java集合系列——List集合之ArrayList介绍(二)

一:List概述

List是 java.util包下面的类,从 java集合系列——java集合概述(一) 中可以知道,List继承了Collection 接口!

List本身也是一个接口,它的实现有ArrayList 、LinkedList、Vector和CopyOnWriteArrayList等!

下面总结分析ArrayList核心的概念和实现原理!

 

二:List的几个实现类ArrayList类分析

1:ArrayList的简介

 

ArrayList基于数组实现,是一个动态的数组队列。但是它和Java中的数组又不一样,它的容量可以自动增长,类似于C语言中动态申请内存,动态增长内存!

ArrayList继承了AbstractList,实现了RandomAccess、Cloneable和Serializable接口!

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>

        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

集成了AbstractList,AbstractList又继承了AbstractCollection实现了List接口,它是一个数组队列,提供了相关的添加、删除、修改、遍历等功能!

public abstract class AbstractList<E> extends AbstractCollection<E> implements List<E> {

    /**

     * Sole constructor.  (For invocation by subclass constructors, typically

     * implicit.)

     */

    protected AbstractList() {

    }

 

实现了RandomAccess接口,提供了随机访问功能,实际上就是通过下标序号进行快速访问。

实现了Cloneable接口,即覆盖了函数clone(),能被克隆。

实现了Serializable接口,支持序列化,也就意味了ArrayList能够通过序列化传输。

2: ArrayList的继承关系

ArrayLList API

 

java.lang.Object

    java.util.AbstractCollection<E>

        java.util.AbstractList<E>

            java.util.ArrayList<E>

 

All Implemented Interfaces:

Serializable, Cloneable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, List<E>, RandomAccess

Direct Known Subclasses:

AttributeList, RoleList, RoleUnresolvedList

 

 

3:ArrayList的源码分析

 

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>

        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

{

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

    //属性

    /**

     * 默认初始容量 = 10

     */

    private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

 

    /**

     * 用于空实例的共享空数组实例。

     */

    private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

 

    /**

     *存储ArrayList的元素的数组缓冲区。

     * ArrayList的容量是该数组缓冲区的长度。 任何

     *空的ArrayList与elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA将被扩展为

     *添加第一个元素时的DEFAULT_CAPACITY。

     */

    private transient Object[] elementData;//注:被transient关键字修饰的变量不再能被序列化,一个静态变量不管是否被transient修饰,均不能被序列化。

 

    /**

     * ArrayList的大小(它包含的元素数量)。

     *

     * @serial

     */

    private int size;

 

    //构造函数

 

    /**

     * Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.

     * 构造具有指定初始容量的空列表。

     *

     * @param  initialCapacity  the initial capacity of the list

     *         initialCapacity  列表的初始容量

     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity

     *         is negative

     *      IllegalArgumentException如果指定的初始容量是负数

     */

    public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {

        super();

        if (initialCapacity < 0)

            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+

                                               initialCapacity);

        this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];

    }

 

    /**

     * Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.

     * 构造一个初始容量为10的空列表。

     */

    public ArrayList() {

        super();

        this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

    }

 

    /**

     * Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified

     * collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's

     * iterator.

     * 按照集合的迭代器返回的顺序构造包含指定集合的元素的列表。

     * @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list

     *        c 其元素将被放置到此列表中的集合

     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null

     *        如果指定的集合为null,则为NullPointerException

     */

    public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {

        elementData = c.toArray();

        size = elementData.length;

        // c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)

        // c.toArray可能(不正确)不返回Object [](请参阅6260652)

        if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)//判断是否返回Object[].class,若没有返回,则使用Arrays.copyOf 进行转换

            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);

    }

 

    /**

     * Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the

     * list's current size.  An application can use this operation to minimize

     * the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.

     *将此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的容量修改为列表的当前大小。

     *应用程序可以使用此操作最小化<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的存储。

     */

    public void trimToSize() {

        modCount++;//在java.util.AbstractList<E>中定义,用于计算对数组的操作次数

        if (size < elementData.length) {

            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);

        }

    }

 

 

     /**

     * Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if

     * necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements

     * specified by the minimum capacity argument.

     * 如有必要,增加此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的容量,以确保由最小容量参数指定。

     * @param   minCapacity   the desired minimum capacity

     *          minCapacity   所需的最小容量

     */         

    public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        int minExpand = (elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)

            // any size if real element table

            ? 0

            // larger than default for empty table. It's already supposed to be at default size.

            // 大于默认值为空表。 它应该是默认大小。

            : DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

 

        if (minCapacity > minExpand) { //minCapacity > minExpand 则设置

            ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);

        }

    }

    //确保集合内部的容量

     private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {

        if (elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {

            minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);

        }

 

        ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);

    }

 

    private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        modCount++;

 

        // overflow-conscious code

        if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)

            grow(minCapacity);

    }

 

     /**

     * The maximum size of array to allocate.

     * Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.

     * Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in

     * OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit

     *一些虚拟机保留数组中的一些标题字。

     *尝试分配较大的数组可能会导致OutOfMemoryError:请求的数组大小超过VM限制

     * 注:怕超过VM限制,所以只用 Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8  设置MAX_ARRAY_SIZE的值!

     */

    private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

 

    /**

     * Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the

     * number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.

     * 增加容量以确保它至少可以容纳由最小容量参数指定的元素数。

     * @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity

     *        minCapacity  所需的最小容量

     */

    private void grow(int minCapacity) {

        // overflow-conscious code 溢出-察觉代码

        int oldCapacity = elementData.length; //旧的容量大小

        int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1); //oldCapacity >> 1 : >> 右移 相当于 oldCapacity/2

        if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)

            newCapacity = minCapacity;

        if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)

            newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);//看下面的hugeCapacity()方法,数组的最大容量不会超过MAX_ARRAY_SIZE

        // minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:

        // minCapacity通常接近于大小,所以这是一个win:

 

        elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);//复制到一个新的数组

    }

 

     private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow

            throw new OutOfMemoryError();

        return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?

            Integer.MAX_VALUE :

            MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns the number of elements in this list.

     * 返回此列表中的元素数。获取集合的大小

     *

     * @return the number of elements in this list

     *         此列表中的元素数

     */

    public int size() {

        return size;

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.

     * 判断是否为空,如果集合为没有包含任何元素,返回 true !

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements

     */

    public boolean isEmpty() {

        return size == 0;

    }

 

    /**

     *如果此列表包含指定的元素,则返回true。 更正式地,

     *当且仅当这个列表包含至少一个元素e使得(o == null?e == *null:o.equals(e))时,

     *返回true。

     * @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element

     */

    public boolean contains(Object o) {

        return indexOf(o) >= 0;

    }

 

    /**

     *返回此列表中指定元素的第一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,

     *则返回-1。 更正式地,返回最低索引i,使得(o == null?get(i)== null:o.equals(get(i))),

     *或-1,如果没有这样的索引。

     *

     *返回:此列表中指定元素的第一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,则为-1

     */

    public int indexOf(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

                if (elementData[i]==null)

                    return i;

        } else {

            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))

                    return i;

        }

        return -1;

    }

 

    /**

     * 返回此列表中指定元素的最后一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,

     *则返回-1。 更正式地,返回最高索引i,使得(o == null?get(i)== null:o.equals(get(i))),

     *或-1如果没有这样的索引。

     *

     *返回:此列表中指定元素的最后一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,则为-1

     */

    public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)

                if (elementData[i]==null)

                    return i;

        } else {

            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)

                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))

                    return i;

        }

        return -1;

    }

 

 

    /**

     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.  (The

     * elements themselves are not copied.)

     * 返回此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的浅拷贝。 (元素本身不被复制。)

     * @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance

     */

    public Object clone() { //实现了Cloneable接口,覆盖了函数clone(),能被克隆。

        try {

            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

                ArrayList<E> v = (ArrayList<E>) super.clone();

            v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);

            v.modCount = 0;

            return v;

        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {

            // this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable

            // 这不应该发生,因为我们是克隆的

            throw new InternalError();

        }

    }

 

     /**

     * 以正确的顺序返回包含此列表中所有元素的数组(从第一个元素到最后一个元素)。

     *

     * <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based

     * APIs.

     * 此方法充当基于阵列和基于集合的API之间的桥梁

     * @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in

     *         proper sequence

     * 一个包含正确顺序的列表中所有元素的数组

     */

    public Object[] toArray() {

        return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);//使用Arrays工具类

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns the element at the specified position in this list.

     * 返回此列表中指定位置的元素。

     *

     * @param  index index of the element to return

     *      要返回的元素的索引索引

     * @return the element at the specified position in this list

     *      该列表中指定位置的元素

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E get(int index) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        return elementData(index);

    }

 

    /**

     * Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with

     * the specified element.

     * 用指定的元素替换此列表中指定位置处的元素。

     *

     * @param index index of the element to replace

     *       要替换的元素的索引索引

     * @param element element to be stored at the specified position

     *       元素要素存储在指定位置

     * @return the element previously at the specified position

     *       元素先前在指定位置

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E set(int index, E element) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        E oldValue = elementData(index);

        elementData[index] = element;

        return oldValue;

    }

 

    /**

     * Appends the specified element to the end of this list.

     * 将指定的元素追加到此列表的末尾。

     * @param e element to be appended to this list

     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})

     */

    public boolean add(E e) {

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!! 增加modCount!用于判断

        elementData[size++] = e;

        return true;

    }

 

    /**

     * Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this

     * list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and

     * any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).

     * 在此列表中指定的位置插入指定的元素。 将当前在该位置的元素(如果有)

     * 和任何后续元素向右移(将一个添加到它们的索引)。

     * @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted

     * @param element element to be inserted

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public void add(int index, E element) {

        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

 

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!!

        System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1,

                         size - index);

        elementData[index] = element;

        size++;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes the element at the specified position in this list.

     * Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their

     * indices).

     * 删除此列表中指定位置的元素。 将任何后续元素向左移(从它们的索引中减去一个)。

     * @param index the index of the element to be removed

     * @return the element that was removed from the list

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E remove(int index) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        modCount++;

        E oldValue = elementData(index);

 

        int numMoved = size - index - 1;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,

 

    //public static native void arraycopy(Object src,  int  srcPos,

    //                                 Object dest, int destPos,int length);

    //调用了本地的方法 : 将指定源数组的数组从指定位置开始复制到目标数组的指定位置。

 

        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work 设置为 null ,让gc去回收

 

        return oldValue;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,

     * if it is present.  If the list does not contain the element, it is

     * unchanged.  More formally, removes the element with the lowest index

     * 从列表中删除指定元素的第一次出现(如果存在)。

     *如果列表不包含元素,则不会更改。 更正式地,删除具有最低索引i的元素,使得(如果这样的元素存在)

     *(o == null?get(i)== *null:o.equals(get(i)))。 *如果此列表包含指定的元素(或等效地,如果此列表作为调用的结果更改),则返回true。

     *

     * @param o element to be removed from this list, if present

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element 如果包含返回 true

     */

    public boolean remove(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)

                if (elementData[index] == null) {

                    fastRemove(index);

                    return true;

                }

        } else {

            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)

                if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {

                    fastRemove(index);

                    return true;

                }

        }

        return false;

    }

 

    /*

     * Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not

     * return the value removed.

     * 私有删除方法,跳过边界检查,不返回值删除。

     */

    private void fastRemove(int index) {

        modCount++;

        int numMoved = size - index - 1;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,

                             numMoved);

        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes all of the elements from this list.  The list will

     * be empty after this call returns.

     *从此列表中删除所有元素。 此调用返回后,列表将为空

     */

    public void clear() {

        modCount++;

 

        // clear to let GC do its work

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

            elementData[i] = null;

 

        size = 0;

    }

 

     /**

     * 将指定集合中的所有元素以指定集合的Iterator返回的顺序追加到此列表的末尾。 *如果在操作正在进行时修改指定的集合,则此操作的行为是未定义的。 *(这意味着如果指定的集合是此列表,则此调用的行为是未定义的,并且此列表不是空的。)

     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call

     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null

     */

    public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {

        Object[] a = c.toArray();

        int numNew = a.length;

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount

        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);

        size += numNew;

        return numNew != 0;

    }

    /*

    *将指定集合中的所有元素插入到此列表中,从指定位置开始。

    *

    */

     public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {

        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

 

        Object[] a = c.toArray();

        int numNew = a.length;

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount

 

        int numMoved = size - index;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,

                             numMoved);

 

        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);

        size += numNew;

        return numNew != 0;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between

     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.

     * Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).

     *从此列表中删除其索引在fromIndex(包含)和toIndex(排除)之间的所有元素。

     *将任何后续元素向左移(减少其索引)。

     */

    protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {

        modCount++;

        int numMoved = size - toIndex;

        System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,

                         numMoved);

 

        // clear to let GC do its work

        int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);

        for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {

            elementData[i] = null;

        }

        size = newSize;

    }

 

    /**

     * 检查给定的索引是否在范围内。 如果没有,则抛出一个适当的运行时异常。

     * 私有方法

     */

    private void rangeCheck(int index) {

        if (index >= size)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));

    }

 

    /**

     * A version of rangeCheck used by add and addAll.

     * 由add和addAll使用的rangeCheck的版本。

     * 私有方法

     */

    private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {

        if (index > size || index < 0)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));

    }

 

 

 

 

 

    /**

     * Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in the

     * specified collection.

     * 从此列表中删除包含在指定集合中的所有元素。

     * @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list

     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call

     * 如果此列表由于调用而更改 则返回true

     */

    public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {

        return batchRemove(c, false);

    }

 

    /**

     * Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the

     * specified collection.  In other words, removes from this list all

     * of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.

     *仅保留此列表中包含在指定集合中的元素。 换句话说,

     *从此列表中删除未包含在指定集合中的所有元素。

     * @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list

     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call

     * 如果此列表由于调用而更改 则返回true

     */

    public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {

        return batchRemove(c, true);

    }

    //批量移除

    private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {

        final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;

        int r = 0, w = 0;

        boolean modified = false;

        try {

            for (; r < size; r++)

                if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)

                    elementData[w++] = elementData[r];

        } finally {

            // Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,

            // even if c.contains() throws.

            //保留与AbstractCollection的行为兼容性,即使c.contains()抛出。

            if (r != size) {

                System.arraycopy(elementData, r,

                                 elementData, w,

                                 size - r);

                w += size - r;

            }

            if (w != size) {

                // clear to let GC do its work

                for (int i = w; i < size; i++)

                    elementData[i] = null;

                modCount += size - w;

                size = w;

                modified = true;

            }

        }

        return modified;

    }

 

    /**

     *  将ArrayList实例的状态保存到流(即,序列化它)。

     */

    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)

        throws java.io.IOException{

        // Write out element count, and any hidden stuff

        //写出元素数量和任何隐藏的东西

        int expectedModCount = modCount;

        s.defaultWriteObject();

 

        // Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()

        s.writeInt(size);

 

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.

        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {

            s.writeObject(elementData[i]);

        }

 

        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {

            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

        }

    }

     /**

     * Reconstitute the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance from a stream (that is,

     * deserialize it).

     *从流重构 ArrayList 实例(即,反序列化它)。

     */

    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)

        throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {

        elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

 

        // Read in size, and any hidden stuff

        //读出元素数量和任何隐藏的东西

        s.defaultReadObject();

 

        // Read in capacity  读入容量

        s.readInt(); // ignored

 

        if (size > 0) {

            // be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity

            ensureCapacityInternal(size);

 

            Object[] a = elementData;

            // Read in all elements in the proper order.

            for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {

                a[i] = s.readObject();

            }

        }

    }

 

 

     /**

     *对列表中的元素返回一个列表迭代器(以正确的顺序),

     *从列表中指定的位置开始。 指定的索引指示由初始调用返回到next的第一个元素。

     *对上一个的初始调用将返回具有指定索引减1的元素。

     *  

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {

        if (index < 0 || index > size)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);

        return new ListItr(index);

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper

     * sequence).

     *返回此列表中的元素(按正确顺序)的列表迭代器。

     * <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @see #listIterator(int)

     */

    public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {

        return new ListItr(0);

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.

     *以正确的顺序返回此列表中的元素的迭代器。

     * <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence

     */

    public Iterator<E> iterator() {

        return new Itr();

    }

 

    /**

     * An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr

     * AbstractList.Itr的优化版本

     */

    private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {

        int cursor;       // index of next element to return

        int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such

        int expectedModCount = modCount;

 

        public boolean hasNext() {

            return cursor != size;

        }

 

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

        public E next() {

            checkForComodification();

            int i = cursor;

            if (i >= size)

                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;

            if (i >= elementData.length)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            cursor = i + 1;

            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];

        }

 

        public void remove() {

            if (lastRet < 0)

                throw new IllegalStateException();

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);

                cursor = lastRet;

                lastRet = -1;

                expectedModCount = modCount;

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

 

        final void checkForComodification() {

            if (modCount != expectedModCount)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

        }

    }

 

    /**

     * An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr

     * AbstractList.ListItr的优化版本

     */

    private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {

        ListItr(int index) {

            super();

            cursor = index;

        }

 

        public boolean hasPrevious() {

            return cursor != 0;

        }

 

        public int nextIndex() {

            return cursor;

        }

 

        public int previousIndex() {

            return cursor - 1;

        }

 

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

        public E previous() {

            checkForComodification();

            int i = cursor - 1;

            if (i < 0)

                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;

            if (i >= elementData.length)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            cursor = i;

            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];

        }

 

        public void set(E e) {

            if (lastRet < 0)

                throw new IllegalStateException();

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

 

        public void add(E e) {

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                int i = cursor;

                ArrayList.this.add(i, e);

                cursor = i + 1;

                lastRet = -1;

                expectedModCount = modCount;

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

    }

 

    //subList 以及后面的代码不在做分析,实际情况中很少用到,需要的时候,请自行看源码分析

}   

4:总结

 

ArrayList 本质实现方法是用数组!是非同步的!

 

初始化容量 = 10 ,最大容量不会超过 MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8!

 

indexOf和lastIndexOf 查找元素,若元素不存在,则返回-1!

 

当ArrayList容量不足以容纳全部元素时,ArrayList会重新设置容量:新的容量=“(原始容量x3)/2 ”。

 

ArrayList的克隆函数,即是将全部元素克隆到一个数组中。

 

ArrayList实现java.io.Serializable的方式。当写入到输出流时,先写入“容量”,再依次写入“每一个元素”;当读出输入流时,先读取“容量”,再依次读取“每一个元素”。

 

从代码中可以看出,当容量不够时,每次增加元素,都要将原来的元素拷贝到一个新的数组中,非常之耗时,也因此建议在事先能确定元素数量的情况下,才使用ArrayList,否则建议使用LinkedList。

 

ArrayList的实现中大量地调用了Arrays.copyof()和System.arraycopy()方法。

ArrayList基于数组实现,可以通过下标索引直接查找到指定位置的元素,因此查找效率高,但每次插入或删除元素,就要大量地移动元素,插入删除元素的效率低。

 

在查找给定元素索引值等的方法中,源码都将该元素的值分为null和不为null两种情况处理,ArrayList中允许元素为null。

一:List概述

List是 java.util包下面的类,从 java集合系列——java集合概述(一) 中可以知道,List继承了Collection 接口!

List本身也是一个接口,它的实现有ArrayList 、LinkedList、Vector和CopyOnWriteArrayList等!

下面总结分析ArrayList核心的概念和实现原理!

 

二:List的几个实现类ArrayList类分析

1:ArrayList的简介

 

ArrayList基于数组实现,是一个动态的数组队列。但是它和Java中的数组又不一样,它的容量可以自动增长,类似于C语言中动态申请内存,动态增长内存!

ArrayList继承了AbstractList,实现了RandomAccess、Cloneable和Serializable接口!

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>

        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

集成了AbstractList,AbstractList又继承了AbstractCollection实现了List接口,它是一个数组队列,提供了相关的添加、删除、修改、遍历等功能!

public abstract class AbstractList<E> extends AbstractCollection<E> implements List<E> {

    /**

     * Sole constructor.  (For invocation by subclass constructors, typically

     * implicit.)

     */

    protected AbstractList() {

    }

 

实现了RandomAccess接口,提供了随机访问功能,实际上就是通过下标序号进行快速访问。

实现了Cloneable接口,即覆盖了函数clone(),能被克隆。

实现了Serializable接口,支持序列化,也就意味了ArrayList能够通过序列化传输。

2: ArrayList的继承关系

ArrayLList API

 

java.lang.Object

    java.util.AbstractCollection<E>

        java.util.AbstractList<E>

            java.util.ArrayList<E>

 

All Implemented Interfaces:

Serializable, Cloneable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, List<E>, RandomAccess

Direct Known Subclasses:

AttributeList, RoleList, RoleUnresolvedList

 

 

3:ArrayList的源码分析

 

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>

        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

{

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

    //属性

    /**

     * 默认初始容量 = 10

     */

    private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

 

    /**

     * 用于空实例的共享空数组实例。

     */

    private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

 

    /**

     *存储ArrayList的元素的数组缓冲区。

     * ArrayList的容量是该数组缓冲区的长度。 任何

     *空的ArrayList与elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA将被扩展为

     *添加第一个元素时的DEFAULT_CAPACITY。

     */

    private transient Object[] elementData;//注:被transient关键字修饰的变量不再能被序列化,一个静态变量不管是否被transient修饰,均不能被序列化。

 

    /**

     * ArrayList的大小(它包含的元素数量)。

     *

     * @serial

     */

    private int size;

 

    //构造函数

 

    /**

     * Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.

     * 构造具有指定初始容量的空列表。

     *

     * @param  initialCapacity  the initial capacity of the list

     *         initialCapacity  列表的初始容量

     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity

     *         is negative

     *      IllegalArgumentException如果指定的初始容量是负数

     */

    public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {

        super();

        if (initialCapacity < 0)

            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+

                                               initialCapacity);

        this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];

    }

 

    /**

     * Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.

     * 构造一个初始容量为10的空列表。

     */

    public ArrayList() {

        super();

        this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

    }

 

    /**

     * Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified

     * collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's

     * iterator.

     * 按照集合的迭代器返回的顺序构造包含指定集合的元素的列表。

     * @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list

     *        c 其元素将被放置到此列表中的集合

     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null

     *        如果指定的集合为null,则为NullPointerException

     */

    public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {

        elementData = c.toArray();

        size = elementData.length;

        // c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)

        // c.toArray可能(不正确)不返回Object [](请参阅6260652)

        if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)//判断是否返回Object[].class,若没有返回,则使用Arrays.copyOf 进行转换

            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);

    }

 

    /**

     * Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the

     * list's current size.  An application can use this operation to minimize

     * the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.

     *将此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的容量修改为列表的当前大小。

     *应用程序可以使用此操作最小化<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的存储。

     */

    public void trimToSize() {

        modCount++;//在java.util.AbstractList<E>中定义,用于计算对数组的操作次数

        if (size < elementData.length) {

            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);

        }

    }

 

 

     /**

     * Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if

     * necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements

     * specified by the minimum capacity argument.

     * 如有必要,增加此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的容量,以确保由最小容量参数指定。

     * @param   minCapacity   the desired minimum capacity

     *          minCapacity   所需的最小容量

     */         

    public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        int minExpand = (elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)

            // any size if real element table

            ? 0

            // larger than default for empty table. It's already supposed to be at default size.

            // 大于默认值为空表。 它应该是默认大小。

            : DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

 

        if (minCapacity > minExpand) { //minCapacity > minExpand 则设置

            ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);

        }

    }

    //确保集合内部的容量

     private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {

        if (elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {

            minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);

        }

 

        ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);

    }

 

    private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        modCount++;

 

        // overflow-conscious code

        if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)

            grow(minCapacity);

    }

 

     /**

     * The maximum size of array to allocate.

     * Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.

     * Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in

     * OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit

     *一些虚拟机保留数组中的一些标题字。

     *尝试分配较大的数组可能会导致OutOfMemoryError:请求的数组大小超过VM限制

     * 注:怕超过VM限制,所以只用 Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8  设置MAX_ARRAY_SIZE的值!

     */

    private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

 

    /**

     * Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the

     * number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.

     * 增加容量以确保它至少可以容纳由最小容量参数指定的元素数。

     * @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity

     *        minCapacity  所需的最小容量

     */

    private void grow(int minCapacity) {

        // overflow-conscious code 溢出-察觉代码

        int oldCapacity = elementData.length; //旧的容量大小

        int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1); //oldCapacity >> 1 : >> 右移 相当于 oldCapacity/2

        if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)

            newCapacity = minCapacity;

        if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)

            newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);//看下面的hugeCapacity()方法,数组的最大容量不会超过MAX_ARRAY_SIZE

        // minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:

        // minCapacity通常接近于大小,所以这是一个win:

 

        elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);//复制到一个新的数组

    }

 

     private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow

            throw new OutOfMemoryError();

        return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?

            Integer.MAX_VALUE :

            MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns the number of elements in this list.

     * 返回此列表中的元素数。获取集合的大小

     *

     * @return the number of elements in this list

     *         此列表中的元素数

     */

    public int size() {

        return size;

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.

     * 判断是否为空,如果集合为没有包含任何元素,返回 true !

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements

     */

    public boolean isEmpty() {

        return size == 0;

    }

 

    /**

     *如果此列表包含指定的元素,则返回true。 更正式地,

     *当且仅当这个列表包含至少一个元素e使得(o == null?e == *null:o.equals(e))时,

     *返回true。

     * @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element

     */

    public boolean contains(Object o) {

        return indexOf(o) >= 0;

    }

 

    /**

     *返回此列表中指定元素的第一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,

     *则返回-1。 更正式地,返回最低索引i,使得(o == null?get(i)== null:o.equals(get(i))),

     *或-1,如果没有这样的索引。

     *

     *返回:此列表中指定元素的第一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,则为-1

     */

    public int indexOf(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

                if (elementData[i]==null)

                    return i;

        } else {

            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))

                    return i;

        }

        return -1;

    }

 

    /**

     * 返回此列表中指定元素的最后一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,

     *则返回-1。 更正式地,返回最高索引i,使得(o == null?get(i)== null:o.equals(get(i))),

     *或-1如果没有这样的索引。

     *

     *返回:此列表中指定元素的最后一次出现的索引,如果此列表不包含元素,则为-1

     */

    public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)

                if (elementData[i]==null)

                    return i;

        } else {

            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)

                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))

                    return i;

        }

        return -1;

    }

 

 

    /**

     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.  (The

     * elements themselves are not copied.)

     * 返回此<tt> ArrayList </ tt>实例的浅拷贝。 (元素本身不被复制。)

     * @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance

     */

    public Object clone() { //实现了Cloneable接口,覆盖了函数clone(),能被克隆。

        try {

            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

                ArrayList<E> v = (ArrayList<E>) super.clone();

            v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);

            v.modCount = 0;

            return v;

        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {

            // this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable

            // 这不应该发生,因为我们是克隆的

            throw new InternalError();

        }

    }

 

     /**

     * 以正确的顺序返回包含此列表中所有元素的数组(从第一个元素到最后一个元素)。

     *

     * <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based

     * APIs.

     * 此方法充当基于阵列和基于集合的API之间的桥梁

     * @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in

     *         proper sequence

     * 一个包含正确顺序的列表中所有元素的数组

     */

    public Object[] toArray() {

        return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);//使用Arrays工具类

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns the element at the specified position in this list.

     * 返回此列表中指定位置的元素。

     *

     * @param  index index of the element to return

     *      要返回的元素的索引索引

     * @return the element at the specified position in this list

     *      该列表中指定位置的元素

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E get(int index) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        return elementData(index);

    }

 

    /**

     * Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with

     * the specified element.

     * 用指定的元素替换此列表中指定位置处的元素。

     *

     * @param index index of the element to replace

     *       要替换的元素的索引索引

     * @param element element to be stored at the specified position

     *       元素要素存储在指定位置

     * @return the element previously at the specified position

     *       元素先前在指定位置

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E set(int index, E element) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        E oldValue = elementData(index);

        elementData[index] = element;

        return oldValue;

    }

 

    /**

     * Appends the specified element to the end of this list.

     * 将指定的元素追加到此列表的末尾。

     * @param e element to be appended to this list

     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})

     */

    public boolean add(E e) {

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!! 增加modCount!用于判断

        elementData[size++] = e;

        return true;

    }

 

    /**

     * Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this

     * list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and

     * any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).

     * 在此列表中指定的位置插入指定的元素。 将当前在该位置的元素(如果有)

     * 和任何后续元素向右移(将一个添加到它们的索引)。

     * @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted

     * @param element element to be inserted

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public void add(int index, E element) {

        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

 

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!!

        System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1,

                         size - index);

        elementData[index] = element;

        size++;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes the element at the specified position in this list.

     * Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their

     * indices).

     * 删除此列表中指定位置的元素。 将任何后续元素向左移(从它们的索引中减去一个)。

     * @param index the index of the element to be removed

     * @return the element that was removed from the list

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public E remove(int index) {

        rangeCheck(index);

 

        modCount++;

        E oldValue = elementData(index);

 

        int numMoved = size - index - 1;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,

 

    //public static native void arraycopy(Object src,  int  srcPos,

    //                                 Object dest, int destPos,int length);

    //调用了本地的方法 : 将指定源数组的数组从指定位置开始复制到目标数组的指定位置。

 

        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work 设置为 null ,让gc去回收

 

        return oldValue;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,

     * if it is present.  If the list does not contain the element, it is

     * unchanged.  More formally, removes the element with the lowest index

     * 从列表中删除指定元素的第一次出现(如果存在)。

     *如果列表不包含元素,则不会更改。 更正式地,删除具有最低索引i的元素,使得(如果这样的元素存在)

     *(o == null?get(i)== *null:o.equals(get(i)))。 *如果此列表包含指定的元素(或等效地,如果此列表作为调用的结果更改),则返回true。

     *

     * @param o element to be removed from this list, if present

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element 如果包含返回 true

     */

    public boolean remove(Object o) {

        if (o == null) {

            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)

                if (elementData[index] == null) {

                    fastRemove(index);

                    return true;

                }

        } else {

            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)

                if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {

                    fastRemove(index);

                    return true;

                }

        }

        return false;

    }

 

    /*

     * Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not

     * return the value removed.

     * 私有删除方法,跳过边界检查,不返回值删除。

     */

    private void fastRemove(int index) {

        modCount++;

        int numMoved = size - index - 1;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,

                             numMoved);

        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes all of the elements from this list.  The list will

     * be empty after this call returns.

     *从此列表中删除所有元素。 此调用返回后,列表将为空

     */

    public void clear() {

        modCount++;

 

        // clear to let GC do its work

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)

            elementData[i] = null;

 

        size = 0;

    }

 

     /**

     * 将指定集合中的所有元素以指定集合的Iterator返回的顺序追加到此列表的末尾。 *如果在操作正在进行时修改指定的集合,则此操作的行为是未定义的。 *(这意味着如果指定的集合是此列表,则此调用的行为是未定义的,并且此列表不是空的。)

     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list

     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call

     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null

     */

    public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {

        Object[] a = c.toArray();

        int numNew = a.length;

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount

        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);

        size += numNew;

        return numNew != 0;

    }

    /*

    *将指定集合中的所有元素插入到此列表中,从指定位置开始。

    *

    */

     public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {

        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

 

        Object[] a = c.toArray();

        int numNew = a.length;

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount

 

        int numMoved = size - index;

        if (numMoved > 0)

            System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,

                             numMoved);

 

        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);

        size += numNew;

        return numNew != 0;

    }

 

    /**

     * Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between

     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.

     * Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).

     *从此列表中删除其索引在fromIndex(包含)和toIndex(排除)之间的所有元素。

     *将任何后续元素向左移(减少其索引)。

     */

    protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {

        modCount++;

        int numMoved = size - toIndex;

        System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,

                         numMoved);

 

        // clear to let GC do its work

        int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);

        for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {

            elementData[i] = null;

        }

        size = newSize;

    }

 

    /**

     * 检查给定的索引是否在范围内。 如果没有,则抛出一个适当的运行时异常。

     * 私有方法

     */

    private void rangeCheck(int index) {

        if (index >= size)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));

    }

 

    /**

     * A version of rangeCheck used by add and addAll.

     * 由add和addAll使用的rangeCheck的版本。

     * 私有方法

     */

    private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {

        if (index > size || index < 0)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));

    }

 

 

 

 

 

    /**

     * Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in the

     * specified collection.

     * 从此列表中删除包含在指定集合中的所有元素。

     * @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list

     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call

     * 如果此列表由于调用而更改 则返回true

     */

    public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {

        return batchRemove(c, false);

    }

 

    /**

     * Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the

     * specified collection.  In other words, removes from this list all

     * of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.

     *仅保留此列表中包含在指定集合中的元素。 换句话说,

     *从此列表中删除未包含在指定集合中的所有元素。

     * @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list

     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call

     * 如果此列表由于调用而更改 则返回true

     */

    public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {

        return batchRemove(c, true);

    }

    //批量移除

    private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {

        final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;

        int r = 0, w = 0;

        boolean modified = false;

        try {

            for (; r < size; r++)

                if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)

                    elementData[w++] = elementData[r];

        } finally {

            // Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,

            // even if c.contains() throws.

            //保留与AbstractCollection的行为兼容性,即使c.contains()抛出。

            if (r != size) {

                System.arraycopy(elementData, r,

                                 elementData, w,

                                 size - r);

                w += size - r;

            }

            if (w != size) {

                // clear to let GC do its work

                for (int i = w; i < size; i++)

                    elementData[i] = null;

                modCount += size - w;

                size = w;

                modified = true;

            }

        }

        return modified;

    }

 

    /**

     *  将ArrayList实例的状态保存到流(即,序列化它)。

     */

    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)

        throws java.io.IOException{

        // Write out element count, and any hidden stuff

        //写出元素数量和任何隐藏的东西

        int expectedModCount = modCount;

        s.defaultWriteObject();

 

        // Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()

        s.writeInt(size);

 

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.

        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {

            s.writeObject(elementData[i]);

        }

 

        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {

            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

        }

    }

     /**

     * Reconstitute the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance from a stream (that is,

     * deserialize it).

     *从流重构 ArrayList 实例(即,反序列化它)。

     */

    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)

        throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {

        elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

 

        // Read in size, and any hidden stuff

        //读出元素数量和任何隐藏的东西

        s.defaultReadObject();

 

        // Read in capacity  读入容量

        s.readInt(); // ignored

 

        if (size > 0) {

            // be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity

            ensureCapacityInternal(size);

 

            Object[] a = elementData;

            // Read in all elements in the proper order.

            for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {

                a[i] = s.readObject();

            }

        }

    }

 

 

     /**

     *对列表中的元素返回一个列表迭代器(以正确的顺序),

     *从列表中指定的位置开始。 指定的索引指示由初始调用返回到next的第一个元素。

     *对上一个的初始调用将返回具有指定索引减1的元素。

     *  

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}

     */

    public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {

        if (index < 0 || index > size)

            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);

        return new ListItr(index);

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper

     * sequence).

     *返回此列表中的元素(按正确顺序)的列表迭代器。

     * <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @see #listIterator(int)

     */

    public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {

        return new ListItr(0);

    }

 

    /**

     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.

     *以正确的顺序返回此列表中的元素的迭代器。

     * <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.

     *返回的列表迭代器是fail-fast的。

     * @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence

     */

    public Iterator<E> iterator() {

        return new Itr();

    }

 

    /**

     * An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr

     * AbstractList.Itr的优化版本

     */

    private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {

        int cursor;       // index of next element to return

        int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such

        int expectedModCount = modCount;

 

        public boolean hasNext() {

            return cursor != size;

        }

 

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

        public E next() {

            checkForComodification();

            int i = cursor;

            if (i >= size)

                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;

            if (i >= elementData.length)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            cursor = i + 1;

            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];

        }

 

        public void remove() {

            if (lastRet < 0)

                throw new IllegalStateException();

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);

                cursor = lastRet;

                lastRet = -1;

                expectedModCount = modCount;

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

 

        final void checkForComodification() {

            if (modCount != expectedModCount)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

        }

    }

 

    /**

     * An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr

     * AbstractList.ListItr的优化版本

     */

    private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {

        ListItr(int index) {

            super();

            cursor = index;

        }

 

        public boolean hasPrevious() {

            return cursor != 0;

        }

 

        public int nextIndex() {

            return cursor;

        }

 

        public int previousIndex() {

            return cursor - 1;

        }

 

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")

        public E previous() {

            checkForComodification();

            int i = cursor - 1;

            if (i < 0)

                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;

            if (i >= elementData.length)

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            cursor = i;

            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];

        }

 

        public void set(E e) {

            if (lastRet < 0)

                throw new IllegalStateException();

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

 

        public void add(E e) {

            checkForComodification();

 

            try {

                int i = cursor;

                ArrayList.this.add(i, e);

                cursor = i + 1;

                lastRet = -1;

                expectedModCount = modCount;

            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {

                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

            }

        }

    }

 

    //subList 以及后面的代码不在做分析,实际情况中很少用到,需要的时候,请自行看源码分析

}   

4:总结

 

ArrayList 本质实现方法是用数组!是非同步的!

 

初始化容量 = 10 ,最大容量不会超过 MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8!

 

indexOf和lastIndexOf 查找元素,若元素不存在,则返回-1!

 

当ArrayList容量不足以容纳全部元素时,ArrayList会重新设置容量:新的容量=“(原始容量x3)/2 ”。

 

ArrayList的克隆函数,即是将全部元素克隆到一个数组中。

 

ArrayList实现java.io.Serializable的方式。当写入到输出流时,先写入“容量”,再依次写入“每一个元素”;当读出输入流时,先读取“容量”,再依次读取“每一个元素”。

 

从代码中可以看出,当容量不够时,每次增加元素,都要将原来的元素拷贝到一个新的数组中,非常之耗时,也因此建议在事先能确定元素数量的情况下,才使用ArrayList,否则建议使用LinkedList。

 

ArrayList的实现中大量地调用了Arrays.copyof()和System.arraycopy()方法。

ArrayList基于数组实现,可以通过下标索引直接查找到指定位置的元素,因此查找效率高,但每次插入或删除元素,就要大量地移动元素,插入删除元素的效率低。

 

在查找给定元素索引值等的方法中,源码都将该元素的值分为null和不为null两种情况处理,ArrayList中允许元素为null。

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