08:03 122 $24.40
28:15:41 28:16:05 24 $3.85
Total amount: $28.25
aaa 01
02:00:01 04:23:59 4318 $638.80
Total amount: $638.80

算法设计:

先用一个长度为25的数组price读入一天内各个小时段的话费单价,接着定义一个Time类,包含月日时分的时间信息以及是online还是offline,此外为了方便比较,我还定义了一个域用来存储距0日0时0分的分钟数。为了能够用set进行自然排序,我还在Time类中重载了<运算符,综上,类的定义代码如下:

struct Time{//定义时间类
    int month,day,hour,minute,time,online=0;//月日时分信息、距0日0时0分的分钟数、指明这一时间是online还是offline
    bool operator <(const Time&t)const{//重载<运算符
        return this->time<t.time;
    }
};

1. 如何在set<Time>中找出所有的有效的话费记录

如题目要求的,只有相邻的两个online和offline的通话记录时间之间才能算做一个有效的通话记录,由于set<Time>已经按时间自然排序,我们只需在set<Time>中找出相邻的两个online和offline即可。由于set无法进行随机访问,我们只能借助于迭代器来访问set,可以定义两个迭代器 j 和 jnext 分别指向当前set<Time>中的对象和紧邻的下一个set<Time>中的对象,如果 j->online为true且jnext->online为false说明找到了一组有效的通话记录,否则++j;++jnext,直至将整个set遍历完成就能找出所有有效的通话记录。

2. 如何计算两个Time对象t1,t2(假设t1早于t2)之间通话的时间 time 和通话的费用sumbill(price数组存储了一天内各个小时段的话费)

由于存储了每一个Time对象距0日0时0分的分钟数,所以time=t2.time-t1.time

利用类似的原理,我们可以分别计算出t1、t2到某一天的0时0分所用话费,两者作差,即可计算出sumbill。为了方便计算通话一天所用话费,可以在读取一天各个小时段话费单价时,逐一进行加和并储存到price[24]中,那么通话一天所用话费即为price[24]*60*天数。

呢么计算当期时间到day日0时0分的话费的代码如下:

double compute(Time t,int day){//计算当前时间到day日0时0分所用话费
    double bill=0.0;
    for(int i=0;i<t.hour;++i)
        bill+=60*price[i];
    return bill+t.minute*price[t.hour]+price[24]*60*(t.day-day);
}

其中day可以直接赋值为t1.day。

解决了以上的数据结构选取和一些算法问题,整道题就容易解决了

注意点:

  1. 如果某一个人虽然有账单,但是没有找到有效的通话记录,这个人不予输出
  2. 输入的一天内各个小时段的话费单位是美分/分钟,所以在计算的时候一个小时的话费应该是60*price[i],另外输出费用要按美元计算,所以要除以100,不妨在输入一天内各个小时段的话费时就直接进行除以100的操作
  3. 输出月、日、时、分都必须有两位数字不够的要在高位补0

c++代码:

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
struct Time{//定义时间类
    int month,day,hour,minute,time,online=0;//月日时分信息、距0日0时0分的分钟数、指明这一时间是online还是offline
    bool operator <(const Time&t)const{//重载<运算符
        return this->time<t.time;
    }
};
double price[25];//存储一天内各个小时段的话费单位是美元/分钟
double compute(Time t,int day){//计算当前时间到day日0时0分所用话费
    double bill=0.0;
    for(int i=0;i<t.hour;++i)
        bill+=60*price[i];
    return bill+t.minute*price[t.hour]+price[24]*60*(t.day-day);
}
int main(){
    for(int i=0;i<24;++i){//读取一天内各个小时段的话费
        scanf("%lf",&price[i]);
        price[i]/=100.0;//化为美元
        price[24]+=price[i];
    }
    int N;
    scanf("%d",&N);
    map<string,set<Time>>bill;//存储每个人的名字和对应的话费时间
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i){//读取账单
        string s1,s2;
        Time t;
        cin>>s1;
        scanf("%d:%d:%d:%d",&t.month,&t.day,&t.hour,&t.minute);
        t.time=(t.day*24+t.hour)*60+t.minute;
        cin>>s2;
        if(s2=="on-line")
            t.online=1;
        bill[s1].insert(t);
    }
    for(auto i=bill.cbegin();i!=bill.cend();++i){//查找有效的话费记录并就算用时与话费并输出
        bool output=false;//该人的话费记录是否需要输出/是否有有效的话费记录
        double sumBill=0.0;//该人的话费总额
        for(auto j=(i->second).cbegin();j!=(i->second).cend();++j){//定义set的迭代器j
            auto jnext=j;//定义指向j指向的下一个对象的迭代器
            ++jnext;
            for(;jnext!=(i->second).cend()&&!(j->online&&!jnext->online);++j,++jnext);//查找有效的话费记录
            if(jnext!=(i->second).cend()){//如果查找到了
                if(!output){//还没有输出过姓名的月份进行输出,并通过修改output变量标明该人的话费记录需要输出
                    output=true;
                    printf("%s %02d\n",(i->first).c_str(),j->month);
                }
                printf("%02d:%02d:%02d %02d:%02d:%02d ",j->day,j->hour,j->minute,jnext->day,jnext->hour,jnext->minute);//输出话费账单起止时间
                int t=jnext->time-j->time;//计算话费
                double bill=compute(*jnext,j->day)-compute(*j,j->day);//计算话费账单用时
                sumBill+=bill;//加到话费总额上
                printf("%d $%.2f\n",t,bill);//输出
            }
        }
        if(output)//如果该人的话费记录需要输出,输出话费总额
            printf("Total amount: $%.2f\n",sumBill);
    }
    return 0;
}
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