pat甲级1098 Insertion or Heap Sort (25)(25 point(s))

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题目描述

1098 Insertion or Heap Sort (25)(25 point(s))
According to Wikipedia:

Insertion sort iterates, consuming one input element each repetition, and growing a sorted output list. At each iteration, insertion sort removes one element from the input data, finds the location it belongs within the sorted list, and inserts it there. It repeats until no input elements remain.

Heap sort divides its input into a sorted and an unsorted region, and it iteratively shrinks the unsorted region by extracting the largest element and moving that to the sorted region. it involves the use of a heap data structure rather than a linear-time search to find the maximum.

Now given the initial sequence of integers, together with a sequence which is a result of several iterations of some sorting method, can you tell which sorting method we are using?

Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives a positive integer N (<=100). Then in the next line, N integers are given as the initial sequence. The last line contains the partially sorted sequence of the N numbers. It is assumed that the target sequence is always ascending. All the numbers in a line are separated by a space.

Output Specification:

For each test case, print in the first line either “Insertion Sort” or “Heap Sort” to indicate the method used to obtain the partial result. Then run this method for one more iteration and output in the second line the resuling sequence. It is guaranteed that the answer is unique for each test case. All the numbers in a line must be separated by a space, and there must be no extra space at the end of the line.

Sample Input 1:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 6 0
1 2 3 7 8 5 9 4 6 0
Sample Output 1:

Insertion Sort
1 2 3 5 7 8 9 4 6 0
Sample Input 2:

10
3 1 2 8 7 5 9 4 6 0
6 4 5 1 0 3 2 7 8 9
Sample Output 2:

Heap Sort
5 4 3 1 0 2 6 7 8 9

算法设计

显然要编写插入排序和堆排序代码,但是只需表示出每趟排序结果,不必太过注重细节,可以直接使用sort函数对每趟需排序的元素进行排序。先进行插入排序,排序过程中如果没有目标序列,那么必然是堆排序的结果,直接进行堆排序即可。具体实现可见代码。

注意点

不要将原始序列作为一趟排序,插入排序应该从第2个元素开始进行插入,例如原始序列4 3 2 1的第一趟排序为3 4 2 1;原始序列3 4 2 1,第一趟排序为3 4 2 1,第二趟排序为2 3 4 1。同样,堆排序第一趟排序应该得到序列中的最大值,并放到数组最末一位。

使用的标准库函数

  • memcpy(dest,source,size):将数组source复制给数组dest,size表示数组source的大小
  • equal(beg1,end1,beg2):比较两个序列对应位置上的元素是否相等,相等则返回true;否则返回false。beg1,end1,beg2均为迭代器,[beg1,end1]确定了序列1的首尾区间,beg2确定了序列2的起始位置

C++代码

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
int N,A[105],initial[105],target[105];
void down(int index,int n){//下滤算法
    int t=A[index];
    while(2*index+1<n){//有儿子结点
        int child=2*index+1;
        if(child+1<n&&A[child]<A[child+1])//找到值比较大的儿子结点
            ++child;
        if(A[child]>t){//如果儿子结点的值大于父亲结点的值
            A[index]=A[child];//儿子结点的值移动到父亲结点
            index=child;
        }else
            break;
    }
    A[index]=t;
}
int main(){
    scanf("%d",&N);
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//读取原始序列
        scanf("%d",&initial[i]);
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//读取中间序列
        scanf("%d",&target[i]);
    memcpy(A,initial,sizeof(initial));//将原始序列拷贝给A数组
    bool f=false;
    for(int i=1;i<N;++i){//进行插入排序
        sort(A,A+i+1);//第一趟排序应该是排序前两个数,第i趟排序分别排序前i+1个数
        if(equal(A,A+N,target)){//equal是C++标准库中函数,如果两个序列对应位置上的元素都相等,则返回true
            f=true;
            printf("Insertion Sort\n");
            sort(A,A+i+2);//进行下一趟排序
            break;
        }
    }
    if(!f){//不是插入排序
        printf("Heap Sort\n");
        memcpy(A,initial,sizeof(initial));
        for(int i=N/2;i>=0;--i)//将前一半元素进行下滤
            down(i,N);
        for(int i=N-1;i>0;--i){//N-1趟排序,每次排序得到一个第N-i大的值放到相应位置
            swap(A[i],A[0]);
            down(0,i);
            if(equal(A,A+N,target)){
                swap(A[i-1],A[0]);//进行下一趟排序
                down(0,i-1);//进行下一趟排序
                break;
            }
        }
    }
    for(int i=0;i<N;++i)//输出下一趟排序结果
        printf("%s%d",i>0?" ":"",A[i]);
    return 0;
}
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