linux下PXE和KickStart实现Linux下的无人值守安装

版权声明:http://blog.csdn.net/robertkun https://blog.csdn.net/robertkun/article/details/16851109

KickStart无人值守安装的原理:

1. DHCP服务器给需要安装的机器分发IP, 并指定ftp服务器地址和pxelinux.0

next-server 192.168.2.18;
filename "pxelinux.0";

2. 客户端连接到服务器,读取启动文件 /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

3. 根据default里面指定的ks.cfg文件的位置,打开KickStart配置文件,

4. 根据ks.cfg的ftp服务器的配置, 读取/var/ftp/pub/文件, 引导安装程序

1. 查看服务状态, 启动服务

1.1 查看三种服务的状态,是否为启动状态
service vsftpd status
service xinetd status
service dhcpd status
1.2 如果没有默认启动,可以设置为默认启动.
service vsftpd status
service xinetd status
service dhcpd status
1.3 dhcp服务配置
rpm -ql dhcp | more
vim /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

[root@centos6-64 pub]# cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
ddns-update-style interim;
ignore client-updates;
allow booting;
allow bootp;
subnet 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
        option routers                  192.168.2.1;
        option subnet-mask              255.255.255.0;
        option domain-name-servers      192.168.2.1;
        option time-offset              -18000; # Eastern Standard Time
        range dynamic-bootp 192.168.2.60 192.168.2.100;
        default-lease-time 21600;
        max-lease-time 43200;
        next-server 192.168.2.18;
        filename "pxelinux.0";
}
1.4 tftp服务配置

yum intall -y tftp*
tftp服务是xinetd的子服务.

[root@centos6-64 ftp]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/tftp 

# default: off
# description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial file transfer \
#	protocol.  The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \
#	workstations, download configuration files to network-aware printers, \
#	and to start the installation process for some operating systems.
service tftp
{
	socket_type		= dgram
	protocol		= udp
	wait			= yes
	user			= root
	server			= /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
	server_args		= -s /tftpboot
	disable			= no
	per_source		= 11
	cps			= 100 2
	flags			= IPv4
}

2. 创建pxe启动所需要的文件和目录

mkdir /tftpboot
mkdir /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg
cp /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 /tftpboot/
挂载安装光盘的镜像,并拷贝以下文件:
cp /mnt/iso/isolinux/isolinux.cfg      /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
cp /mnt/iso/images/pxeboot/initrd.img  /tftpboot/
cp /mnt/iso/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz     /tftpboot/

3. 修改/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default文件

vim /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
[root@centos6-64 pxelinux.cfg]# cat default 
default linux
prompt 1
timeout 60
display boot.msg
label linux
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img text ks=ftp://192.168.2.18/ks.cfg
ks.cfg 是使用kickstart程序生成的文件.后面我们会使用KickStart生成它.

4. 使用kickstart程序生成ks.cfg安装配置文件

安装kickstart:
yum list *kic*
yum install system-config-kickstart.noarch
运行system-config-kickstart,进行图形化参数配置界面:

4.1.基本配置:

4.2 安装方法

4.3.创建新的分区:


4.4.网络配置:


4.5.剩下的项目是关于防火墙,selinux的,看个人需求选择.

最后保存配置文件:


5. 修改生成的ks.cfg文件

5.1 将%packages后面的全拷贝到ks.cfg中的%packages后面去
cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg #系统的安装信息
%packages
@base
@chinese-support
@core
@debugging
@basic-desktop
@desktop-debugging
@desktop-platform
@directory-client
@fonts
@general-desktop
@graphical-admin-tools
@input-methods
@internet-applications
@internet-browser
@java-platform
@legacy-x
@network-file-system-client
@office-suite
@print-client
@remote-desktop-clients
@server-platform
@server-policy
@x11
mtools
pax
oddjob
wodim
sgpio
genisoimage
device-mapper-persistent-data
abrt-gui
samba-winbind
certmonger
pam_krb5
krb5-workstation
gnome-pilot
libXmu
5.2 添加key --skip //跳过输入序列号环节
<注意是两个"-">
[root@rhce ~]# cat ks.cfg
[root@centos6-64 tftpboot]# cat /var/ftp/ks.cfg 
[root@centos6-64 ftp]# cat ks.cfg 
#platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T
#version=DEVEL
# Firewall configuration
firewall --disabled
# Install OS instead of upgrade
install
# Use network installation
url --url=ftp://192.168.2.18/pub
# Root password
rootpw --iscrypted $1$YfhInJ/9$hqyxxL34AduJm0Zzfcl/F1
# System authorization information
auth  --passalgo=sha512
# Use graphical install
graphical
firstboot --disable
# System keyboard
keyboard us
# System language
lang en_US
# SELinux configuration
selinux --disabled
# Installation logging level
logging --level=info


key --skip


# System timezone
timezone  Asia/Shanghai
# Network information
network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0 --onboot=on
# System bootloader configuration
bootloader --location=mbr
# Clear the Master Boot Record
zerombr
# Partition clearing information
clearpart --all --initlabel 
# Disk partitioning information
part /boot --fstype="ext4" --size=200
part swap --fstype="swap" --size=4096
part / --fstype="ext4" --grow --size=1


%packages
@base
@chinese-support
@core
@debugging
@basic-desktop
@desktop-debugging
@desktop-platform
@directory-client
@fonts
@general-desktop
@graphical-admin-tools
@input-methods
@internet-applications
@internet-browser
@java-platform
@legacy-x
@network-file-system-client
@office-suite
@print-client
@remote-desktop-clients
@server-platform
@server-policy
@x11
mtools
pax
oddjob
wodim
sgpio
genisoimage
device-mapper-persistent-data
abrt-gui
samba-winbind
certmonger
pam_krb5
krb5-workstation
gnome-pilot
libXmu


%end
5.3 将配置文件拷贝到ftp目录下
cp ks.cfg /var/ftp/

6. 将系统相关文件拷贝到配置ks.cfg时,指定的ftp目录下

挂载系统镜文件到/vat/ftp/pub/下
[root@centos6-64 ~]# ls -l /var/ftp/
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1419 Nov 20 17:58 ks.cfg
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Mar  6  2013 pub

[root@centos6-64 ~]# ls -l /var/ftp/pub/
total 676
-r--r--r-- 2 root root     14 Mar  6  2013 CentOS_BuildTag
dr-xr-xr-x 3 root root   2048 Mar  5  2013 EFI
-r--r--r-- 2 root root    212 Mar  3  2013 EULA
-r--r--r-- 2 root root  18009 Mar  3  2013 GPL
dr-xr-xr-x 3 root root   2048 Mar  5  2013 images
dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root   2048 Mar  5  2013 isolinux
dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root 649216 Mar  6  2013 Packages
-r--r--r-- 2 root root   1354 Mar  3  2013 RELEASE-NOTES-en-US.html
dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 Mar  6  2013 repodata
-r--r--r-- 2 root root   1706 Mar  3  2013 RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
-r--r--r-- 2 root root   1730 Mar  3  2013 RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Debug-6
-r--r--r-- 2 root root   1730 Mar  3  2013 RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Security-6
-r--r--r-- 2 root root   1734 Mar  3  2013 RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-6
-r--r--r-- 1 root root   3380 Mar  6  2013 TRANS.TBL

到此配置结束, 启动需要安装系统的机器. 修改BIOS以网卡方式启动. 

如果DHCP配置有问题,或PXE找不到安装文件的问题,
请查看/var/log/message 或仔细核对目录是否一致.

#注意如果KickStarts配置在虚拟机中,
虚拟机的网卡要设置为桥接(Bridged)模式.

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