JAVA多线程之扩展ThreadPoolExecutor

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ThreadPoolExecutor是可扩展的,通过查看源码可以发现,它提供了几个可以在子类化中改写的方法:beforeExecute,afterExecute,terminated.

源码片段如下所示:

protected void beforeExecute(Thread t, Runnable r) { }
protected void afterExecute(Runnable r, Throwable t) { }
protected void terminated() { }
可以注意到,这三个方法都是protected的空方法,摆明了是让子类扩展的嘛。

在执行任务的线程中将调用beforeExecute和afterExecute等方法,在这些方法中还可以添加日志、计时、监视或者统计信息收集的功能。无论任务是从run中正常返回,还是抛出一个异常而返回,afterExecute都会被调用。如果任务在完成后带有一个Error,那么就不会调用afterExecute。如果beforeExecute抛出一个RuntimeException,那么任务将不被执行,并且afterExecute也不会被调用。

在线程池完成关闭时调用terminated,也就是在所有任务都已经完成并且所有工作者线程也已经关闭后,terminated可以用来释放Executor在其生命周期里分配的各种资源,此外还可以执行发送通知、记录日志或者手机finalize统计等操作。

下面就以给线程池添加统计信息为例(添加日志和及时等功能):

package com.threadPool;

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class TimingThreadPool extends ThreadPoolExecutor
{
	private final ThreadLocal<Long> startTime = new ThreadLocal<Long>();
	private final Logger log = Logger.getAnonymousLogger();
	private final AtomicLong numTasks = new AtomicLong();
	private final AtomicLong totalTime = new AtomicLong();
	
	public TimingThreadPool(int corePoolSize, int maximumPoolSize, long keepAliveTime, TimeUnit unit,
			BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue)
	{
		super(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue);
	}

	protected void beforeExecute(Thread t, Runnable r){
		super.beforeExecute(t, r);
		log.info(String.format("Thread %s: start %s", t,r));
		startTime.set(System.nanoTime());
	}
	
	protected void afterExecute(Runnable r, Throwable t){
		try{
			long endTime = System.nanoTime();
			long taskTime = endTime-startTime.get();
			numTasks.incrementAndGet();
			totalTime.addAndGet(taskTime);
			log.info(String.format("Thread %s: end %s, time=%dns", t,r,taskTime));
		}
		finally
		{
			super.afterExecute(r, t);
		}
	}
	
	protected void terminated()
	{
		try
		{
			log.info(String.format("Terminated: avg time=%dns",totalTime.get()/numTasks.get()));
		}
		finally
		{
			super.terminated();
		}
	}
}
可以看到TimingThreadPool重写了父类的三个方法。

下面写一个测试类,参考运行效果:

package com.threadPool;

import java.util.concurrent.SynchronousQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class CheckTimingThreadPool
{
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		ThreadPoolExecutor  exec = new TimingThreadPool(0, Integer.MAX_VALUE,
                60L, TimeUnit.SECONDS,
                new SynchronousQueue<Runnable>());
		exec.execute(new DoSomething(5));
		exec.execute(new DoSomething(4));
		exec.execute(new DoSomething(3));
		exec.execute(new DoSomething(2));
		exec.execute(new DoSomething(1));
		exec.shutdown();
	}

}

class DoSomething implements Runnable{
	private int sleepTime;
	public DoSomething(int sleepTime)
	{
		this.sleepTime = sleepTime;
	}
	@Override
	public void run()
	{
		System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+" is running.");
		try
		{
			TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(sleepTime);
		}
		catch (InterruptedException e)
		{
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
	
}
运行结果:

十二月 25, 2015 4:18:42 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool beforeExecute
信息: Thread Thread[pool-1-thread-1,5,main]: start com.threadPool.DoSomething@43f459c2
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:42 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool beforeExecute
信息: Thread Thread[pool-1-thread-3,5,main]: start com.threadPool.DoSomething@33891d5d
pool-1-thread-3 is running.
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:42 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool beforeExecute
信息: Thread Thread[pool-1-thread-4,5,main]: start com.threadPool.DoSomething@33891d5d
pool-1-thread-4 is running.
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:42 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool beforeExecute
信息: Thread Thread[pool-1-thread-5,5,main]: start com.threadPool.DoSomething@10747b4
pool-1-thread-5 is running.
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:42 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool beforeExecute
信息: Thread Thread[pool-1-thread-2,5,main]: start com.threadPool.DoSomething@7d4af469
pool-1-thread-2 is running.
pool-1-thread-1 is running.
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:43 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool afterExecute
信息: Thread null: end com.threadPool.DoSomething@10747b4, time=999589906ns
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:44 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool afterExecute
信息: Thread null: end com.threadPool.DoSomething@33891d5d, time=1999461618ns
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:45 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool afterExecute
信息: Thread null: end com.threadPool.DoSomething@33891d5d, time=3000507593ns
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:46 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool afterExecute
信息: Thread null: end com.threadPool.DoSomething@7d4af469, time=3999691253ns
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:47 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool afterExecute
信息: Thread null: end com.threadPool.DoSomething@43f459c2, time=4999778490ns
十二月 25, 2015 4:18:47 下午 com.threadPool.TimingThreadPool terminated
信息: Terminated: avg time=2999805772ns
可以看到,在测试类CheckTimingThreadPool中通过execute了五个线程,然后分别对这五个线程进行统计,最后统计出各个线程的耗时平均时间。

这里说明下TimingThreadPool的构造函数,它直接调用了父类的构造方法,在ThreadPoolExecutor中有许多构造方法,有兴趣的朋友可以查看jdk api或者源码进行查看。

简要说明下构造函数的参数的含义:

corePoolSize:线程池维护线程的最少数量

maximumPoolSize:线程池维护线程的最大数量

keepAliveTime:线程池维护线程所允许的空闲时间

unit:线程池维护所允许的空闲时间的单位

workQueue:线程池所使用的缓存队列



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