spring-boot 集成 rabbitmq

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/u014723529/article/details/78426403

本文主要说说Spring boot 集成另一个很火的mq。
示例主要参看官方的demo
https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-boot/tree/master/spring-boot-samples/spring-boot-sample-amqp
https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-amqp-samples

RabbitMQ

介绍

RabbitMQ是流行的开源消息队列系统,用erlang语言开发。RabbitMQ是AMQP(高级消息队列协议)的标准实现。

概念

  • Broker:简单来说就是消息队列服务器实体。
  • Exchange:消息交换机,它指定消息按什么规则,路由到哪个队列。
  • Queue:消息队列载体,每个消息都会被投入到一个或多个队列。
  • Binding:绑定,它的作用就是把exchange和queue按照路由规则绑定起来。
  • Routing Key:路由关键字,exchange根据这个关键字进行消息投递。
  • vhost:虚拟主机,一个broker里可以开设多个vhost,用作不同用户的权限分离。
  • producer:消息生产者,就是投递消息的程序。
  • consumer:消息消费者,就是接受消息的程序。
  • channel:消息通道,在客户端的每个连接里,可建立多个channel,每个channel代表一个会话任务。

使用过程

  1. 客户端连接到消息队列服务器,打开一个channel。
  2. 客户端声明一个exchange,并设置相关属性。
  3. 客户端声明一个queue,并设置相关属性。
  4. 客户端使用routing key,在exchange和queue之间建立好绑定关系。
  5. 客户端投递消息到exchange。

exchange接收到消息后,就根据消息的key和已经设置的binding,进行消息路由,将消息投递到一个或多个队列里。
exchange也有几个类型,完全根据key进行投递的叫做Direct交换机,例如,绑定时设置了routing key为”abc”,那么客户端提交的消息,只有设置了key为”abc”的才会投递到队列。对key进行模式匹配后进行投递的叫做Topic交换机,符号”#”匹配一个或多个词,符号””匹配正好一个词。例如”abc.#”匹配”abc.def.ghi”,”abc.”只匹配”abc.def”。还有一种不需要key的,叫做Fanout交换机,它采取广播模式,一个消息进来时,投递到与该交换机绑定的所有队列。
RabbitMQ支持消息的持久化,也就是数据写在磁盘上,为了数据安全考虑,我想大多数用户都会选择持久化。消息队列持久化包括3个部分:

  1. exchange持久化,在声明时指定durable => 1
  2. queue持久化,在声明时指定durable => 1
  3. 消息持久化,在投递时指定delivery_mode => 2(1是非持久化)

如果exchange和queue都是持久化的,那么它们之间的binding也是持久化的。如果exchange和queue两者之间有一个持久化,一个非持久化,就不允许建立绑定。

Spring-boot 集成 rabbitmq

添加maven依赖

<dependency>  
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>  
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>  
</dependency>  

简单实现

配置

在application.properties中增加如下配置

spring.rabbitmq.addresses=127.0.0.1:5672  
spring.rabbitmq.username=guest  
spring.rabbitmq.password=guest  
spring.rabbitmq.publisher-confirms=true  
spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host=/  

rabbitmq端口说明:5672-amqp,25672-clustering,61613-stomp,1883-mqtt

消息生产者

package com.rabbitmq.send;  

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;  
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;  
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;  

@Component  
public class Sender {  

    @Autowired  
    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;  

    public void send(String msg) {  
        this.rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend("foo", msg);  
    }  
}  

消息监听者

package com.rabbitmq.listener;  

import org.slf4j.Logger;  
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;  
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitHandler;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;  
import org.springframework.messaging.handler.annotation.Payload;  

@Configuration  
@RabbitListener(queues = "foo")  
public class Listener {  

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Listener.class);  

    @Bean  
    public Queue fooQueue() {  
        return new Queue("foo");  
    }  

    @RabbitHandler  
    public void process(@Payload String foo) {  
        LOGGER.info("Listener: " + foo);  
    }  
}  

测试Controller

package com.rabbitmq.controller;  

import com.rabbitmq.send.Sender;  
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;  
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;  
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;  

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;  

@RestController  
public class RabbitmqController {  

    @Autowired  
    private Sender sender;  

    @GetMapping("/send")  
    public String send(HttpServletRequest request, String msg) {  
        sender.send(msg);  
        return "Send OK.";  
    }  

测试

启动服务,在浏览器输入 http://127.0.0.1:8080/send?msg=this%20is%20a%20test ,点击回车可以在控制台看到如下输出

INFO 5559 --- [cTaskExecutor-1] c.rabbitmq.listener.Listener  : Listener: this is a test  
[SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor-1] INFO  c.rabbitmq.listener.Listener - Listener: this is a test 

带ConfirmCallback的使用

增加回调处理,这里不再使用application.properties默认配置的方式,会在程序中显示的使用文件中的配置信息。

配置

package com.rabbitmq.config;  

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.connection.CachingConnectionFactory;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.connection.ConnectionFactory;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;  
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;  
import org.springframework.beans.factory.config.ConfigurableBeanFactory;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Scope;  

@Configuration  
public class AmqpConfig {  

    public static final String FOO_EXCHANGE   = "callback.exchange.foo";  
    public static final String FOO_ROUTINGKEY = "callback.routingkey.foo";  
    public static final String FOO_QUEUE      = "callback.queue.foo";  

    @Value("${spring.rabbitmq.addresses}")  
    private String addresses;  
    @Value("${spring.rabbitmq.username}")  
    private String username;  
    @Value("${spring.rabbitmq.password}")  
    private String password;  
    @Value("${spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host}")  
    private String virtualHost;  
    @Value("${spring.rabbitmq.publisher-confirms}")  
    private boolean publisherConfirms;  

    @Bean  
    public ConnectionFactory connectionFactory() {  
        CachingConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new CachingConnectionFactory();  
        connectionFactory.setAddresses(addresses);  
        connectionFactory.setUsername(username);  
        connectionFactory.setPassword(password);  
        connectionFactory.setVirtualHost(virtualHost);  
        /** 如果要进行消息回调,则这里必须要设置为true */  
        connectionFactory.setPublisherConfirms(publisherConfirms);  
        return connectionFactory;  
    }  

    @Bean  
    /** 因为要设置回调类,所以应是prototype类型,如果是singleton类型,则回调类为最后一次设置 */  
    @Scope(ConfigurableBeanFactory.SCOPE_PROTOTYPE)  
    public RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate() {  
        RabbitTemplate template = new RabbitTemplate(connectionFactory());  
        return template;  
    }  

}  

消息生产者

package com.rabbitmq.send;  

import com.rabbitmq.config.AmqpConfig;  
import org.slf4j.Logger;  
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.support.CorrelationData;  
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;  
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;  

import java.util.UUID;  

@Component  
public class Sender implements RabbitTemplate.ConfirmCallback {  

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Sender.class);  

    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;  

    @Autowired  
    public Sender(RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate) {  
        this.rabbitTemplate = rabbitTemplate;  
        this.rabbitTemplate.setConfirmCallback(this);  
    }  

    public void send(String msg) {  
        CorrelationData correlationData = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());  
        LOGGER.info("send: " + correlationData.getId());  
        this.rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfig.FOO_EXCHANGE, AmqpConfig.FOO_ROUTINGKEY, msg, correlationData);  
    }  

    /** 回调方法 */  
    @Override  
    public void confirm(CorrelationData correlationData, boolean ack, String cause) {  
        LOGGER.info("confirm: " + correlationData.getId());  
    }  
}  

消息监听者

package com.rabbitmq.listener;  

import com.rabbitmq.config.AmqpConfig;  
import org.slf4j.Logger;  
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;  
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Binding;  
import org.springframework.amqp.core.BindingBuilder;  
import org.springframework.amqp.core.DirectExchange;  
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitHandler;  
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;  
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;  
import org.springframework.messaging.handler.annotation.Payload;  

@Configuration  
@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfig.FOO_QUEUE)  
public class Listener {  

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Listener.class);  

    /** 设置交换机类型  */  
    @Bean  
    public DirectExchange defaultExchange() {  
        /** 
         * DirectExchange:按照routingkey分发到指定队列 
         * TopicExchange:多关键字匹配 
         * FanoutExchange: 将消息分发到所有的绑定队列,无routingkey的概念 
         * HeadersExchange :通过添加属性key-value匹配 
         */  
        return new DirectExchange(AmqpConfig.FOO_EXCHANGE);  
    }  

    @Bean  
    public Queue fooQueue() {  
        return new Queue(AmqpConfig.FOO_QUEUE);  
    }  

    @Bean  
    public Binding binding() {  
        /** 将队列绑定到交换机 */  
        return BindingBuilder.bind(fooQueue()).to(defaultExchange()).with(AmqpConfig.FOO_ROUTINGKEY);  
    }  

    @RabbitHandler  
    public void process(@Payload String foo) {  
        LOGGER.info("Listener: " + foo);  
    }  
}  

或者使用下面的代码来代替@RabbitHandler注解的process方法

@Bean  
public SimpleMessageListenerContainer messageContainer() {  
    SimpleMessageListenerContainer container = new SimpleMessageListenerContainer(connectionFactory());  
    container.setQueues(fooQueue());  
    container.setExposeListenerChannel(true);  
    container.setMaxConcurrentConsumers(1);  
    container.setConcurrentConsumers(1);  
    container.setAcknowledgeMode(AcknowledgeMode.MANUAL); //设置确认模式手工确认  
    container.setMessageListener(new ChannelAwareMessageListener() {  

        @Override  
        public void onMessage(Message message, Channel channel) throws Exception {  
            byte[] body = message.getBody();  
            LOGGER.info("Listener onMessage : " + new String(body));  
            channel.basicAck(message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag(), false); //确认消息成功消费  
        }  
    });  
    return container;  
}  

这里参看了这篇博文 http://blog.csdn.net/liaokailin/article/details/49559571

测试

运行服务,刷新上面的测试链接,可以在控制台看到如下输出

INFO 15122 --- [nio-8080-exec-1] com.jikefriend.rabbitmq.send.Sender      : send: c678afb7-af8b-42b2-9370-ea7f9d6004a0  
[http-nio-8080-exec-1] INFO  com.jikefriend.rabbitmq.send.Sender - send: c678afb7-af8b-42b2-9370-ea7f9d6004a0  
INFO 15122 --- [ 127.0.0.1:5672] com.jikefriend.rabbitmq.send.Sender      : confirm: c678afb7-af8b-42b2-9370-ea7f9d6004a0  
[AMQP Connection 127.0.0.1:5672] INFO  com.jikefriend.rabbitmq.send.Sender - confirm: c678afb7-af8b-42b2-9370-ea7f9d6004a0  
INFO 15122 --- [cTaskExecutor-1] c.jikefriend.rabbitmq.listener.Listener  : Listener: this is a test  
[SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor-1] INFO  c.j.rabbitmq.listener.Listener - Listener: this is a test  

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