49. Group Anagrams

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https://leetcode.com/problems/group-anagrams/description/
给定一个字符串数组,将字母异位词组合在一起。字母异位词指字母相同,但排列不同的字符串。

思路1:将每个字符串拆分,每个字母按序排列

>>> s = 'bate'
>>> sorted(s)
['a', 'b', 'e', 't']

将字符串传入py的sorted函数,会返回一个列表,里面的字符按序排列
然后将其作为键存入字典中,值为字符串列表。每次对一个新串,排列后与字典键比较,存入键相同的列表中

这里用了一个defaultdict,需要引入collections包。其作用是免除了键值不存在时的初始化,例如用字典统计词频时,每次都要判断键值是否存在。defaultdict()传入一个函数,用于键值初次填入时的默认值:

>>> from collections import defaultdict
>>> dd = defaultdict(list)
>>> dd
defaultdict(<type 'list'>, {})
>>> dd['foo']
[]
>>> dd
defaultdict(<type 'list'>, {'foo': []})
>>> dd['bar'].append('quux')
>>> dd
defaultdict(<type 'list'>, {'foo': [], 'bar': ['quux']})

此外还要注意,sorted()将字符串排序后返回的是list,而list是不可哈希的,不能用于键值,很好理解,以为list是可变的,应该转为tuple。

总结:
(1)list、set、dict:是不可哈希的
(2)int、float、str、tuple:是可以哈希的
(3)list 不使用 hash 值进行索引,故其对所存储元素没有可哈希的要求;set / dict 使用 hash 值进行索引,也即其要求欲存储的元素有可哈希的要求。
(4)dict 仅对键(key)有可哈希的要求,对值(value)无此要求。
https://blog.csdn.net/pyufftj/article/details/72366631

class Solution:
    def groupAnagrams(self, strs):
        """
        :type strs: List[str]
        :rtype: List[List[str]]
        """
        ans = collections.defaultdict(list)  #创建defaultdict
        for s in strs:
            ans[tuple(sorted(s))].append(s)  #注意将sorted返回的结果转成tuple
        return list(ans.values())  #ans的value是dict_values类型,注意转成list

思路2:用一个长为26的数组作字典键,值为字符串list。数组统计字符串中每个字符的词频,每组字符串的词频都是一样的,且和其他组不同。原理和思路1 差不多。

class Solution:
    def groupAnagrams(self, strs):
        """
        :type strs: List[str]
        :rtype: List[List[str]]
        """
        ans = collections.defaultdict(list)     
        for s in strs:
            count = [0] * 26  #词频记录
            for c in s:  #统计词频
                count[ord(c) - ord('a')] += 1
            ans[tuple(count)].append(s)  #注意count要转成tuple
        return list(ans.values())

Anagrams by Stack

09-13

How can anagrams result from sequences of stack operations? There are two sequences of stack operators which can convert TROT to TORT:nn[ni i i i o o o oni o i i o o i on]nwhere i stands for Push and o stands for Pop. Your program should, given pairs of words produce sequences of stack operations which convert the first word to the second.nnInputnnThe input will consist of several lines of input. The first line of each pair of input lines is to be considered as a source word (which does not include the end-of-line character). The second line (again, not including the end-of-line character) of each pair is a target word. The end of input is marked by end of file.nnOutputnnFor each input pair, your program should produce a sorted list of valid sequences of i and o which produce the target word from the source word. Each list should be delimited bynn[n]nand the sequences should be printed in "dictionary order". Within each sequence, each i and o is followed by a single space and each sequence is terminated by a new line.nProcessnnA stack is a data storage and retrieval structure permitting two operations:nnPush - to insert an item andnPop - to retrieve the most recently pushed itemnWe will use the symbol i (in) for push and o (out) for pop operations for an initially empty stack of characters. Given an input word, some sequences of push and pop operations are valid in that every character of the word is both pushed and popped, and furthermore, no attempt is ever made to pop the empty stack. For example, if the word FOO is input, then the sequence:nni i o i o o is valid, butni i o is not (it's too short), neither isni i o o o i (there's an illegal pop of an empty stack)nValid sequences yield rearrangements of the letters in an input word. For example, the input word FOO and the sequence i i o i o o produce the anagram OOF. So also would the sequence i i i o o o. You are to write a program to input pairs of words and output all the valid sequences of i and o which will produce the second member of each pair from the first.nnSample InputnnmadamnadammnbahamanbahamanlongnshortnericnricenSample Outputnn[ni i i i o o o i o o ni i i i o o o o i o ni i o i o i o i o o ni i o i o i o o i o n]n[ni o i i i o o i i o o o ni o i i i o o o i o i o ni o i o i o i i i o o o ni o i o i o i o i o i o n]n[n]n[ni i o i o i o o n]

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