mysql集群搭建二——CentOS搭建mysql-cluster集群

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MySQL集群搭建(centos6.5)

注:系统(centos6.5)、集群版本(mysql-cluster-gpl-7.3.6-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz)

参考网站:

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/28572091

http://www.cnblogs.com/52php/p/5675374.html

http://blog.csdn.net/zhiyuan_2007/article/details/71238216

1、安装集群版本

a、准备工作

不管是Management Server,还是Data node、SQL node,都需要先安装MySQL集群版本,然后根据不用的配置来决定当前服务器有哪几个角色。

安装之前准备好mysql用户和mysql用户组,相关命令:

groupadd mysql  
useradd mysql -g mysql

为了方便测试,确定相关机器的防火墙已关闭(或者设置防火墙这几台机器之间的网络连接是畅通无阻的),相关命令:

chkconfig iptables off 
service iptables stop
b、安装集群版本

上传安装包至/usr/local目录下,并解压

tar -zxvf mysql-cluster-gpl-7.3.6-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

重命名文件夹

mv mysql-cluster-gpl-7.3.6-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 mysql

授权

chown -R mysql:mysql mysql

切换mysql用户

su - mysql

安装MySQL

cd /usr/local/mysql
scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

注:所有服务器上都需要执行上述操作来安装MySQL集群版本。

2、集群配置

a、管理节点

root用户下,创建目录和配置文件

mkdir /var/lib/mysql-cluster
cd /var/lib/mysql-cluster
vim config.ini

config.ini配置信息如下:

[NDBD DEFAULT]
NoOfReplicas=2

[NDB_MGMD]
#设置管理节点服务器
nodeid=1
HostName=10.16.8.193
DataDir=/var/lib/mysql-cluster

[NDBD]
id=2
HostName=10.16.8.193
DataDir=/usr/local/mysql/data

[NDBD]
id=3
HostName=10.16.8.194
DataDir=/usr/local/mysql/data

[MYSQLD]
id=4
HostName=10.16.8.193
[MYSQLD]
id=5
HostName=10.16.8.194

#必须有空的mysqld节点,不然数据节点断开后启动有报错
[MYSQLD]
id=6
[mysqld]
id=7

授权

chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql-cluster

切换用户

su - mysql

启动管理服务

/usr/local/mysql/bin/ndb_mgmd -f /var/lib/mysql-cluster/config.ini --initial

注:命令行中的ndb_mgmd是mysql cluster的管理服务器,后面的-f表示后面的参数是启动的参数配置文件。

如果在启动后过了几天又添加了一个数据节点,这时修改了配置文件启动时就必须加上–initial参数,不然添加的节点不会作用在mysql cluster中。

b、数据节点

编辑/etc/my.cnf文件

# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES 
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
user=mysql
default-storage-engine=ndbcluster
ndbcluster 
ndb-connectstring=10.16.8.193
character_set_server=utf8
lower_case_table_names=1  
[mysql_cluster] 
ndb-connectstring=10.16.8.19

切换用户

su - mysql

启动数据节点服务

/usr/local/mysql/bin/ndbd --initial

注:第一次启动需要加参数:–initial,以后就不用加了,直接运行: /usr/local/mysql/bin/ndbd

这个参数尤其重要,因为加了–initial后会把数据库清空的

c、SQL节点

编辑/etc/my.cnf文件(数据节点和SQL节点在统一服务器时可省略)

# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld] 
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES 
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
user=mysql

ndbcluster 
ndb-connectstring=192.168.3.115

[mysql_cluster] 
ndb-connectstring=192.168.3.115

复制mysqld到系统服务里面去

cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld

切换用户

su - mysql

启动数据节点服务

service mysqld start
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'password'
d、完成效果
ndb_mgm> show
Connected to Management Server at: localhost:1186
Cluster Configuration
---------------------
[ndbd(NDB)] 2 node(s)
id=2    @192.168.3.116  (mysql-5.6.19 ndb-7.3.6, Nodegroup: 0, *)
id=3    @192.168.3.117  (mysql-5.6.19 ndb-7.3.6, Nodegroup: 0)

[ndb_mgmd(MGM)] 1 node(s)
id=1    @192.168.3.115  (mysql-5.6.19 ndb-7.3.6)

[mysqld(API)]   4 node(s)
id=4    @192.168.3.116  (mysql-5.6.19 ndb-7.3.6)
id=5    @192.168.3.117  (mysql-5.6.19 ndb-7.3.6)
id=6 (not connected, accepting connect from any host)
id=7 (not connected, accepting connect from any host)

3、nginx方向代理

因为需要使用nginx的tcp连接,所以需要使用到nginx的stream模块

a、安装nginx

因为是使用rpm方式进行安装,下面给出官方的依赖包下载地址:

http://vault.centos.org/6.5/os/x86_64/Packages/

在上面网站中安装必要依赖,比如gcc gcc-c++ automake autoconf libtool make glibc glibc-devel lsof ,具体需要的依赖到时安装时会提示错误,再安装即可,安装命令:

rpm -ivh xxx.rpm

官网下载nginx,这里我使用的是如下的版本:

nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz

解压:

tar zxvf nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz

进入目录:

cd nginx-1.12.2

源码编译:

./configure –with-stream

注:这里如果报错,一般是缺少某个依赖,去centos依赖库下载回来执行rpm命令安装即可

安装:

make
make install

执行命令查看到的版本和依赖模块如下:

[root@kfjqrapp1 sbin]# ./nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.12.2
built by gcc 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4) (GCC) 
configure arguments: --prefix=/home/xxx/nginx --with-stream
b、nginx.conf配置文件如下:
#user  nobody;
user root;
worker_processes  auto; 
#error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
#pid /var/run/nginx.pid;
error_log  logs/error.log;
error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
error_log  logs/error.log  info;

pid        logs/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}

stream {
    upstream mysqld {
        server 10.16.8.193:3306 weight=4 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
        server 10.16.8.194:3306 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    }

    server {
        listen 3306;
        proxy_connect_timeout 30s;
        proxy_timeout 43200s;
        proxy_pass mysqld;
    }
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    max_ranges 1;
    upstream myproject {
        server 10.16.8.191:8082;
        server 10.16.8.192:8082;
    }

    server {
        listen 9300;
        server_name localhost;
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://myproject;
        }
    }
    #gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

    max_ranges 1;

        location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        max_ranges 1;
        }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        max_ranges 1;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }


    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}


    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

}

注:这里要注意的是proxy_timeout 43200s;这个参数,代表tcp连接之后再这个秒数之内,如果不进行通讯,那么会自动断开连接,这个就看看实际项目的需求了,一般看一下定时任务的时间来定。

4、常用命令以及问题整理

1) ndb_mgmd管理命令:/usr/local/mysql/bin/ndb_mgm执行之后就是管理控制台了,里面可以继续输入命令。(具体命令可以使用help查看)

2) 停止集群服务器的命令:/usr/local/mysql/bin/ndb_mgm -e shutdown

如果集群配置有更新了:rm /usr/local/mysql/mysql-cluster/ndb_1_config.bin.1

3) 停止SQL节点的命令:/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot shutdown

4)使用需要注意如下几点:

a、表必须用ENGINE=NDB或ENGINE=NDBCLUSTER选项创建,或用ALTER TABLE选项更改,以使用NDB Cluster存储引擎在 Cluster内复制它们。如果使用mysqldump的输出从已有数据库导入表,可在文本编辑器中打开SQL脚本,并将该选项添加到任何表创建语句,或 用这类选项之一替换任何已有的ENGINE(或TYPE)选项。

b、另外还请记住,每个NDB表必须有一个主键。如果在创建表时用户未定义主键,NDB Cluster存储引擎将自动生成隐含的主键。(注释:该隐含 键也将占用空间,就像任何其他的表索引一样。由于没有足够的内存来容纳这些自动创建的键,出现问题并不罕见)。

c、再重启mysql-cluster的时候,在重启数据节点的时候注意看一下是不是已经启动了,才开始启动最后的sql节点,有时数据量比较大的时候,启动数据节点需要一段时间的,使用show命令查看如果是数据节点有starting标识的话,那就是还没启动成功:

id=2 @192.168.0.15  (mysql-5.7.18 ndb-7.5.6, starting, Nodegroup: 0)
问题一:

ERROR 1297 (HY000): Got temporary error 233 ‘Out of operation records in transaction coordinator (increase MaxNoOfConcurrentOperations)’ from NDBCLUSTER

在[NDBD DEFAULT]中增加参数

MaxNoOfConcurrentOperations=300000
MaxNoOfLocalOperations=330000
问题二:

java.net.UnknownHostException: XXXX Name or service not known

修改/etc/hosts文件

127.0.0.1 主机名 localhost.localdomain localhost

或是再添加一条

127.0.0.1 主机名
问题三:

对于连表查询,mysql-cluster性能比较差,这里还没想到怎么优化,但是如果是带有IN的sql语句,可以通过如下方式进行优化:

下面语句执行可能要很长时间:

select * from userinfo where id in(select author_id from artilce where type=1);

可以进行如下的优化(使用临时表):

select id,username from userinfo where id in (select author_id from article where type = 1);
问题四:

Node 1: Forced node shutdown completed. Caused by error 2305: ‘Node lost connection to other nodes and can not form a unpartitioned cluster, please investigate if there are error(s) on other node(s)(Arbitration error). Temporary error, restart node’.

config.ini,在[ndbd]中改一个参数为StopOnError=0即可.

问题五:导入数据的时候遇到如下报错

ERROR 1005 (HY000) at line 25: Can’t create table ‘tuge.pangolin_fnc_accountverification’ (errno: 140)
Error | 1296 | Got error 738 ‘Record too big’ from NDB

分析原因:表行数据太大

解决办法:需要更改表结构,使最大单行数据的大小小于8KB!

问题六:导入大量数据的时候遇到如下报错

Error 1297: Got temporary error ‘REDO’ log overloaded.
ERROR : Got temporary error 1204 ‘Temporary failure, distribution changed’ from NDBCLUSTER
ERROR : Got temporary error 1234 ‘REDO log files overloaded (increase disk hardware)’ from NDBCLUSTER

分析原因:遇到这个错误,是表示redo log用完了,需要增加

解决办法:修改config.ini文件,更改或添加如下参数:

FragmentLogFileSize=256M
NoOfFragmentLogFiles=16

NoOfFragmentLogFiles这个参数可以更改到更大,但是初始化的时候会慢一点

问题七:在导入大量数据的时候,出现如下报错:

ERROR 1114 (HY000) at line 54: The table ‘gps_led_sendadverthistory’ is full

分析原因:你分配的内存或者硬盘空间已经用完(如果你采用磁盘表的话),需要通过ndb管理节点客户端和登录mysql查看具体的原因,通过ndb_mgm登录,执行命令:

All report memory 看下分配的内存是否使用完,如果采用磁盘表的,还需要登录mysqld节点,然后执行如下查询,来确定是否是磁盘不足:

SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME, EXTENT_SIZE*TOTAL_EXTENTS/1024/1024 AS TOTAL_MB, EXTENT_SIZE*FREE_EXTENTS/1024/1024 AS FREE_MB, EXTRA FROM information_schema.FILES WHERE FILE_TYPE="DATAFILE";

解决办法:如果是数据内存不足的情况,直接更改文件config.ini中[NDBD DEFAULT]下的

DataMemory=11480M
IndexMemory=1024M

5、在网上查询到的优化配置

config.ini

[ndb_mgmd default]
DataDir = /usr/local/mysql/data

[ndbd default]
NoOfReplicas = 2
DataMemory = 2500M
IndexMemory = 800M
DataDir = /usr/local/mysql/data

StringMemory = 50
MaxNoOfTables = 4096
MaxNoOfOrderedIndexes = 2048
MaxNoOfUniqueHashIndexes = 1024
MaxNoOfAttributes = 24576
MaxNoOfTriggers = 10240

MaxNoOfConcurrentTransactions = 409600
MaxNoOfConcurrentOperations = 3276800
###MaxNoOfLocalOperations = 55000
TimeBetweenGlobalCheckpoints = 1000
TimeBetweenEpochs = 100
TimeBetweenWatchdogCheckInitial = 60000
TransactionBufferMemory = 20M
DiskCheckpointSpeed = 20M
DiskCheckpointSpeedInRestart = 100M
TimeBetweenLocalCheckpoints = 20

SchedulerSpinTimer = 400
SchedulerExecutionTimer = 100
RealTimeScheduler = 1

BackupMaxWriteSize = 2M
BackupDataBufferSize = 32M
BackupLogBufferSize = 8M
BackupMemory = 40M

MaxNoOfExecutionThreads = 4
TransactionDeadLockDetectionTimeOut = 15000
BatchSizePerLocalScan = 512

###Increasing the LongMessageBufferb/c of a bug (20090903)
LongMessageBuffer = 16M

###Heartbeating
HeartbeatIntervalDbDb = 15000
HeartbeatIntervalDbApi = 15000

FragmentLogFileSize = 256M
NoOfFragmentLogFiles = 16

[mysqld default]

[ndb_mgmd]
NodeId = 1
HostName = 172.16.10.160

[ndbd]
NodeId = 11  
HostName = 172.16.10.170

[ndbd]
NodeId = 12
HostName = 172.16.10.171

[ndbd]
NodeId = 13
HostName = 172.16.10.172

[ndbd]
NodeId = 14
HostName = 172.16.10.173

[mysqld]
NodeId = 81
HostName = 172.16.10.150

[mysqld] 
NodeId = 82
HostName = 172.16.10.151

my.cnf

[mysqld]
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /usr/local/mysql/data
default-storage-engine = ndbcluster

slow-query-log = on
slow_query_log_file = /usr/local/mysql/data/slow-query.log
long_query_time = 5

skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 600M
max_allowed_packet = 100M
table_open_cache = 2048
sort_buffer_size = 1024M
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 400M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 200M

lower_case_table_names =1 
back_log = 384
thread_stack = 256K
join_buffer_size = 500M
thread_cache_size = 200
query_cache_size = 640M
tmp_table_size = 256M
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 10000000 
wait_timeout = 2880000
interactive_timeout = 2880000
thread_concurrency = 8

ndbcluster
ndb-connectstring = 172.16.10.160

[mysql_cluster]
ndb-connectstring = 172.16.10.160
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