c语言实现的简单学生管理系统

简单学生管理系统–c语言

花了一个月的时间,学习了链表,文件,多文件编程,然后就开始写学生管理系统,比较简单的那种,实现了增,添,改,查,多种排序,输入的时候的限定,成绩分析的功能。遇到的问题很多,也尝试解决了,下面写点写学生管理系统的要注意的地方,希望对别人有帮助。

1.一定要先写好主函数的框架,然后再往上面加东西,这样说有点笼统,我把我的主函数在下面,可以借鉴下哈。我的主函数是一个while(1)的无限循环,里面一个switch选择,利用一个菜单函数,让其返回值当成switch选择的值,然后进入不同的功能主函数,其他功能主函数和主函数的套路一样。

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
        login();    //这是个的介绍自己的函数
         Sleep(1000);
            //睡眠函数
        while(1)
        {
            switch(menu())
    //主菜单选择函数
            {
                case 1:
                    system("CLS");
   //清屏函数
                    printf("\t\t________学生成绩添加_______");
                    head=luru();
                    cr(head);
                    int choice;
                    scanf("%d",&choice);
                    if(choice==0)
                        break;
                case 2:
                    system("CLS");
                    //printf("\t\t_________学生成绩排序和删除___\d");
                    paxu();
                    int end;
                    scanf("%d",&end);
                    if(end==0)
                        break;
                case 3:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t__________成绩的修改__________");
                    xg();
                    int a;
                    scanf("%d",&a);
                    if(a==0)
                        break;
                case 4:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t___________学生信息分析_______");
                    fx();
                    int b; 
                    scanf("%d",&b);
                    if(b==0)
                        break;
                case 5:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t___________谢谢使用哈_______\n");
                    Sleep(1000);
                    exit(-1);   
                    break; 
            }
            system("PAUSE");
        }
    return 0;
}

login()函数
主页面

2.输入模块一定要注意输入的格式,我采用的尾插法,每次处理好一个节点后就让用户判定是否继续输入,在格式控制方面,我当用户输入一次,就判定它是否符号规范,如果不规范,就重新输入。最后存入文件中。

学生成绩输入
输入时候的规范

3.一定要把函数写的利用率高一点,这样就可以减少代码的重复书写,这个全凭自己的写代码的风格了,我自己在这点也没有做太好,反省中,以前刚开始学c的时候有人说c语言的主体是函数,不太懂,等写完这个,感觉说的真的很对,c语言的函数写好后,在该用的时候直接引用,很方便。

排序的图片
按英语成绩排序
删除学生
学生成绩分析
添加学生信息
学生成绩修改

完整代码

主函数

main.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "student.h"
 #include <string.h>
/* run this program using the console pauser or add your own getch, system("pause") or input loop */

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
        login();
        //struct student *head;
        Sleep(1000);
        while(1)
        {
            switch(menu())
            {
                case 1:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t________学生成绩添加_______");
                    head=luru();
                    cr(head);
                    int choice;
                    scanf("%d",&choice);
                    if(choice==0)
                        break;
                case 2:
                    system("CLS");
                    //printf("\t\t_________学生成绩排序和删除___\d");
                    paxu();
                    int end;
                    scanf("%d",&end);
                    if(end==0)
                        break;
                case 3:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t__________成绩的修改__________");
                    xg();
                    int a;
                    scanf("%d",&a);
                    if(a==0)
                        break;
                case 4:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t___________学生信息分析_______");
                    fx();
                    int b; 
                    scanf("%d",&b);
                    if(b==0)
                        break;
                case 5:
                    system("CLS");
                    printf("\t\t___________谢谢使用哈_______\n");
                    Sleep(1000);
                    exit(-1);   
                    break; 
            }
            system("PAUSE");
        }
    return 0;
}

函数声明

student.h

#include <stdio.h>
struct student *temp;
struct student *head;
struct student{
    int num;
    char name[6];
    int yw;
    int sx;
    int yy;
    struct student*next;
};
int menu();
void login();
struct student* luru();
void cr(struct student *h);
struct student*cc();
int menu1();
void paxu();
void px1();
void px2();
void px3();
void px4();
void sanch();
void tj();
void xg();
void fx();

函数定义

student.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include "student.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
int menu()
{
        char n; 
        do{
        system("cls");
        printf("\t\t\t|-------------------------------------------------|\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|      *****学生管理系统*****                     |\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|-------------------------------------------------|\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|          1.学生成绩录入                         |\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|          2.学生成绩排序和删除                   |\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|          3.成绩的修改                           |\n");  
        printf("\t\t\t|          4.学生成绩分析                         |\n");
        printf("\t\t\t|          5.退出程序                             |\n"); 
        printf("\t\t\t---------------------------------------------------\n");
        printf("请选择1-5:");
        n=getch(); 
        }while(n<'0'||n>'5');
        return(n-48);
}

void login()
{
    printf("\n\n\n\t\t\t  学生信息管理系统\n\n");
    printf("\t\t\t     版本号:0.2\n\n");
    printf("\n\n\n\n\t\t\t    2017年5月10日\n\n");
    printf("\n\n\t\t\t      sakurakid\n");
} 
struct student *luru()
{

    struct student*rhead ,*r,*t,*stu;
    rhead=(struct student*)malloc(sizeof(struct student));
    t=rhead;
    rhead->next=NULL;
    char xx;
    int flag=1;
    printf("\t\t_____________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|        学生管理系统       |\n");
    printf("\t\t_____________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|                           |\n");
    printf("\t\t|        输入1添加          |\n");
    printf("\t\t|        输入0退出          |\n");
    printf("\t\t|___________________________|\n"); 
    while(xx!='1'&&xx!='0')
    {
        xx=getch();
    }
    if(xx=='1')
    {
        system("CLS");
        do{
            system("CLS");
            stu=(struct student*)malloc(sizeof(struct student));
            printf("\t\t_____________________________\n");
            printf("\t\t|        学生管理系统       |\n");
            printf("\t\t|___________________________|\n");
            printf("\t\t|                           |\n");
            printf("\t\t|        输入1添加          |\n");
            printf("\t\t|        输入0退出          |\n");
            printf("\t\t|___________________________|\n"); 
            printf("\t\t学号: ");scanf("%d",&stu->num);
            if(stu->num > 99999999||stu->num < 10000000)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_请输入8位非负数__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入学号: ");scanf("%d",&stu->num);
            }
            printf("\t\t姓名: ");scanf("%s",stu->name);
            if(stu->name[0] > 0)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t______姓名请输入汉字__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入姓名: ");scanf("%s",stu->name);
            }
            printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yw);
            printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&stu->sx);
            printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yy);
            if(stu->sx<0||stu->sx>100||stu->yw<0||stu->yw>100||stu->yy<0||stu->yy>100)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_成绩请输入0-100之间__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入成绩\n");
                printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yw);
                printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&stu->sx);
                printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yy);
            }
            t->next=stu;
            t=stu;
           xx = getch();
           printf("继续输入请按1,退出请按0:"); 
           while(xx!='1'&&xx!='0')
          {
             xx=getch();
          }
        }while(xx=='1');
        t->next=NULL;
   }
   return (rhead);
}

void cr(struct student *h)
{
    struct student *stu;
    FILE*fp;
    if((fp=fopen("学生信息.txt","wt"))==NULL)
    {
        printf("文件出错233,按任意键退出!");
        getch();
        exit(1); 
    }
    for(stu=h->next;stu!=NULL;stu=stu->next)
    {
        fprintf(fp,"%d %s %d %d %d\n",stu->num,stu->name,stu->yw,stu->sx,stu->yy);
    }
    fclose(fp);
}

struct student*cc()
{
    struct student*ahead,*r,*stu;
    FILE*f1;
    f1=fopen("学生信息.txt","rt");
    ahead=(struct student*)malloc(sizeof(struct student));
    ahead->next=NULL;
    r=ahead;
    while(!feof(f1))
    {
        stu=(struct student*)malloc(sizeof(struct student));
        fscanf(f1,"%d %s %d %d %d\n",&stu->num,stu->name,&stu->yw,&stu->sx,&stu->yy);   
        r->next=stu;
        r=stu;
    }
    r->next=NULL;
    fclose(f1);
    return ahead;    
}

int menu1()
{
    system("CLS");
    char n;
    do{
    system("CLS");
    printf("\t\t__________________________________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|                                                |\n");
    printf("\t\t|   1.顺序排序   2.按英语排序   3.按语文排序     |\n");
    printf("\t\t|   4.按数学排序 5.删除学生     6.添加学生       |\n");
    printf("\t\t|                                                |\n");
    printf("\t\t|______________按0退出___________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t请选择0-6:");
    n=getch(); 
    }while(n<'0'||n>'6');
    return (n-48);      
} 

void paxu()
{
    system("CLS");
    char n;
   do{
        switch(menu1())
       {
        case 1:
            px1();
            break;
        case 2:
            system("CLS");
            px2();
            break;
        case 3:
            system("CLS");
            px3();
            break;
        case 4:
            system("CLS");
            px4();
            break;
        case 5:
            system("CLS");
            sanch();
            break;
        case 6:
            system("CLS");
            tj();
            break;
       }
       printf("继续输入请按1,退出请按0:");
       n=getch();
       while(n!='1'&&n!='0')
          {
             n=getch();
          }
   }while(n=='1');
   if(n=='0')
       return;
}

void px1()
{
    struct student *t,*h; 
    h=cc();
    printf("\n");
    printf("\t\t%10s%10s%10s%10s%10s\n","学号","姓名","语文","数学","英语","平均分","总分");
    printf("\t\t--------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    for(t=h->next;t!=NULL;t=t->next)
    {
        printf("\t\t%10d%10s%10d%10d%10d%\n",t->num,t->name,t->yw,t->sx,t->yy);
    } 
}
void px2()
{
    struct student *p,*q,*head,*t; 
    head=cc();
    int tnum;
    char tname[6];
    int tyw;
    int tsx;
    int tyy;
    for(p = head->next;p->next!=NULL;p=p->next){
        for(q=p->next;q!=NULL;q=q->next){
            if(p->yy < q->yy)
            {
                tnum=p->num;
                p->num=q->num;
                q->num=tnum;

                strcpy(tname,p->name);
                strcpy(p->name,q->name);
                strcpy(q->name,tname);

                tyw=p->yw;
                p->yw=q->yw;
                q->yw=tyw;

                tsx=p->sx;
                p->sx=q->sx;
                q->sx=tsx;

                tyy=p->yy;
                p->yy=q->yy;
                q->yy=tyy;


            }
        } 
    }
    printf("\t\t                    英语排序                                   \n");
    printf("\t\t%10s%10s%10s%10s%10s\n","学号","姓名","语文","数学","英语","平均分","总分");
    printf("\t\t--------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    for(t=head->next;t!=NULL;t=t->next)
    {
        printf("\t\t%10d%10s%10d%10d%10d%\n",t->num,t->name,t->yw,t->sx,t->yy);
    } 
}
void px3()
{
    struct student *p,*q,*head,*t; 
    head=cc();
    int tnum;
    char tname[6];
    int tyw;
    int tsx;
    int tyy;
    for(p = head->next;p->next!=NULL;p=p->next){
        for(q=p->next;q!=NULL;q=q->next){
            if(p->yw < q->yw)
            {
                tnum=p->num;
                p->num=q->num;
                q->num=tnum;

                strcpy(tname,p->name);
                strcpy(p->name,q->name);
                strcpy(q->name,tname);

                tyw=p->yw;
                p->yw=q->yw;
                q->yw=tyw;

                tsx=p->sx;
                p->sx=q->sx;
                q->sx=tsx;

                tyy=p->yy;
                p->yy=q->yy;
                q->yy=tyy;      
            }
        } 
    }
    printf("\t\t                    语文排序                                   \n");
    printf("\t\t%10s%10s%10s%10s%10s\n","学号","姓名","语文","数学","英语","平均分","总分");
    printf("\t\t--------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    for(t=head->next;t!=NULL;t=t->next)
    {
        printf("\t\t%10d%10s%10d%10d%10d%\n",t->num,t->name,t->yw,t->sx,t->yy);
    } 
}
void px4()
{
    struct student *p,*q,*head,*t; 
    head=cc();
    int tnum;
    char tname[6];
    int tyw;
    int tsx;
    int tyy;
    for(p = head->next;p->next!=NULL;p=p->next){
        for(q=p->next;q!=NULL;q=q->next){
            if(p->sx < q->sx)
            {
                tnum=p->num;
                p->num=q->num;
                q->num=tnum;

                strcpy(tname,p->name);
                strcpy(p->name,q->name);
                strcpy(q->name,tname);

                tyw=p->yw;
                p->yw=q->yw;
                q->yw=tyw;

                tsx=p->sx;
                p->sx=q->sx;
                q->sx=tsx;

                tyy=p->yy;
                p->yy=q->yy;
                q->yy=tyy;
            }
        } 
    }
    printf("\t\t                    数学排序                                   \n");
    printf("\t\t%10s%10s%10s%10s%10s\n","学号","姓名","语文","数学","英语","平均分","总分");
    printf("\t\t--------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    for(t=head->next;t!=NULL;t=t->next)
    {
        printf("\t\t%10d%10s%10d%10d%10d%\n",t->num,t->name,t->yw,t->sx,t->yy);
    } 
}
void  sanch()
{
    px1();
    struct student *p,*q,*phead,*t,*m; 
    phead=cc();
    int n;
    int flag=0;
    printf("\t\t____________________________________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|______________删除学生信息_________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t|___________________________________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t请输入要删除的学生学号:");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    p=phead;
    for(m=phead;m!=NULL;m=m->next)
    {
        if(m->num==n)
        {
            printf("\t\t已经查到改学生的信息\n");
            flag=0;
            break;
        }
        else
            flag=1;  
    }
    if(flag==1)
        printf("\t\t抱歉,没有查到该学生的信息\n");
    if(flag==0)
    {
        if(phead->num==n)
       {
          phead=phead->next;
       }
       else
      {
        while(p->num!=n && p->next!=NULL)
        {
            t=p;
            p=p->next;
        }
        if(p->num==n)
        {
            t->next=p->next;
        }
      }
      printf("\t\t该学生信息已删除\n");
    }
    cr(phead);
}
void tj()
{
    struct student *phead,*stu; 
    phead=cc();
    printf("\t\t____________________________________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|______________添加学生信息_________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t|___________________________________________________|\n");
    stu=(struct student*)malloc(sizeof(struct student));
    printf("\t\t学号: ");scanf("%d",&stu->num);
            if(stu->num > 99999999||stu->num < 10000000)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_请输入8位非负数__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入学号: ");scanf("%d",&stu->num);
            }
            printf("\t\t姓名: ");scanf("%s",stu->name);
            if(stu->name[0] > 0)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t______姓名请输入汉字__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入姓名: ");scanf("%s",stu->name);
            }
            printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yw);
            printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&stu->sx);
            printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yy);
            if(stu->sx<0||stu->sx>100||stu->yw<0||stu->yw>100||stu->yy<0||stu->yy>100)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_成绩请输入0-100之间__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入成绩\n");
                printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yw);
                printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&stu->sx);
                printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&stu->yy);
            } 
        stu->next=phead->next;
        phead->next=stu;
        printf("\t\t学生信息已存入\n");
        cr(phead);
}
void xg()
{
    system("CLS");
    char n;
    do{
    system("CLS");
    px1();
    struct student *p,*q,*phead,*t,*m; 
    int flag=0;
    int timp; 
    phead=cc();
    printf("\t\t____________________________________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|______________修改学生信息_________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t|___________________________________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t请输入要修改的学生学号:");
    scanf("%d",&timp);
    p=phead;
    for(m=phead;m!=NULL;m=m->next)
    {
        if(m->num==timp)
        {
            printf("\t\t已经查到改学生的信息\n");
            flag=0;
            break;
        }
        else
            flag=1;  
    }
    if(flag==1)
        printf("\t\t抱歉,没有查到该学生的信息\n");
    if(flag==0)
    {
        printf("\t\t该学生的原信息如下\n");
    printf("\t\t学号:%d\n",m->num);
    printf("\t\t姓名:%s\n",m->name);
    printf("\t\t语文:%d\n",m->yw);
    printf("\t\t数学:%d\n",m->sx);
    printf("\t\t英语:%d\n\n",m->yy);
    printf("\t\t请重新输入该学生的信息\n");
    printf("\t\t学号: ");scanf("%d",&m->num);
            if(m->num > 99999999||m->num < 10000000)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_请输入8位非负数__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入学号: ");scanf("%d",&m->num);
            }
            printf("\t\t姓名: ");scanf("%s",m->name);
            if(m->name[0] > 0)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t______姓名请输入汉字__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入姓名: ");scanf("%s",m->name);
            }
            printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&m->yw);
            printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&m->sx);
            printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&m->yy);
            if(m->sx<0||m->sx>100||m->yw<0||m->yw>100||m->yy<0||m->yy>100)
            {
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t_成绩请输入0-100之间__\n");
                printf("\t\t______________________\n");
                printf("\t\t重新输入成绩\n");
                printf("\t\t语文: ");scanf("%d",&m->yw);
                printf("\t\t数学: ");scanf("%d",&m->sx);
                printf("\t\t英语: ");scanf("%d",&m->yy);
            } 
            printf("\t\t该学生信息已修改\n");
            cr(phead);
    }
    printf("继续修改请按1,退出请按0:");
    n=getch();
    while(n!='1'&&n!='0')
    {
        n=getch();
    }   
    }while(n=='1');
   if(n=='0')
       return;
} 
void fx()
{
    struct student *p,*q,*phead,*t,*m; 
    int flag=0;
    int jyw=0;
    int jsx=0;
    int jyy=0;
    int timp;
    int n=0; 
    phead=cc();
    p=phead;
    for(t=p->next;t!=NULL;t=t->next)
    {
        n++;
        if(t->sx>=60)
            jsx++;
        if(t->yw>=60)
            jyw++;
        if(t->yy>=60)
            jyy++;
    } 
    printf("\t\t____________________________________________________\n");
    printf("\t\t|______________学生成绩分析_________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t|___________________________________________________|\n");
    printf("\t\t一共录入了%d个学生成绩\n",n);
    printf("\t\t语文及格人数为%d\n",jyw);
    printf("\t\t数学及格人数为%d\n",jsx);
    printf("\t\t英语及格人数为%d\n",jyy); 
    printf("\t\t分析完毕\n");
    printf("退出请按0:");  
}

总结

以上就是我要说的了哈,忙了一个月,学的东西也都用上了,只要链表,文件会的话,写个简单的学生管理系统很简单的,希望对大家有帮助,自己也要学新东西了,如果有问题的话,欢迎支持大家指出,其实还有很多功能自己没写,比如多端登陆,图形界面等等,跟别人的差距蛮大的。

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