设计模式之组合模式

概述

组合模式又叫部分整体模式,是用于把一组相似的对象当作一个单一的对象。组合模式依据树形结构来组合对象,用来表示部分以及整体层次。这种类型的设计模式属于结构型模式,它创建了对象组的树形结构。

这种模式创建了一个包含自己对象组的类。该类提供了修改相同对象组的方式。

使用场景

部分、整体场景,如树形菜单,文件、文件夹的管理。

具体实现

 
public class Employee {
   private String name;
   private String dept;
   private int salary;
   private List<Employee> subordinates;
 
   //构造函数
   public Employee(String name,String dept, int sal) {
      this.name = name;
      this.dept = dept;
      this.salary = sal;
      subordinates = new ArrayList<Employee>();
   }
 
   public void add(Employee e) {
      subordinates.add(e);
   }
 
   public void remove(Employee e) {
      subordinates.remove(e);
   }
 
   public List<Employee> getSubordinates(){
     return subordinates;
   }
 
   public String toString(){
      return ("Employee :[ Name : "+ name 
      +", dept : "+ dept + ", salary :"
      + salary+" ]");
   }   
}
public class Demo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      Employee CEO = new Employee("John","CEO", 30000);
 
      Employee headSales = new Employee("Robert","Head Sales", 20000);
 
      Employee headMarketing = new Employee("Michel","Head Marketing", 20000);
 
      Employee clerk1 = new Employee("Laura","Marketing", 10000);
      Employee clerk2 = new Employee("Bob","Marketing", 10000);
 
      Employee salesExecutive1 = new Employee("Richard","Sales", 10000);
      Employee salesExecutive2 = new Employee("Rob","Sales", 10000);
 
      CEO.add(headSales);
      CEO.add(headMarketing);
 
      headSales.add(salesExecutive1);
      headSales.add(salesExecutive2);
 
      headMarketing.add(clerk1);
      headMarketing.add(clerk2);
 
      //打印该组织的所有员工
      System.out.println(CEO); 
      for (Employee headEmployee : CEO.getSubordinates()) {
         System.out.println(headEmployee);
         for (Employee employee : headEmployee.getSubordinates()) {
            System.out.println(employee);
         }
      }        
   }
}

运行结果:

Employee :[ Name : John, dept : CEO, salary :30000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Robert, dept : Head Sales, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Richard, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Rob, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Michel, dept : Head Marketing, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Laura, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Bob, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]

总结

优点:

  • 高层模块调用简单。
  • 节点自由增加。

缺点:

  • 在使用组合模式时,其叶子和树枝的声明都是实现类,而不是接口,违反了依赖倒置原则。
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