《unix环境高级编程》--- 文件和目录

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,转载请注明出处。 https://blog.csdn.net/u012319493/article/details/80343114

对每个命令函参数打印文件类型

#include "apue.h"

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int i;
    struct stat buf;
    char *ptr;

    for(i=1; i<argc; i++)
    {
        printf("%s: ", argv[i]);
        /*
           int lstat(const char *restrict pathname, struct stat *restrict buf);
           返回改符号链接的有关信息
           struct stat
           {
                mode_t st_mode;   file type & mode (permissions) 
            ino_t st_ino;     i-node number (serial number)
            dev_t st_dev;     device number (file system)
            dev_t st_rdev;    device nummber for special files
            nlink_t st_nlink; number of links
            uid_t st_uid;     user ID of owner
            gid_t st_gid;     group ID of owner
            off_t st_size;    size in bytes, for regular files
            time_t st_atime;  time of last modification
            time_t st_mtime;  time of last modification
            time_t st_ctime;  time of last file status change
            blksize_t st_blksize;  best I/O block size
            blkcnt_t st_blocks;   number of disk blocks allocated
           }
        */
        if(lstat(argv[i], &buf) < 0)
        {
            err_ret("lstat error");
            continue;
        }
        if(S_ISREG(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "regular";
        else if (S_ISDIR(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "directory";
        else if(S_ISCHR(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "character special";
        else if(S_ISBLK(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "block special"; 
        else if(S_ISFIFO(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "fifo";
        else if(S_ISLNK(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "symbolic link";
        else if(S_ISSOCK(buf.st_mode))
            ptr = "socket";
        else
            ptr = "** unkown mode **";
        printf("%s\n", ptr);
    }
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述

access函数实例

#include "apue.h"
#include  <fcntl.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    if(argc != 2)
        err_quit("usage: a.out <pathname>");

    /*
       int access(const char *pathname, int mode);
       按实际用户ID和实际组ID进行访问权限测试
       mode:
       R_OK 测试读权限
       W_OK 测试写权限
       X_OK 测试执行权限
       F_OK 测试文件是否存在
    */
    if(access(argv[1], R_OK)< 0)
        err_ret("access error for %s", argv[1]);
    else
        printf("read access OK\n");

    /*
           open按进程的有效用户ID和有效组ID进程访问权限测试
    */
    if(open(argv[1], O_RDONLY)  < 0)
        err_ret("open error fo %s", argv[1]);
    else
        printf("open for reading OK\n");
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述

umask函数实例
这里写图片描述

#include "apue.h"
#include <fcntl.h>

#define RWRWRW (S_IRUSR|S_IWUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IWGRP|S_IROTH|S_IWOTH)

int main(void)
{
    /*
       mode_t umask(mode_t cmask);
       为进程设置“文件模式创建”屏蔽字,并返回以前的值
    */
    umask(0);
    if(creat("foo", RWRWRW) < 0)
        err_sys("create error for foo");

    /* 禁止所有组和其他用户的访问权限 */
    umask(S_IRGRP | S_IWGRP | S_IROTH | S_IWOTH);
    if(creat("bar", RWRWRW) < 0)
        err_sys("create error for bar");
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述
更改进程的文件模式创建屏蔽字不影响父进程的屏蔽字
这里写图片描述

chmod函数实例
这里写图片描述

#include "apue.h"

int main(void)
{
    struct stat statbuf;

    /* turn on set-group-ID and turn off group-execute */
    if(stat("foo", &statbuf) < 0)
        err_sys("stat error for foo");

    /*
           int chmod(const char *pathname, mode_t mode);
       更改文件访问权限
       进程的有效用户ID必须等于文件的所有者ID,或该进程必须具有超级用户权限
    */
    if(chmod("foo", (statbuf.st_mode & ~S_IXGRP) | S_ISGID) < 0)
        err_sys("chmod error for foo");

    /* set absolute mode to "rw-r--r--" */
    if(chmod("bar", S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH) < 0)
        err_sys("chmod error for bar");
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述
组执行位为S,表示设置组ID位已设置,同时,组执行位则未设置

打开一个文件,然后unlink

#include "apue.h"
#include <fcntl.h>

int main(void)
{
    if(open("tempfile", O_RDWR) < 0)
        err_sys("open error");

    /*
       int unlink(const char *pathname);
       删除一个现有的目录项
       当打开文件进程数为0, 链接计数等于0时,才可被删除
    */
    if(unlink("temfile") < 0)
        err_sys("unlink error");
    printf("file unlinked\n");
    sleep(2);
    printf("down\n");
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述

utime函数实例
目的:将文件长度截段为0,但并不更改起访问时间及修改时间

#include "apue.h"
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <utime.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int i, fd;
    struct stat statbuf;
    struct utimbuf timebuf;

    for(i=1; i<argc; i++)
    {
        /* fetch current times */
        if(stat(argv[i], &statbuf) < 0)
        {
            err_ret("%s: stat error", argv[i]);
            continue;
        }

        /* truncate */
        if((fd = open(argv[i], O_RDWR | O_TRUNC)) < 0)
        {
            err_ret("%s: open error", argv[i]);
            continue;
        }
        close(fd);

        timebuf.actime = statbuf.st_atime;  /* access time */
        timebuf.modtime = statbuf.st_mtime; /* modification time */

        /*
           int utime(const char *pathname, const struct utimbuf *times);
           修改文件的访问和修改时间
           struct utimebuf
           {
            time_t actime;   access time 
            time_t modtime;  modification time
           }
        */
        if(utime(argv[i], &timebuf) < 0)
        {
            err_ret("%s: utime error", argv[i]);
            continue;
        }
    }
    exit(0);
}
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ls -l changemode   查看长度和最后修改时间
-rwxr-x--- 1 yjp yjp 13712 516 21:18 changemode
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ls -lu changemode  查看最后访问时间
-rwxr-x--- 1 yjp yjp 13712 516 21:19 changemode
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ date               打印当天日期
20180517日 星期四 13:45:18 CST
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ./utime changemode 运行程序
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ls -l changemode   检查最后修改时间
-rwxr-x--- 1 yjp yjp 0 516 21:18 changemode
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ls -lu changemode  检查最后访问时间
-rwxr-x--- 1 yjp yjp 0 516 21:19 changemode
yjp@yjp-VirtualBox:~/apue/4filedir$ ls -lc changemode  检查更改状态时间
-rwxr-x--- 1 yjp yjp 0 517 13:45 changemode

递归降序遍历目录层次结构,并按文件类型计数

#include "apue.h"
#include <dirent.h>
#include <limits.h>

/* function type that is called for each filename */
typedef int Myfunc(const char *, const struct stat *, int);

static Myfunc myfunc;
static int myftw(char *, Myfunc *);
static int dopath(Myfunc *);

static long nreg, ndir, nblk, nchr, nfifo, nslink, nsock, ntot;

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int ret;

    if(argc != 2)
        err_quit("usage: ftw <starting-pathname>");

    ret = myftw(argv[1], myfunc);

    ntot = nreg + ndir + nblk + nchr + nfifo + nslink + nsock;
    if(ntot == 0)   
        ntot = 1;  /* avoid divide by 0; print 0 for all counts */

    printf("regular files = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nreg, nreg*100.0/ntot);
    printf("directories = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", ndir, ndir*100.0/ntot);
    printf("block special = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nblk, nblk*100.0/ntot);
    printf("char special = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nchr, nchr*100.0/ntot);
    printf("FIFOs = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nfifo, nfifo*100.0/ntot);
    printf("symbolic links = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nslink, nslink*100.0/ntot);
    printf("socks = %7d, %5.2f %%\n", nsock, nsock*100.0/ntot);
    exit(ret);
}

/*
   Descend through the hierarchy, starting at "pathname".
   The caller's func() is called for every file.
*/
#define FTW_F 1  /* file other than directory */
#define FTW_D 2  /* directory */
#define FTW_DNR 3 /* directory that can't be read */
#define FTW_NS 4 /* file that we can't stat */

static char *fullpath;  /* contains full pathname for every file */

static int myftw(char *pathname, Myfunc *func)
{
    int len = 4096;

    /* malloc's for PATH_MAX+1 bytes 
       用来存放整个路径,包括子文件夹
        */

    fullpath = malloc(len);

    strncpy(fullpath, pathname, len);  /* protect against */
    fullpath[len-1] = 0;

    printf("len: %d\n", len);
    printf("%s\n", pathname);
    printf("%s\n", fullpath);
    printf("%d\n", strlen(fullpath));

    return(dopath(func));
}

/*
  Descend through the hierarchy, starting at "fullpath".
  If "fullpath" is anyting other than a directory, we lstat() it,
  call func(), and return. For a directory, we call ourself
  recursively for each name in the directory.
*/
static int dopath(Myfunc *func)
{
    struct stat statbuf;

    /*
      struct dirent
      {
         ino_t d_ino;  i-node number
         char d_name[NAME_MAX+1]  null-terminated filename
      }
    */
    struct dirent *dirp;

    DIR *dp;
    int ret;
    char *ptr;

    if(lstat(fullpath, &statbuf) < 0) /* stat error */
        return (func(fullpath, &statbuf, FTW_NS));
    if(!S_ISDIR(statbuf.st_mode)) /* not a directory */
        return (func(fullpath, &statbuf, FTW_F));

    /*
       It's a directory. First call func() for the directory,
       then process each filename in the directory.
    */
    if((ret = func(fullpath, &statbuf, FTW_D)) != 0)
        return ret;

    ptr = fullpath + strlen(fullpath);  /* point to end of fullpath */
    *ptr++ = '/';
    *ptr = 0;

    /*
      DIR *opendir(const char *pathname);
      执行初始化操作,时第一个readdir读目录的第一个目录项
    */
    if((dp = opendir(fullpath)) == NULL)  /* can't read directory */
        return(func(fullpath, &statbuf, FTW_DNR));

    /*
      struct dirent *readdir(DIR *dp);
    */
    while((dirp = readdir(dp)) != NULL)
    {
        if(strcmp(dirp->d_name, ".") == 0 ||
            strcmp(dirp->d_name, "..") == 0)
            continue;  /* ignore dot and dot-dot */

        strcpy(ptr, dirp->d_name);  /* append name after slash */
        printf("%s\n", fullpath);

        if((ret = dopath(func)) != 0) /* recursive */
            break;  /* time to leave */
    }
    ptr[-1] = 0;  /* erase everything from slash onwards */

    /*
      int closedir(DIR *dp);
    */
    if(closedir(dp) < 0)
        err_ret("can't close directory %s", fullpath);

    return ret;
}

static int myfunc(const char *pathname, const struct stat *statptr, int type)
{
    switch(type)
    {
        case FTW_F:
            switch(statptr->st_mode & S_IFMT)
            {
            case S_IFREG: nreg++; break;
            case S_IFBLK: nblk++; break;
            case S_IFCHR: nchr++; break;
            case S_IFIFO: nfifo++; break;
            case S_IFLNK: nslink++; break;
            case S_IFDIR: err_dump("for S_IFDIR for %s", pathname);
            /* directories should have type = FTW_D */
            default:
            err_dump("wrong type %d for pathname %s", type, pathname);
                break;
            }
            break;
        case FTW_D:
            ndir++;
            break;
        case FTW_DNR:
            err_ret("can't read directory %s", pathname);
            break;
        case FTW_NS:
            err_ret("stat error for %s", pathname);
            break;
        default:
            err_dump("unkown type %d for pathname %s", type, pathname);
            break;

    }
    return 0;
}

这里写图片描述

chdir函数实例
当前工作目录是进程的一个属性,所以只影响调用chdir的进程本身,不影响其他进程,即调用该程序不会得到希望的结果

#include "apue.h"

int main(void)
{
    /*
      int chdir(const char *pathname);
      更改工作目录 
    */
    if(chdir("/tmp") < 0)
        err_sys("chdir failed");
    printf("chdir to /tmp successed\n");
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述

getcwd函数实例

#include "apue.h"

int main(void)
{
    char *ptr;
    int size;

    if(chdir("/tmp") < 0)
        err_sys("chdir failed");

    ptr = path_alloc(&size);  /* our own function */

    /*
      char *getcwd(char *buf, size_t size);
      得到当前工作目录
      从当前工作目录.开始,用..目录找上一级目录,然后读目录项,
      直到该目录项中的i节点编号与工作目录i节点编号相同,这就找到了对应的文件名
      buf: 容纳绝对路径名+null终止字符
      size: buf长度
    */
    if(getcwd(ptr, size) == NULL)
        err_sys("getcwd failed");

    printf("cwd = %s\n", ptr);
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述

打印st_dev和st_rdev值

#include "apue.h"
#ifdef SOLAPRIS
#include <sys/mkdev.h>
#endif

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int i;
    struct stat buf;

    for(i=1; i<argc; i++)
    {
        printf("%s: ", argv[i]);
        if(stat(argv[i], &buf) < 0)
        {
            err_ret("stat error");
            continue;
        }

        /* 打印主设备号和从设备号 */
        printf("dev = %d/%d", major(buf.st_dev), minor(buf.st_dev));

        if(S_ISCHR(buf.st_mode) || S_ISBLK(buf.st_mode))
        {
            printf("(%s) rdev = %d/%d",
                (S_ISCHR(buf.st_mode)) ? "character" : "block",
                major(buf.st_rdev), minor(buf.st_rdev));
        }

        printf("\n");
    }
    exit(0);
}

这里写图片描述
第一个是目录,后两个是设备
设备号不同,说明位于不同的文件系统
两个终端设备(st_dev)的文件名和i节点在设备0/6上(devfs伪文件系统),实际设备号是4/0和4/1

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