Android Ethernet从上至下解析一

http://www.2cto.com/kf/201508/438539.html

最近遇到不少框架问题,比如关于网口的,开机后拔掉有线网,状态栏和设置项中有线网显示图标不会更新,还有双网口的需求,下面就带着这个问题,以跟踪网络状态问题为引线,本篇将贯穿分析Ethernet从上至下的框架结构。因能力和时间有限,文中有分析不到位的地方,十分欢迎大侠们拍砖。
首先看下应用层网络监听相关的app 网络监听一:设置 packages/apps/Settings/src/com/android/settings/ethernet/EthernetEnabler.java

设置项网络按钮类定义

 

网络监听二:statusbar frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/src/com/android/systemui/statusbar/policy/NetworkController.java
NetworkController本身是个BroadcastReceiver,其中关于网络状态变化的监听消息为EthernetManager.NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION,可以猜测这个消息是framework发出来的,往下看。

网络服务框架层 通过整理,网络框架管理器和服务相关代码和基本解释如下: frameworks/base/ethernet/java/com/android/internal/ethernet/
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EthernetStateMachine.java     -> 网络状态机,用于管理网络状态变化及动作逻辑
EthernetManager.java          -> 网络管理器,是app和EthernetService信息交互的桥梁
EthernetInfo.java             -> 网络状态参数类,是Parcelable的一个实现
EthernetInfo.aidl             -> aidl文件,Manager和service统一使用的数据结构
IEthernetManager.aidl         -> aidl文件,用于Manager和service通信


在此可以发现网络状态机也在监听NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION广播,广播发送者不再这里,那应该就是在service那了,继续往下。 frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/EthernetService.java
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private class InterfaceStateReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        if (intent.getAction().equals(EthernetManager.INTERFACE_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION)) {
            ...
            Intent newIntent = new Intent(EthernetManager.NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION);
            newIntent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_RECEIVER_REGISTERED_ONLY_BEFORE_BOOT);
            newIntent.putExtra(EthernetManager.EXTRA_ETHERNET_INFO, ei);
在service中,可以看到发送NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION的发送动作,而这个发送行为还不是底层上报的状态直接启动的,而是上面说的网络状态机,它发送的INTERFACE_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION广播信息,怎么源头又跑上面去了?有些人可能并不理解为什么在framework里面要把一个简单的事件广播要这么来回的发送,等明白了网络状态机的作用,就知道这些过程的逻辑性了。
我们知道statemachine的特点是有一个rootstate,然后向下由多个state发展而成一个树状结构,state之间的转换会伴随着enter(),processMessage()等动作。EthernetStateMachine的状态初始化如下:
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addState(mRootState);
addState(mIdleState, mRootState);
//addState(mObtainingLinkState, mRootState);
addState(mObtainingIpState, mRootState);
addState(mIPConnectedState, mRootState);
addState(mDisconnectingState, mRootState);

接着前面说到的INTERFACE_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION广播继续来看下状态机中的逻辑。 在ethernetstatemachine中,state状态的变化控制着网络状态的广播通知,部分代码如下:
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private void sendInterfaceStateChangedBroadcast() {
    if (DBG) Slog.d(TAG, Sending INTERFACE_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION for
            + mEthernetInfo.getName());
    Intent intent = new Intent(EthernetManager.INTERFACE_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION);
    intent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_RECEIVER_REGISTERED_ONLY_BEFORE_BOOT);
    intent.putExtra(EthernetManager.EXTRA_ETHERNET_INFO, new EthernetInfo(mEthernetInfo));
    mContext.sendBroadcast(intent);
}
private void setNetworkDetailedState(DetailedState state) {
    if (DBG) Slog.d(TAG, mEthernetInfo.getName() +  setDetailed state, old =
            + mEthernetInfo.getDetailedState() +  and new state= + state);
    if (state != mEthernetInfo.getDetailedState()) {
        mEthernetInfo.setDetailedState(state, null, null);
        mEthernetInfo.setIsAvailable(true);
        sendInterfaceStateChangedBroadcast();
    }
}
void dhcpSuccess(DhcpResults dr) {
    if (DBG) Slog.d(TAG, mEthernetInfo.getName() +  DHCP successful);
    LinkProperties lp = dr.linkProperties;
        ...
        setNetworkDetailedState(DetailedState.CONNECTED);
}

上面就是网络状态机的逻辑功能,而状态机的消息来源是service,
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public void updateInterface(EthernetInfo newInfo) {
    if (newInfo == null) {
        Slog.e(TAG, Null EthernetInfo);
        return;
    }
    if (mAvailableInterface == null) {
        Slog.e(TAG, Unable to find statemachine for interface  + newInfo.getName());
        return;
    }
 
    sendMessage(mAvailableInterface,
            EthernetStateMachine.CMD_UPDATE_INTERFACE,
            newInfo);
 
    if(DBG) Slog.d(TAG, newInfo.getName() +  updateInterface done);
}
看到了来来回回的广播,至此算是结束了,这里还要注意一点,广播收发程序中,我们要注意一个序列化参数的传递,就是EthernetInfo对象,这个对象存储着当前网络状态参数。
我们可以这么理解:网络状态机是EthernetService的辅助逻辑处理单元,service通过给状态机发送消息并等待状态机处理结果,然后将结果发送给应用程序。这个就是网络部分framework层的大致逻辑,了解这个之后,我们继续分析service是从哪里取得网络状态消息的。 来看下EthernetService的构造函数:
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public EthernetService(Context context) {
    mContext = context;
    mNetd = INetworkManagementService.Stub.asInterface(
            ServiceManager.getService(Context.NETWORKMANAGEMENT_SERVICE)
    );
 
    try {
        mNetd.registerObserver(new NetworkManagementEventObserver());
    } catch (RemoteException e) {
        Slog.e(TAG, Remote NetworkManagementService error:  + e);
    }
看下NetworkManagementEventObserver的实现:
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private class NetworkManagementEventObserver extends INetworkManagementEventObserver.Stub {
    public void interfaceAdded(String iface) {
        if(DBG) Slog.d(TAG, interfaceAdded:  + iface);
        addInterface(iface);
    }
    public void interfaceRemoved(String iface) {
        if(DBG) Slog.d(TAG, interfaceRemoved:  + iface);
        removeInterface(iface);
    }
    public void limitReached(String limitName, String iface) {}
    public void interfaceClassDataActivityChanged(String label, boolean active) {}
    public void interfaceLinkStateChanged(String iface, boolean up) {
        if(DBG) Slog.d(TAG, interfaceLinkStateChanged for  + iface + , up =  + up);
        if (mAvailableInterface != null && up) {
            //sendMessage(mAvailableInterface,
            //EthernetStateMachine.CMD_LINK_UP);
        }
    }
    public void interfaceStatusChanged(String iface, boolean up) {
        if(DBG) Slog.d(TAG, interfaceStatusChanged for  + iface + , up =  + up);
        //addInterface(iface);
    }
    public void addressUpdated(String address, String iface, int flags, int scope) {}
    public void addressRemoved(String address, String iface, int flags, int scope) {}
}
这里我们看到seivice从NetworkManagementService进行函数回调。 NetworkManagementService也是注册到系统中的服务项,顾名思义负责网络管理服务,具体功能在本篇不做深入分析,其中之一通过socket和netd进行交互,这个在后面继续跟踪。
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SystemServer.java    try {
     Slog.i(TAG, NetworkManagement Service);
     networkManagement = NetworkManagementService.create(context);
     ServiceManager.addService(Context.NETWORKMANAGEMENT_SERVICE, networkManagement);
} catch (Throwable e) {
     reportWtf(starting NetworkManagement Service, e);
}
在后续的分析中,我们开始了解到framework到native的交互,这里我们先看一张网络的图示 \


加载中...
加载中...
我们按照图示的最上层来看看NetworkManagementService.java
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private static final String NETD_SOCKET_NAME = netd;
private NetworkManagementService(Context context, String socket) {
    mContext = context;
 
    if (simulator.equals(SystemProperties.get(ro.product.device))) {
        return;
    }
 
    mConnector = new NativeDaemonConnector(
            new NetdCallbackReceiver(), socket, 10, NETD_TAG, 160);
    mThread = new Thread(mConnector, NETD_TAG);
 
    // Add ourself to the Watchdog monitors.
    Watchdog.getInstance().addMonitor(this);
}
这里socket值就是netd字符串,service启动了名为NativeDaemonConnector的Runnable线程,同时从构造函数中传递了NetdCallbackReceiver 对象,用于回调处理各种网络事件。
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private class NetdCallbackReceiver implements INativeDaemonConnectorCallbacks {
     @Override
    public void onDaemonConnected() {
 
    @Override
    public boolean onEvent(int code, String raw, String[] cooked) {      
        switch (code) {
        case NetdResponseCode.InterfaceChange:
                } else if (cooked[2].equals(linkstate) && cooked.length == 5) {
                    // 网络状态变化事件在这里回调处理
                    notifyInterfaceLinkStateChanged(cooked[3], cooked[4].equals(up));
                    return true;
                }

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/**
  * Notify our observers of an interface link state change
  * (typically, an Ethernet cable has been plugged-in or unplugged).
  */
 private void notifyInterfaceLinkStateChanged(String iface, boolean up) {
     final int length = mObservers.beginBroadcast();
     for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
         try {
             mObservers.getBroadcastItem(i).interfaceLinkStateChanged(iface, up);
         } catch (RemoteException e) {
         } catch (RuntimeException e) {
         }
     }
     mObservers.finishBroadcast();
 }
上面说了NativeDaemonConnector是一个Runnable的实现,那么这个线程在后台做些什么工作呢?在线程run函数中可以看到线程在while死循环中一直listenToSocket,可以猜想这里是在监听获取native中网络相关事件的地方了。
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@Override
public void run() {
    mCallbackHandler = new Handler(FgThread.get().getLooper(), this);
 
    while (true) {
        try {
            listenToSocket();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            loge(Error in NativeDaemonConnector:  + e);
            SystemClock.sleep(5000);
        }
    }
}
private void listenToSocket() throws IOException {
    LocalSocket socket = null;
 
    try {
        // 创建一个socket
        socket = new LocalSocket();
        LocalSocketAddress address = determineSocketAddress();
        socket.connect(address);
        // 从socket中获取流数据并处理
        InputStream inputStream = socket.getInputStream();
        synchronized (mDaemonLock) {
            mOutputStream = socket.getOutputStream();
        }
        ...
            mCallbackHandler.sendMessage(mCallbackHandler.obtainMessage(
                                    event.getCode(), event.getRawEvent()));
// 收到流数据时,直接发给主线程,通过NetdCallbackReceiver 对象进行回调处理
@Override
public boolean handleMessage(Message msg) {
    String event = (String) msg.obj;
    try {
        if (!mCallbacks.onEvent(msg.what, event, NativeDaemonEvent.unescapeArgs(event))) {
            log(String.format(Unhandled event '%s', event));
        }
    } catch (Exception e) {
        loge(Error handling ' + event + ':  + e);
    }
    return true;
}
 
private LocalSocketAddress determineSocketAddress() {
    // If we're testing, set up a socket in a namespace that's accessible to test code.
    // In order to ensure that unprivileged apps aren't able to impersonate native daemons on
    // production devices, even if said native daemons ill-advisedly pick a socket name that
    // starts with __test__, only allow this on debug builds.
    if (mSocket.startsWith(__test__) && Build.IS_DEBUGGABLE) {
        return new LocalSocketAddress(mSocket);
    } else {
        return new LocalSocketAddress(mSocket, LocalSocketAddress.Namespace.RESERVED);
    }
}
我们接下来看一下LocalSocket相关的类,了解一下这个socket是如何connect和get的。 LocalSocket*相关的类定义在 frameworks/base/core/java/android/net/ |->LocalSocket.java
|->LocalSocketAddress.java |->LocalSocketImpl.java 这里重点看下LocalSocketImpl类,其中就可以看到大量的native函数了,也就是通过jni完成java到C++的交互,有些人可能会有疑问,既然这里使用jni调用了C++库函数,但是这里没有看到System.loadlibary字眼啊。通过jni的基础我们知道这里java类使用的jni名字应该是android_net_LocalSocket*样子的,那么在android工程代码中也确实存在这个名字的cpp文件,路径是frameworks/base/core/jni/。可以确认我们这里的java层就是调用这里的lib库了,而编译后我们知道这个库名为libandroid_runtime.so。那么这个库在哪里load的呢?下面简要提一下。 我们知道android启动时,第一个进程init在解析init.rc时创建了app_process,app_process在创建zygote进程前首先建立dalvikvm虚拟机环境,初始化android runtime,这里就在C环境下预先加载了libandroid_runtime.so库。如下: frameworks/base/core/jni/AndroidRuntime.cpp
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static const RegJNIRec gRegJNI[] = {
    REG_JNI(register_android_net_LocalSocketImpl),
了解了库加载的问题后,我们接着看LocalSocketImpl.java中使用的几个重要的函数:
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connect()
getInputStream()
getOutputStream()
函数具体内容不具体贴出来,其中可以看到调用了本地方法如read_native(),writeba_native()等。我们就走到native的大门了。打开本地函数文件,看下native中本地函数列表。 frameworks/base/core/jni/android_net_LocalSocketImpl.cpp
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static JNINativeMethod gMethods[] = {
     /* name, signature, funcPtr */
    {getOption_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;I)I, (void*)socket_getOption},
    {setOption_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;III)V, (void*)socket_setOption},
    {connectLocal, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;Ljava/lang/String;I)V,
                                                (void*)socket_connect_local},
    {bindLocal, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;Ljava/lang/String;I)V, (void*)socket_bind_local},
    {listen_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;I)V, (void*)socket_listen},
    {accept, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;Landroid/net/LocalSocketImpl;)Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;, (void*)socket_accept},
    {shutdown, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;Z)V, (void*)socket_shutdown},
    {available_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;)I, (void*) socket_available},
    {pending_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;)I, (void*) socket_pending},
    {read_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;)I, (void*) socket_read},
    {readba_native, ([BIILjava/io/FileDescriptor;)I, (void*) socket_readba},
    {writeba_native, ([BIILjava/io/FileDescriptor;)V, (void*) socket_writeba},
    {write_native, (ILjava/io/FileDescriptor;)V, (void*) socket_write},
    {getPeerCredentials_native,
            (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;)Landroid/net/Credentials;,
            (void*) socket_get_peer_credentials}
    //,{getSockName_native, (Ljava/io/FileDescriptor;)Ljava/lang/String;,
    //        (void *) socket_getSockName}
 
};
int register_android_net_LocalSocketImpl(JNIEnv *env){}


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