pat甲级1089 Insert or Merge (25)(25 point(s))、乙级1035 插入与归并(25)(25 point(s))

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题目描述

甲级题目描述

1089 Insert or Merge (25)(25 point(s))
According to Wikipedia:

Insertion sort iterates, consuming one input element each repetition, and growing a sorted output list. Each iteration, insertion sort removes one element from the input data, finds the location it belongs within the sorted list, and inserts it there. It repeats until no input elements remain.

Merge sort works as follows: Divide the unsorted list into N sublists, each containing 1 element (a list of 1 element is considered sorted). Then repeatedly merge two adjacent sublists to produce new sorted sublists until there is only 1 sublist remaining.

Now given the initial sequence of integers, together with a sequence which is a result of several iterations of some sorting method, can you tell which sorting method we are using?

Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives a positive integer N (<=100). Then in the next line, N integers are given as the initial sequence. The last line contains the partially sorted sequence of the N numbers. It is assumed that the target sequence is always ascending. All the numbers in a line are separated by a space.

Output Specification:

For each test case, print in the first line either “Insertion Sort” or “Merge Sort” to indicate the method used to obtain the partial result. Then run this method for one more iteration and output in the second line the resulting sequence. It is guaranteed that the answer is unique for each test case. All the numbers in a line must be separated by a space, and there must be no extra space at the end of the line.

Sample Input 1:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 6 0
1 2 3 7 8 5 9 4 6 0
Sample Output 1:

Insertion Sort
1 2 3 5 7 8 9 4 6 0
Sample Input 2:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 0 6
1 3 2 8 5 7 4 9 0 6
Sample Output 2:

Merge Sort
1 2 3 8 4 5 7 9 0 6

乙级题目描述

1035 插入与归并(25)(25 point(s))
根据维基百科的定义:

插入排序是迭代算法,逐一获得输入数据,逐步产生有序的输出序列。每步迭代中,算法从输入序列中取出一元素,将之插入有序序列中正确的位置。如此迭代直到全部元素有序。

归并排序进行如下迭代操作:首先将原始序列看成N个只包含1个元素的有序子序列,然后每次迭代归并两个相邻的有序子序列,直到最后只剩下1个有序的序列。

现给定原始序列和由某排序算法产生的中间序列,请你判断该算法究竟是哪种排序算法?

输入格式:

输入在第一行给出正整数N (<=100);随后一行给出原始序列的N个整数;最后一行给出由某排序算法产生的中间序列。这里假设排序的目标序列是升序。数字间以空格分隔。

输出格式:

首先在第1行中输出“Insertion Sort”表示插入排序、或“Merge Sort”表示归并排序;然后在第2行中输出用该排序算法再迭代一轮的结果序列。题目保证每组测试的结果是唯一的。数字间以空格分隔,且行末不得有多余空格。

输入样例1:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 6 0
1 2 3 7 8 5 9 4 6 0
输出样例1:

Insertion Sort
1 2 3 5 7 8 9 4 6 0
输入样例2:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 0 6
1 3 2 8 5 7 4 9 0 6
输出样例2:

Merge Sort
1 2 3 8 4 5 7 9 0 6

算法设计

显然要编写插入排序和归并排序代码,但是只需表示出每趟排序结果,不必太过注重细节,可以直接使用sort函数对每趟需排序的元素进行排序。先进行插入排序,排序过程中如果没有目标序列,那么必然是归并排序的结果,直接进行归并排序即可。具体实现可见代码。

注意点

不要将原始序列作为一趟排序,插入排序应该从第2个元素开始进行插入,例如原始序列4 3 2 1的第一趟排序为3 4 2 1;原始序列3 4 2 1,第一趟排序为3 4 2 1,第二趟排序为2 3 4 1。同样,归并排序第一趟排序应该是把每2个元素归并在一起。

使用的标准库函数

  • memcpy(dest,source,size):将数组source复制给数组dest,size表示数组source的大小
  • equal(beg1,end1,beg2):比较两个序列对应位置上的元素是否相等,相等则返回true;否则返回false。beg1,end1,beg2均为迭代器,[beg1,end1]确定了序列1的首尾区间,beg2确定了序列2的起始位置

C++代码

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
int N,A[105],initial[105],target[105];
int main(){
    scanf("%d",&N);
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//读取原始序列
        scanf("%d",&initial[i]);
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//读取中间序列
        scanf("%d",&target[i]);
    memcpy(A,initial,sizeof(initial));//将原始序列拷贝给A数组
    bool f=false;
    for(int i=1;i<N;++i){//进行插入排序
        sort(A,A+i+1);//第一趟排序应该是排序前两个数,第i趟排序分别排序前i+1个数
        if(equal(A,A+N,target)){//equal是C++标准库中函数,如果两个序列对应位置上的元素都相等,则返回true
            f=true;
            printf("Insertion Sort\n");
            sort(A,A+i+2);//进行下一趟排序
            break;
        }
    }
    if(!f){//不是插入排序
        printf("Merge Sort\n");
        memcpy(A,initial,sizeof(initial));
        for(int i=2;i<N;i*=2){//将每i个元素归并为一个非递减序列
            for(int j=0;j<N;j+=i)
                sort(A+j,j+i<N?A+j+i:A+N);
            if(equal(A,A+N,target)){
                for(int j=0;j<N;j+=i*2)//进行下一趟排序
                    sort(A+j,j+i*2<N?A+j+i*2:A+N);
                break;
            }
        }
    }
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//输出下一趟排序结果
        printf("%s%d",i>0?" ":"",A[i]);
    return 0;
}
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