python try/except/finally

稍微总结一下,否则总是忘。

x = 'abc'
def fetcher(obj, index):
    return obj[index]

fetcher(x, 4)

输出:

  File "test.py", line 6, in <module>
    fetcher(x, 4)
  File "test.py", line 4, in fetcher
    return obj[index]
IndexError: string index out of range

第一: try不仅捕获异常,而且会恢复执行
def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    except:
        print "got exception"
    print "continuing"
输出:
got exception
continuing

第二:无论try是否发生异常,finally总会执行
def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    finally:
        print 'after fecth'
输出:
after fecth
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "test.py", line 55, in <module>
    catcher()
  File "test.py", line 12, in catcher
    fetcher(x, 4)
  File "test.py", line 4, in fetcher
    return obj[index]
IndexError: string index out of range

第三:try无异常,才会执行else
def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    except:
        print "got exception"
    else:
        print "not exception"
输出:
got exception
def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 2)
    except:
        print "got exception"
    else:
        print "not exception"
输出:
not exception
else作用:没有else语句,当执行完try语句后,无法知道是没有发生异常,还是发生了异常并被处理过了。通过else可以清楚的区分开。

第四:利用raise传递异常

def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    except:
        print "got exception"
        raise
输出:
got exception
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "test.py", line 37, in <module>
    catcher()
  File "test.py", line 22, in catcher
    fetcher(x, 4)
  File "test.py", line 4, in fetcher
    return obj[index]
IndexError: string index out of range
raise语句不包括异常名称或额外资料时,会重新引发当前异常。如果希望捕获处理一个异常,而又不希望

异常在程序代码中消失,可以通过raise重新引发该异常。


第五:except(name1, name2)

def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    except(TypeError, IndexError):
        print "got exception"
    else:
        print "not exception"
捕获列表列出的异常,进行处理。若except后无任何参数,则捕获所有异常。

def catcher():
    try:
        fetcher(x, 4)
    except:
        print "got exception"


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