线程-003-线程的同步与锁

问题的出现

上代码

public class Num {
    private int num;

    public int getNum() {
        return num;
    }

    public int add(int num) {
        this.num += num;
        return this.num;
    }
}

测试类

public class ErrorDemo implements Runnable {
    private Num num = new Num();

    @Override
    public void run() {
        for(int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
            try {
                Thread.sleep(1000);
                num.add(10);
                System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+" value is " + num.getNum());
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Runnable runnable = new ErrorDemo();
        Thread thread = new Thread(runnable, "thread-01");
        Thread thread2 = new Thread(runnable, "thread-02");

        thread.start();
        thread2.start();
    }
}

结果

thread-01 value is 20
thread-02 value is 20
thread-02 value is 40
thread-01 value is 40
thread-02 value is 50
thread-01 value is 60

Process finished with exit code 0

这个结果是不准确的。原因是多个线程不加限制的共同操作同一个数据导致

该怎么解决这个问题呢?

线程的同步

知道导致问题的原因,解决起来也不是很困难。
我们可以限制:每次只有一个线程可以操作数据
具体实现一般需满足以下2个条件

  • 将竞争访问的资源变量设置为private
  • 使用关键字synchronized同步修改变量的代码

同步方法

对ErrorDemo中的run()加上关键字

@Override
    public synchronized void run() {
        for(int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
            try {
                Thread.sleep(1000);
                num.add(10);
                System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+" value is " + num.getNum());
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

结果:

thread-01 value is 10
thread-01 value is 20
thread-01 value is 30
thread-02 value is 40
thread-02 value is 50
thread-02 value is 60

Process finished with exit code 0

同步代码块

上面的同步方法,也可以写成

@Override
    public void run() {
        for(int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
            try {
                synchronized (this) {
                    Thread.sleep(1000);
                    num.add(10);
                    System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+" value is " + num.getNum());
                }
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

注意

  • 如果是同步静态方法,代码块中,this应替换成className.class
  • java.util.concurrent.locks Lock接口也可完成类似功能,且思路更为清晰。

相关内容

线程-001-线程简介

线程-002-基本的线程机制

线程-003-线程的同步与锁

线程-004-线程间的协作及状态迁移

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