Maven 打包实战

版权声明:欢迎转载,转载请说明出处. 大数据Github项目地址https://github.com/SeanYanxml/bigdata。 https://blog.csdn.net/u010416101/article/details/88539238

前言

上一章,我们介绍了Maven内的常见插件.Maven的主要作用是用于包的管理和依赖.其次,根据Maven的生命周期可以知道, 它还可以作为一个运维和打包、部署的工具而存在.

本章我们将详细的介绍Maven打包以及打包的各种情况.

PS: 本文所用的Maven例子可以在我的Github仓库内找到
https://github.com/SeanYanxml/maven-train


Jar包

所谓Jar包,其实就是Java文件的压缩包.我们在整理文件的时候,经常会将其压缩为.rar / .zip / .tar / .tar.gz等待诸如此类的压缩包.其实Jar包也不例外,它其实就是用于Java程序进行压缩发布的一种格式包.

  • Eclipse打包
    经常使用Eclipse的朋友们肯定会知道,Eclipse自带了Export功能,可以将项目导出为Jar
    在这里插入图片描述
    如果发布工具包的话,可以选择JAR file.但是,如果想要发布应用程序,也就是可运行Jar包的话,我们一般选择Runnable JAR file.

在这里插入图片描述
我们选择可运行Jar包,可以看到下方的几种选项:

  • 刨除需要的其他非项目内的Jar包;
  • 将需要的Jar包一起打包;
  • 拷贝需要的Jar包一起(一般是. tar.gz)
    在这里插入图片描述
    我们分别试验和查看下这2种方式的区别:
localhost:Desktop Sean$ java -jar hello1.jar
Picked up JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
String is not null.
localhost:Desktop Sean$ java -jar hello2.jar
Picked up JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
String is not null.
localhost:Desktop Sean$ java -jar hello3.jar
Picked up JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
String is not null.

从试验的结果来看,三种Jar包都可以运行.下面我们通过反编译jd-gui.jar程序依次查看下我们打的三种包的不同

  • 第一种 压成一个Jar包在这里插入图片描述
    可以看到,所有的程序.包括依赖的common-lang3.jar内的所有内容,包括Mavenpom.xml文件都被压在了一起.
    这种做法适合,小型工具类发布,依赖的Jar包较少切Jar包冲突较少的情况.

  • 第二种 Jar包内包含Jar包
    在这里插入图片描述
    由上图可以看到,我们hello2.jarJar包内还包含了Jar包.并且,Manifest.mf文件要加载common-lang.jarjar包

  • 第三种 依赖Jar包另外存储
    在这里插入图片描述
    这种方法适用于,迭代发布时,Jar包经常会出现冲突的问题.但是这个的依赖位置基本上不能够更改.

有时,我们可以手动的去加载这些我们需要的Jar包到运行的classpath目录下.学习下zookeeperJar包加载脚本

#!/bin/bash
for i in ./lib/*.jar
do
    CLASSPATH="$i:$CLASSPATH"
done

MainJar="hello3.jar" 
MainClass="com.yanxml.parent.son.HelloMain"
CLASSPATH="$MainJar:$CLASSPATH"


echo "$CLASSPATH"
java -cp "$CLASSPATH" "$MainClass"

java -cp ./lib/commons-lang3-3.7.jar:hello3.jar com.yanxml.parent.son.HelloMain


Maven 插件

相比较而言,前文介绍的插件中

  • maven-shade-plugin类比第一种插件打包方式
  • maven-source-plugin 打源码包
  • maven-dependency-plugin类比第三种打包方式
  • spring-boot-maven-plugin类比第二种打包方式,但是根据SpringBoot的需求又进行了一定的封装.

当然,我们自动化的过程中是不能用界面进行操作的,于是本章节.我们将使用maven对于这3种方式进行实现.
(注:第二种打包方式略微特殊,需要第三方的启动类,我们举一个使用SpringBoot插件的例子进行替换.(使用FatJar可以实现这样的效果))

  • 合并打包(maven-shade-plugin)
#pom.xml
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
		<artifactId>maven-train-parent</artifactId>
		<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	</parent>
	<artifactId>maven-train-parent-son</artifactId>

	<dependencies>
		<!-- dependency -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
			<artifactId>maven-train-parent-util</artifactId>
			<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
		</dependency>

	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<plugins>
			<!-- all in one jar -->
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
				<artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>2.4.3</version>
				<executions>
					<execution>
						<phase>package</phase>
						<goals>
							<goal>shade</goal>
						</goals>
						<configuration>
							<transformers>
								<transformer
									implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">
									<manifestEntries>
										<Main-Class>com.yanxml.parent.son.HelloMain</Main-Class>
										<X-Compile-Source-JDK>1.7</X-Compile-Source-JDK>
										<X-Compile-Target-JDK>1.7</X-Compile-Target-JDK>
									</manifestEntries>
								</transformer>
							</transformers>
						</configuration>
					</execution>
				</executions>
			</plugin>
			
			
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

注意 因为此父项目的子项目,所以需要在父亲路径运行mvn clean package -pl maven-train-parent-son -am命令进行打包.打包时可以选择是否将依赖模块重新打包.

localhost:maven-train-parent Sean$ pwd
/Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent
localhost:maven-train-parent Sean$ mvn clean package -pl maven-train-parent-son -am
Picked up JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Reactor Build Order:
[INFO]
[INFO] maven-train-parent
[INFO] maven-train-parent-util
[INFO] maven-train-parent-son
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building maven-train-parent 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ maven-train-parent ---
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building maven-train-parent-util 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Deleting /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-util/target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-util/target/classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ maven-train-parent-util ---
[INFO] Building jar: /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-util/target/maven-train-parent-util-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building maven-train-parent-son 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Deleting /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/target/classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Building jar: /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/target/maven-train-parent-son-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-shade-plugin:2.4.3:shade (default) @ maven-train-parent-son ---
[INFO] Including com.yanxml:maven-train-parent-util:jar:0.0.1-SNAPSHOT in the shaded jar.
[INFO] Including org.apache.commons:commons-lang3:jar:3.7 in the shaded jar.
[INFO] Replacing original artifact with shaded artifact.
[INFO] Replacing /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/target/maven-train-parent-son-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar with /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/target/maven-train-parent-son-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-shaded.jar
[INFO] Dependency-reduced POM written at: /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-parent/maven-train-parent-son/dependency-reduced-pom.xml
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Reactor Summary:
[INFO]
[INFO] maven-train-parent ................................. SUCCESS [  0.223 s]
[INFO] maven-train-parent-util ............................ SUCCESS [  1.968 s]
[INFO] maven-train-parent-son ............................. SUCCESS [  0.671 s]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 2.994 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2019-03-13T18:36:12+08:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 20M/172M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

在这里插入图片描述
包运行完成后,会放置在/target子目录内.反编译后,可以看到,和Eclipse打包基本一致.

  • 运行包与依赖包分开打包(maven-dependency-plugin)
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
		<artifactId>maven-train-parent</artifactId>
		<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	</parent>
	<artifactId>maven-train-parent-son</artifactId>

	<dependencies>
		<!-- dependency -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
			<artifactId>maven-train-parent-util</artifactId>
			<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
		</dependency>

	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<plugins>

	<plugin>
		<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
		<artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
		<version>2.10</version>
		<executions>
			<execution>
				<id>copy-dependencies</id>
				<phase>package</phase>
				<goals>
					<goal>copy-dependencies</goal>
				</goals>
				<configuration>
					<outputDirectory>./lib</outputDirectory>
				</configuration>
			</execution>
		</executions>
	</plugin>
			
			
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
由上可以看到,我们将源码打入一个包内.所有依赖的包都放置在配置的指定目录下.
但是,我们运行时候,需要特定的脚本将其加载进入classpath下.

  • Jar In Jar(spring-boot-maven-plugin)
    在本教程的Github上,我们有一个现成的SpringBoot项目.下面两节,我们使用这个项目,完成下面两节.
#pom.xml

localhost:maven-train-springboot Sean$ mvn package
Picked up JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[WARNING]
[WARNING] Some problems were encountered while building the effective model for com.yanxml:maven-train-springboot:jar:1.0
[WARNING] 'build.plugins.plugin.version' for org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-compiler-plugin is missing. @ line 55, column 12
[WARNING] 'build.plugins.plugin.version' for org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-maven-plugin is missing. @ line 63, column 12
[WARNING]
[WARNING] It is highly recommended to fix these problems because they threaten the stability of your build.
[WARNING]
[WARNING] For this reason, future Maven versions might no longer support building such malformed projects.
[WARNING]
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building maven-train-springboot 1.0
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[WARNING] The POM for org.apache.logging.log4j:log4j-core:jar:2.7 is invalid, transitive dependencies (if any) will not be available, enable debug logging for more details
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 2 resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-springboot/src/test/resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] Building jar: /Users/Sean/Documents/Gitrep/maven-train/maven-train-springboot/target/maven-train-springboot-1.0.jar
[INFO] META-INF/maven/com.yanxml/maven-train-springboot/pom.xml already added, skipping
[INFO] META-INF/maven/com.yanxml/maven-train-springboot/pom.properties already added, skipping
[INFO]
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:1.5.9.RELEASE:repackage (default) @ maven-train-springboot ---
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 2.967 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2019-03-13T19:02:21+08:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 17M/226M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

在这里插入图片描述
(依赖的Jar包都放在lib文件夹内)通过java -jar maven-train-springboot-1.0.jar可以将其进行启动.

  • 自定义打包(maven-assembly-plugin)
### assembly.xml
<assembly xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/plugins/maven-assembly-plugin/assembly/1.1.3" 
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/plugins/maven-assembly-plugin/assembly/1.1.3 
  http://maven.apache.org/xsd/assembly-1.1.3.xsd">
  
    <id>0.1</id>
    <formats>
        <format>tar</format>
    </formats>
      
    <fileSets>
        
        <fileSet>
            <directory>target/classes</directory>
            <outputDirectory>/config</outputDirectory>
            <fileMode>0755</fileMode>
            <includes>
              <include>*.properties</include>
              <include>*.xml</include>
              <include>banner.txt</include>
              <include>*.json</include>
            </includes>
        </fileSet>
        
        <fileSet>
            <directory>target/classes/bin</directory>
            <outputDirectory>/config/bin</outputDirectory>
            <fileMode>0755</fileMode>
        </fileSet>
        
        <fileSet>
            <directory>target/lib</directory>
            <outputDirectory>/lib</outputDirectory>
            <fileMode>0755</fileMode>
        </fileSet>
        
    </fileSets>
    
     <files>
		<file>
			<source>target/${package}-1.0.jar</source>
			<outputDirectory>/</outputDirectory>
			<destName>${package}-${package.version}.jar</destName>
			<fileMode>0755</fileMode>
		</file>
	 </files>
    
    
   
</assembly>
<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
				<configuration>
					<finalName>${package}-${package.version}</finalName>
					<ignorePermissions>true</ignorePermissions>
					<appendAssemblyId>false</appendAssemblyId>
					<descriptors>
						<descriptor>src/main/assembly/${package.format}-assembly.xml</descriptor>
					</descriptors>
				
				</configuration>
			</plugin>

tar包内的情况如下所示:

localhost:target Sean$ tar -xvf maven-train-springboot-v1.tar
x maven-train-springboot-v1/maven-train-springboot-v1.jar
x maven-train-springboot-v1/config/application.properties
x maven-train-springboot-v1/config/log4j2.xml

Reference

[1]. Maven 常见插件
[2]. java cp命令
[3]. Maven的-pl -am -amd参数学习
[4]. Maven deploy跳过某个module解决办法
[5]. maven 单独构建多模块项目中的单个模块

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