[深度学习]半监督学习、无监督学习之Variational Auto-Encoder变分自编码器(附代码)

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/sinat_33487968/article/details/84946168

论文全称:《Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes》

论文地址:https://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.6114.pdf

论文代码:

keras 版本:https://github.com/bojone/vae

pytorch 版本:https://colab.research.google.com/github/smartgeometry-ucl/dl4g/blob/master/variational_autoencoder.ipynb

关于VAE的博客教程网络上有很多,但是没有几个是能够讲得清晰明了的,而且能够与代码结合更是少之又少。

“Talk is cheap,show me the code”

这里推荐一个博主写的挺不错的VAE分析 :https://spaces.ac.cn/archives/5253

基本上上面这篇可以与下面的代码一致,而我觉得自己没有必要再去解释很多公式的VAE。

首先导入包和设置超参数:

import os

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F

# 2-d latent space, parameter count in same order of magnitude
# as in the original VAE paper (VAE paper has about 3x as many)
latent_dims = 2
num_epochs = 100
batch_size = 128
capacity = 64
learning_rate = 1e-3
variational_beta = 1
use_gpu = True

加载MINIST数据集:

import torchvision.transforms as transforms
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader
from torchvision.datasets import MNIST

img_transform = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.ToTensor()
])

train_dataset = MNIST(root='./data/MNIST', download=True, train=True, transform=img_transform)
train_dataloader = DataLoader(train_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=True)

test_dataset = MNIST(root='./data/MNIST', download=True, train=False, transform=img_transform)
test_dataloader = DataLoader(test_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=True)

定义VAE的结构,整体结构和Autoencoder很类似,但encoder学习的是隐变量的均值和方差,然后再根据他们生成隐变量。注意在encoder中分别有两个全连接层,对应于均值和方差。

而latent_sample函数对应于reparameterization tricks。从N(0,I)中采样一ε,然后让Z=μ+ε×σ。

class Encoder(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Encoder, self).__init__()
        c = capacity
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(in_channels=1, out_channels=c, kernel_size=4, stride=2, padding=1) # out: c x 14 x 14
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(in_channels=c, out_channels=c*2, kernel_size=4, stride=2, padding=1) # out: c x 7 x 7
        self.fc_mu = nn.Linear(in_features=c*2*7*7, out_features=latent_dims)
        self.fc_logvar = nn.Linear(in_features=c*2*7*7, out_features=latent_dims)
            
    def forward(self, x):
        x = F.relu(self.conv1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.conv2(x))
        x = x.view(x.size(0), -1) # flatten batch of multi-channel feature maps to a batch of feature vectors
        x_mu = self.fc_mu(x)
        x_logvar = self.fc_logvar(x)
        return x_mu, x_logvar

class Decoder(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Decoder, self).__init__()
        c = capacity
        self.fc = nn.Linear(in_features=latent_dims, out_features=c*2*7*7)
        self.conv2 = nn.ConvTranspose2d(in_channels=c*2, out_channels=c, kernel_size=4, stride=2, padding=1)
        self.conv1 = nn.ConvTranspose2d(in_channels=c, out_channels=1, kernel_size=4, stride=2, padding=1)
            
    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.fc(x)
        x = x.view(x.size(0), capacity*2, 7, 7) # unflatten batch of feature vectors to a batch of multi-channel feature maps
        x = F.relu(self.conv2(x))
        x = torch.sigmoid(self.conv1(x)) # last layer before output is sigmoid, since we are using BCE as reconstruction loss
        return x
    
class VariationalAutoencoder(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(VariationalAutoencoder, self).__init__()
        self.encoder = Encoder()
        self.decoder = Decoder()
    
    def forward(self, x):
        latent_mu, latent_logvar = self.encoder(x)
        latent = self.latent_sample(latent_mu, latent_logvar)
        x_recon = self.decoder(latent)
        return x_recon, latent_mu, latent_logvar
    
    def latent_sample(self, mu, logvar):
        if self.training:
            # the reparameterization trick
            std = logvar.mul(0.5).exp_()
            eps = torch.empty_like(std).normal_()
            return eps.mul(std).add_(mu)
        else:
            return mu

定义loss函数,第一部分是关于输入与输出的相似程度,第二部分则是用KL散度来衡量学习到的隐变量空间和真实隐变量空间之间的相似性。

def vae_loss(recon_x, x, mu, logvar):
    # recon_x is the probability of a multivariate Bernoulli distribution p.
    # -log(p(x)) is then the pixel-wise binary cross-entropy.
    # Averaging or not averaging the binary cross-entropy over all pixels here
    # is a subtle detail with big effect on training, since it changes the weight
    # we need to pick for the other loss term by several orders of magnitude.
    # Not averaging is the direct implementation of the negative log likelihood,
    # but averaging makes the weight of the other loss term independent of the image resolution.
    recon_loss = F.binary_cross_entropy(recon_x.view(-1, 784), x.view(-1, 784), reduction='sum')
    
    # KL-divergence between the prior distribution over latent vectors
    # (the one we are going to sample from when generating new images)
    # and the distribution estimated by the generator for the given image.
    kldivergence = -0.5 * torch.sum(1 + logvar - mu.pow(2) - logvar.exp())
    
    return recon_loss + variational_beta * kldivergence

用上面的结构初始化一个vae,看看有多少权重参数需要学习。

vae = VariationalAutoencoder()

device = torch.device("cuda:0" if use_gpu and torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
vae = vae.to(device)

num_params = sum(p.numel() for p in vae.parameters() if p.requires_grad)
print('Number of parameters: %d' % num_params)

训练vae

optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(params=vae.parameters(), lr=learning_rate, weight_decay=1e-5)

# set to training mode
vae.train()

train_loss_avg = []

print('Training ...')
for epoch in range(num_epochs):
    train_loss_avg.append(0)
    num_batches = 0
    
    for image_batch, _ in train_dataloader:
        
        image_batch = image_batch.to(device)

        # vae reconstruction
        image_batch_recon, latent_mu, latent_logvar = vae(image_batch)
        
        # reconstruction error
        loss = vae_loss(image_batch_recon, image_batch, latent_mu, latent_logvar)
        
        # backpropagation
        optimizer.zero_grad()
        loss.backward()
        
        # one step of the optmizer (using the gradients from backpropagation)
        optimizer.step()
        
        train_loss_avg[-1] += loss.item()
        num_batches += 1
        
    train_loss_avg[-1] /= num_batches
    print('Epoch [%d / %d] average reconstruction error: %f' % (epoch+1, num_epochs, train_loss_avg[-1]))

 

描绘loss曲线:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.ion()

fig = plt.figure()
plt.plot(train_loss_avg)
plt.xlabel('Epochs')
plt.ylabel('Loss')
plt.show()

 

如果不想从零训练,可以加载预训练模型。

filename = 'vae_2d.pth'
# filename = 'vae_10d.pth'
import urllib
if not os.path.isdir('./pretrained'):
    os.makedirs('./pretrained')
print('downloading ...')
urllib.request.urlretrieve ("http://geometry.cs.ucl.ac.uk/creativeai/pretrained/"+filename, "./pretrained/"+filename)
vae.load_state_dict(torch.load('./pretrained/'+filename))
print('done')

# this is how the VAE parameters can be saved:
# torch.save(vae.state_dict(), './pretrained/my_vae.pth')

在测试集测试一下结果。

# set to evaluation mode
vae.eval()

test_loss_avg, num_batches = 0, 0
for image_batch, _ in test_dataloader:
    
    with torch.no_grad():
    
        image_batch = image_batch.to(device)

        # vae reconstruction
        image_batch_recon, latent_mu, latent_logvar = vae(image_batch)

        # reconstruction error
        loss = vae_loss(image_batch_recon, image_batch, latent_mu, latent_logvar)

        test_loss_avg += loss.item()
        num_batches += 1
    
test_loss_avg /= num_batches
print('average reconstruction error: %f' % (test_loss_avg))

可视化结果

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.ion()

import torchvision.utils

vae.eval()

# This function takes as an input the images to reconstruct
# and the name of the model with which the reconstructions
# are performed
def to_img(x):
    x = x.clamp(0, 1)
    return x

def show_image(img):
    img = to_img(img)
    npimg = img.numpy()
    plt.imshow(np.transpose(npimg, (1, 2, 0)))

def visualise_output(images, model):

    with torch.no_grad():
    
        images = images.to(device)
        images, _, _ = model(images)
        images = images.cpu()
        images = to_img(images)
        np_imagegrid = torchvision.utils.make_grid(images[1:50], 10, 5).numpy()
        plt.imshow(np.transpose(np_imagegrid, (1, 2, 0)))
        plt.show()

images, labels = iter(test_dataloader).next()

# First visualise the original images
print('Original images')
show_image(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images[1:50],10,5))
plt.show()

# Reconstruct and visualise the images using the vae
print('VAE reconstruction:')
visualise_output(images, vae)

可视化2d隐变量空间

# load a network that was trained with a 2d latent space
if latent_dims != 2:
    print('Please change the parameters to two latent dimensions.')
    
with torch.no_grad():
    
    # create a sample grid in 2d latent space
    latent_x = np.linspace(-1.5,1.5,20)
    latent_y = np.linspace(-1.5,1.5,20)
    latents = torch.FloatTensor(len(latent_y), len(latent_x), 2)
    for i, lx in enumerate(latent_x):
        for j, ly in enumerate(latent_y):
            latents[j, i, 0] = lx
            latents[j, i, 1] = ly
    latents = latents.view(-1, 2) # flatten grid into a batch

    # reconstruct images from the latent vectors
    latents = latents.to(device)
    image_recon = vae.decoder(latents)

    image_recon = image_recon.cpu()
    fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 10))
    show_image(torchvision.utils.make_grid(image_recon.data[:400],20,5))
    plt.show()

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