一网打尽英文关联逻辑词,为公式运行保驾护航

2017-09-01 钟叔 有道逻辑英语


逻辑英语创始人:钟平

从语言学角度来讲,英语属于形合语言,逻辑关系词的主要在于让句子成分之间、句子与句子之间、以及段落与段落之间实现自然衔接。


许多规律性阅读考试(例如TOEFL,ACT)中转折词往往是考核的重点。阅读题目着重考查考生对语言文字的综合分析能力。题干中的文字材料不会很长,主要是对句子以及比较复杂的概念和观点的准确理解;对语句隐含信息的合理推断;在干扰因素较多的情况下,能比较准确地辨明主旨,筛选信息。


若用一词概括,即为起承转合。

“起”是起因,文章的开头;“承”是是事件的过程;“转”是结果是转折;“合”是对该事件的议论,是结尾。


所谓“作诗有四法:起要平直,承要舂容,转要变化,合要渊水。”

而逻辑连词正是文章的纽结。理顺连词打通扭结,你会发现英语学起来,痛快多了。



1

表递进


moreover

而且

in addition

此外

what is more

,

furthermore

此外

also

then

然后

besides

除了

,what’s worse

更糟的是

and

以及

too

以及

as well as

additionally

另外

again

likewise

同样

not only...but also...

不但……而且



2

表转折


however

nevertheless

虽然

on the other hand

另一方面

on the contrary

反之

rather than

而不是

instead of

而不是

but

但是

yet

但是

unfortunately

不幸的是

whereas

although

虽然

though

虽然

otherwise

否则

by contrast

反之,通过对比

at the same time

与此同时

despite

尽管

even so

即便如此

in contrast

相比较

even though

即使所有

for all that

所有

not with standing

尽管如此

in spite of

尽管

last but not least

最后但并非最不重要

instead

代替

thus

从而

what is more

更而且

not only...but also

不但而且

still

仍然

in contrast to

相比较

regardless

无论不管

while

different from

不同的是

for all that

所有

or

要不否则或者

notwithstanding

虽然

even though

即使,

despite

尽管

after all

毕竟

except (for)

除了

of course

固然尽管当然

some...others

一些、另外的

on the other hand

另一方面

once

以前

now

现在,

the first...whereas the second

第一、而第二

then...now

然后、现在

the former...the latter

前者、后者

finally       

最后最终

here...there

这里、那里

so

因此



3

表层次


on the one hand

一方面

on the other hand

另一方面

first

首先

second

其次

finally

最后

firstly

首先

secondly

其次

then

然后

to begin with

首先

further

进一步

and…equally important

和同样重要

in addition

此外

in the first place

首先

still

仍然

furthermore

此外

what is more

更而且

last but not least

最后但并非最不重要

secondly

其次

and then

进而

next

接着

to start with

开始

besides

除了

moreover

而且

finally

最后



4

表强调


in fact

其实

indeed

的确

actually

其实

as a matter of fact

事实上

obviously

很明显

apparently

显然

emphasis

强调

chiefly

主要是

primarily

主要

in particular

尤其是

surely

一定

in any case

不管怎么样

especially

特别是

clearly

显然

without any doubt

毫无疑问

to repeat

重复

no doubt

毫无疑问

needless to say

不用说

undoubtedly

无疑

absolutely

绝对

still

oddly enough

奇怪的是

of course

当然

after all

毕竟

significantly

显著

interestingly

有趣的是

also

above all

首先

certainly

当然

anyway

无论如何

obviously

明显

necessarily

要紧一定

truly

真正

most important

最重要的是

particularly

尤其

most important of all

最重要的是



5

表结果和原因


evidently

明显地,

first of all

首先

undoubtedly

无疑

without any shadow of doubt

毫无疑问

thus

从而

hence

故从此

so

因此

therefore

因此

accordingly

因此所以从而

consequently

所以

since = now that

自从

as

因为

for the reason

为理由

so that

以便

as consequence

所以

as a result

于是

on this / that account

结果

such that

这样

in this way

如此

because

因为

since

自从

otherwise

否则

Cause and effect) for

由于

because of = thanks to= due to = owing to

由于

for this reason

为此

on account of

考虑到

as a consequence

结果

foras a consequence

后果



6

表结尾


therefore

因此

then

然后因此那么

accordingly

从而

because (of)

由于

for

因为

thanks to

由于

hence

因此

as a result of

结果

consequently

所以

thus

因而

since

自从

owing to

由于

for the reason that

因为



7

表举例


in a word

其中

therefore

因此

sum up

总之

such as

例如

to begin with

首先

besides

此外

for one thing

至于

in conclusion

其中

in short

在小的方面/时间

as a case in point

作为一个很好的例子

first of all

首先

furthermore

此外

in addition

此外

for another

另外



8

表比较


similarly

同样

likewise

同样

like

像……一样

equally

一样

compared

…相比

in a like manner

以类似的方式

just as

正如

however

可是

in the same way

以同样的方式

in the same manner

以同样的方式

in comparison

相比较

in contrast

相比较

in comparison

相比较

just like

就像

similar to

类似

the same as

一样



9

表对比


by contrast

通过对比

on the contrary

反之

while

whereas

unlike

不像

instead

代替

but

conversely

反过来

different from

不同的是

however

in sharp

鲜明对比的是

in contrast

相比较;相对于

even though

即使,即便如此

on the other hand

另外

on the one hand

一方面

otherwise

否则

as opposed to

相对于

while

yet

by comparison

通过比较

similarly

同样

nevertheless

虽然

still

仍然

in spite of

尽管,



10

表举例


for example

例如

for instance

例如

in other words

换句话说

in this case

在这种情况下

as an example

作为一个例子

take for example

例如

say namely

,比如

after all

为一个例子来说明

except (for)

除了(至于)

like

就比如,正如…,

to illustrate as an illustration

作为一个例子来说明

by way of illustration

以说明的方式

to illustrate

说明

to name a few

仅举几例



11

表时间


later

后来

lately

终于

next

接着

then

然后

soon

不久

immediately

立刻;随即

meanwhile

与此同时

finally

,最后

at last

最后

eventually

终于

since

自从

lately

最近

afterward

之后

temporarily

暂时

earlier

最初

now

现在

first

首先

again

also

before

以前

besides

除了

formerly

以前

further

进一步

furthermore

此外

last

最后

simultaneously

同时

shortly

不久

still

仍然

subsequently

随后

thereafter

此后

until

直到

recently

最近

after

以后

gradually

慢慢的逐渐

till

直到

when

nowadays

目前

now presently

目前

during

在……期间

now and then

偶尔

recently

最近

in the meanwhile

同时

in the meantime

在此期间

in the end

到底

in addition

此外

in the first place

首先

in the past

在过去

in a few days

几天之内

after a while

稍后

after a few days

几天以后

at that time

当时

as long as

只要

as soon as

一……就

at present

目前

at the same time

如今

at length

最后

at first

起初

from now on

今后

from then on

从那时起

so far

到目前为止

for the time being

立即

when now

当下

and then

进而

to begin with/ to start with

首先

at that moment

在那一刻

suddenly = all of a sudden

最初

until now

直到现在



after that

之后



notuntil

不…直到

while

,一会儿



12

表顺序


first

首先

second

其次

then

其次,然后

finally

最后

last

最终,最后

next

接着

after

以后

afterwards

之后

earlier

最初

later

后来

behind

后面

beside

旁边

beyond

外面

above

以上

below

下面

to begin with

首先

first of all

首先

in the first place

首先

above all

首先

in the end

到底

at last

最后

first and most important

第一个和最重要的

last but not the least

最后但并非最不重要

nearto)

靠近

farfrom

远离

in front of

前面

in the middle

中间

to the right left

到左右

on the other side of

另一面

opposite

反面



13

表可能


presumably

想必

probably

大概

perhaps

也许

Inference) therefore

因此

so

所以

as a result(of)

作为结果

accordingly

因而

otherwise

否则

maybe

可能



14

表解释


in other words

换句话说

in fact

其实

in simpler terms

简单地说

in this case

在这种情况下

in addition

此外

in simpler terms

简单地说

in fact/ as a matter of fact / actually

其实,

another way

另一种方式

o tell you the truth

实话告诉你

as a matter offact

事实上

that is

就是说

for example

例如

for instance

例如

frankly speaking

坦白的说

now

既然

namely

,意即

actually

实际上

to put it differently

换句话说

that is to say

也就是说



15

表让步


admittedly

诚然

whatever

无论

hence

因此

nevertheless

然而

as

虽然

though

虽然,

although

尽管

despite

尽管

in spite of...

尽管

even though

尽管

even if

,即使

even so

即便如此

granted

就算如此

naturally

自然

however

无论如何

still

仍然

provided

假如

or

或者

whenever

无论何时

whoever

无论谁

wherever

无论哪里

whether

不论、或者

whichever

无论哪一个

after all

毕竟

while it is true

虽然这是事实

no matter how (who, what, which, where)

无论多么(,什么,哪里)

all the same

仍然

of course

当然



16

表总结


accordingly

因此

therefore

因此

thus

因此

altogether to conclude

完全可以说

general

一般

specially

特别

finally

终于

namely

也就是

indeed

事实上

in other words

换句话说

thus

因此

altogether

完全

all in all

总之

in consequence

结果

in sum

总之

consequently

因此

hence

因此

so

因此

the point is

关键是

obviously

显然

of course

当然

differently

不同的是

as a result

结果

as for me

依我之见

to some extent

在某种程度上

on the whole

大体上

in conclusion

总之

in a word

一句话

in brief

简言之

in summary

总之

in general

一般来说

in short

,简而言之

in other word

也就是

in my opinion

在我看来

in a word

总的来说

in all

总的来说

in fact

事实上

in simpler terms

用更简单的术语来说

in my view

在我看来

in particular

特别是

it is true

事实上

at last

最后

as I have shown

正如我所表明的

as has been stated generally speaking

正如所说

as has been said

就像我已经说的

as far as I am concerned

就我刚才提到的来说

as what has been mentioned

作为被提到的

to sum up

总之

to summarize

简而言之

to conclude

结论

to put it differently

换句话说



17

其他类型连接词


mostly

通常

occasionally

偶尔

currently

一般

naturally

自然

mainly

主要

exactly

完全

in this case

在这种情况下

frankly

坦率地说

commonly

通常

for this purpose

为此

to a large extent

在很大程度上

or most of us

对于我们大多数人

evidently

显然

in many cases

在许多情况下



18

表示时间与频率的词汇


every

每一,

some

一些

after

以后

usually

通常

most

几乎

frequently

经常

mainly

主要

finally

最后

rarely

难得,很少,几乎不

before

之前

on the whole

大体上

at other times

平时

in most cases

在大多数情况下

in general

一般来说

as a rule

一般说来

meanwhile

与此同时

always

总是

often

经常



19

表示附加的词


additionally

此外

as well as

以及

just as

正如

again

再次

along with

连同

also

并且

besides

除此之外

further

进一步

furthermore

此外

in the same manner

同样地

in the same way

同样地

in addition to

除…之外



20

表示增加的过渡词


also

So that

以至于

and

以及

and then

于是

addition

除了

another

另一个

again

再次

on top of

另外

moreover

此外

first

首先

furthermore

此外

second

其次

too

third

再次



21

表示目的的过渡词


lest

恐怕

for this reason

因此

Addition

增补



furthermore

此外

for this purpose

为了这个目的

again

再次

so as to

以便

also

so that

所以

besides

,除了

in order that

为了

similarly

同样

in addition

此外

moreover

此外

whats more

不仅如此,更糟的是

next

接着,

finally

最后



22

表示并列关系


or, and, also, too

not only  but also

不但而且,

as well as

以及,

so…that

以至于

both and

既……又

either or

或者或者

neithernor

不是就是



23

表示并列补充关系


what is more

更糟的是

also

besides

除了

as well

还不如,

moreover

此外

furthermore

此外

in addition

此外





24

表示条件关系


as (so) long as

只要

if

假如

unless

除非

eventually

终于

presently

目前

somewhat

有些

as if

仿佛

the way by

通过方式

on condition that

如果

on the condition

只要

or else

要不然

in the meantime

与此同时

from then on

从那时起,

after an interval

在时间间隔后

all of a sudden

一下子

On the contrary

相反


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