# AVX的概念解释

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Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) are extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008 and first supported by Intel with the Sandy Bridge processor shipping in Q1 2011 and later on by AMD with the Bulldozer processor shipping in Q3 2011. AVX provides new features, new instructions and a new coding scheme.

AVX2 expands most integer commands to 256 bits and introduces FMAAVX-512 expands AVX to 512-bit support utilizing a new EVEX prefix encoding proposed by Intel in July 2013 and first supported by Intel with the Knights Landing processor scheduled to ship in 2015.[1]

The width of the SIMD register file is increased from 128 bits to 256 bits, and renamed from XMM0–XMM7 to YMM0–YMM7 (in x86-64 mode, YMM0–YMM15). In processors with AVX support, the legacy SSE instructions (which previously operated on 128-bit XMM registers) can be extended using the VEX prefix to operate on the lower 128 bits of the YMM registers.

 511 256 255 128 127 0 ZMM0 YMM0 XMM0 ZMM1 YMM1 XMM1 ZMM2 YMM2 XMM2 ZMM3 YMM3 XMM3 ZMM4 YMM4 XMM4 ZMM5 YMM5 XMM5 ZMM6 YMM6 XMM6 ZMM7 YMM7 XMM7 ZMM8 YMM8 XMM8 ZMM9 YMM9 XMM9 ZMM10 YMM10 XMM10 ZMM11 YMM11 XMM11 ZMM12 YMM12 XMM12 ZMM13 YMM13 XMM13 ZMM14 YMM14 XMM14 ZMM15 YMM15 XMM15 ZMM16 YMM16 XMM16 ZMM17 YMM17 XMM17 ZMM18 YMM18 XMM18 ZMM19 YMM19 XMM19 ZMM20 YMM20 XMM20 ZMM21 YMM21 XMM21 ZMM22 YMM22 XMM22 ZMM23 YMM23 XMM23 ZMM24 YMM24 XMM24 ZMM25 YMM25 XMM25 ZMM26 YMM26 XMM26 ZMM27 YMM27 XMM27 ZMM28 YMM28 XMM28 ZMM29 YMM29 XMM29 ZMM30 YMM30 XMM30 ZMM31 YMM31 XMM31

AVX introduces a three-operand SIMD instruction format, where the destination register is distinct from the two source operands. For example, an SSEinstruction using the conventional two-operand form a = a + b can now use a non-destructive three-operand form c = a + b, preserving both source operands. AVX's three-operand format is limited to the instructions with SIMD operands (YMM), and does not include instructions with general purpose registers (e.g. EAX). Such support will first appear in AVX2.[2]

The alignment requirement of SIMD memory operands is relaxed.[citation needed]

The new VEX coding scheme introduces a new set of code prefixes that extends the opcode space, allows instructions to have more than two operands, and allows SIMD vector registers to be longer than 128 bits. The VEX prefix can also be used on the legacy SSE instructions giving them a three-operand form, and making them interact more efficiently with AVX instructions without the need for VZEROUPPER and ZEROALL.

The AVX instructions support both 128-bit and 256-bit SIMD. The 128-bit versions can be useful to improve old code without needing to widen the vectorization, but can also be used if an AVX-capable processor is detected while the operating system is not AVX 256-bit capable. In that case using the 256-bit registers is unsafe, but using AVX on 128-bit registers is still safe; this mode is sometimes known as AVX128.[3]

### Applications

• Suitable for floating point-intensive calculations in multimedia, scientific and financial applications (integer operations are expected in later extensions).
• Increases parallelism and throughput in floating point SIMD calculations.
• Reduces register load due to the non-destructive instructions.
• Improves Linux RAID software performance.[4]

Prime95/MPrime, the software used for GIMPS, started using the AVX instructions since version 27.x.

### New instructions

These AVX instructions are in addition to the ones that are 256-bit extensions of the legacy 128-bit SSE instructions; most are usable on both 128-bit and 256-bit operands.

Instruction Description
VBROADCASTSS,VBROADCASTSD,VBROADCASTF128Copy a 32-bit, 64-bit or 128-bit memory operand to all elements of a XMM or YMM vector register.
VINSERTF128Replaces either the lower half or the upper half of a 256-bit YMM register with the value of a 128-bit source operand. The other half of the destination is unchanged.
VEXTRACTF128Extracts either the lower half or the upper half of a 256-bit YMM register and copies the value to a 128-bit destination operand.
VMASKMOVPS,VMASKMOVPDConditionally reads any number of elements from a SIMD vector memory operand into a destination register, leaving the remaining vector elements unread and setting the corresponding elements in the destination register to zero. Alternatively, conditionally writes any number of elements from a SIMD vector register operand to a vector memory operand, leaving the remaining elements of the memory operand unchanged. On the AMD Jaguar processor architecture, this instruction with a memory source operand takes more than 300 clock cycles when the mask is zero, in which case the instruction should do nothing. This appears to be a design flaw.[5]
VPERMILPS,VPERMILPDPermute In-Lane. Shuffle the 32-bit or 64-bit vector elements of one input operand. These are in-line 256-bit instructions, meaning that they operate on all 256 bits with two separate 128-bit shuffles, so they can not shuffle across the 128-bit lanes.[6]
VPERM2F128Shuffle the four 128-bit vector elements of two 256-bit source operands into a 256-bit destination operand, with an immediate constant as selector.
VZEROALLSet all YMM registers to zero and tag them as unused. Used when switching between 128-bit use and 256-bit use.
VZEROUPPERSet the upper half of all YMM registers to zero. Used when switching between 128-bit use and 256-bit use.

### CPUs with AVX

Issues regarding compatibility between future Intel and AMD processors are discussed under XOP instruction set.

### Compiler and assembler support

Recent releases of GCC starting with version 4.6 (although there was a 4.3 branch with certain support) and the Intel Compiler Suite starting with version 11.1 support AVX. The Visual Studio 2010/2012 compiler supports AVX via intrinsic and /arch:AVX switch. The Open64 compiler version 4.5.1 supports AVX with -mavx flag. Absoft supports with -mavx flag. PathScale supports via the -mavx flag. The Free Pascal compiler supports AVX and AVX2 with the -CfAVX and -CfAVX2 switches from version 2.7.1. The Vector Pascal compiler supports AVX via the -cpuAVX32 flag. The GNU Assembler (GAS) inline assembly functions support these instructions (accessible via GCC), as do Intel primitives and the Intel inline assembler (closely compatible to GAS, although more general in its handling of local references within inline code). Other assemblers such as MASM VS2010 version, YASM,[11] FASMNASM and JWASM.

### Operating system support

AVX adds new register-state through the 256-bit wide YMM register file, so explicit operating system support is required to properly save and restore AVX's expanded registers betweencontext switches; without this, only AVX 128-bit is supported[citation needed]. The following operating system versions will support AVX 256-bit:

• Apple OS X: Support for AVX added in 10.6.8 (Snow Leopard) update[12] released on June 23, 2011.
• Linux: supported since kernel version 2.6.30,[13] released on June 9, 2009.[14]
• Windows: supported in Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1,[15] Windows 8
• Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 with Hyper-V requires a hotfix to support AMD AVX (Opteron 6200 and 4200 series) processors, KB2568088
• FreeBSD in a patch submitted on 21 January 2012,[16] which was included in the 9.1 stable release[17]
• DragonFly BSD added support in early 2013.
• Solaris 10 Update 10 and Solaris 11

Advanced Vector Extensions 2 (AVX2), also known as Haswell New Instructions,[2] is an expansion of the AVX instruction set introduced in Intel's Haswell microarchitecture. AVX2 makes the following additions:

• expansion of most vector integer SSE and AVX instructions to 256 bits
• three-operand general-purpose bit manipulation and multiply
• three-operand fused multiply-accumulate support (FMA3)
• Gather support, enabling vector elements to be loaded from non-contiguous memory locations
• DWORD- and QWORD-granularity any-to-any permutes
• vector shifts.

### New instructions

Instruction Description
VBROADCASTSS,VBROADCASTSDCopy a 32-bit or 64-bit register operand to all elements of a XMM or YMM vector register. These are register versions of the same instructions in AVX1. There is no 128-bit version however, but the same effect can be simply achieved using VINSERTF128.
VPBROADCASTB,VPBROADCASTW,VPBROADCASTD,VPBROADCASTQCopy an 8, 16, 32 or 64-bit integer register of memory operand to all elements of a XMM or YMM vector register.
VGATHERDPD,VGATHERQPD,VGATHERDPS,VGATHERQPSGathers single or double precision floating point values using either 32 or 64-bit indices and scale.
VPGATHERDD,VPGATHERDQ,VPGATHERQD,VPGATHERQQGathers 32 or 64-bit integer values values using either 32 or 64-bit indices and scale.
VINSERTI128Replaces either the lower half or the upper half of a 256-bit YMM register with the value of a 128-bit source operand. The other half of the destination is unchanged.
VEXTRACTI128Extracts either the lower half or the upper half of a 256-bit YMM register and copies the value to a 128-bit destination operand.
VPMASKMOVD,VPMASKMOVQConditionally reads any number of elements from a SIMD vector memory operand into a destination register, leaving the remaining vector elements unread and setting the corresponding elements in the destination register to zero. Alternatively, conditionally writes any number of elements from a SIMD vector register operand to a vector memory operand, leaving the remaining elements of the memory operand unchanged.
VPERMPSVPERMDShuffle the eight 32-bit vector elements of one 256-bit source operand into a 256-bit destination operand, with a register or memory operand as selector.
VPERMPDVPERMQShuffle the four 64-bit vector elements of one 256-bit source operand into a 256-bit destination operand, with a register or memory operand as selector.
VPERM2I128Shuffle the four 128-bit vector elements of two 256-bit source operands into a 256-bit destination operand, with an immediate constant as selector.
VPBLENDDDoubleword immediate version of the PBLEND instructions from SSE4.
VPSLLVDVPSLLVQShift left logical. Allows variable shifts where each element is shifted according to the packed input.
VPSRLVDVPSRLVQShift right logical. Allows variable shifts where each element is shifted according to the packed input.
VPSRAVDShift right arithmetically. Allows variable shifts where each element is shifted according to the packed input.

## AVX-512

Main article:  AVX-512

AVX-512 are 512-bit extensions to the 256-bit Advanced Vector Extensions SIMD instructions for x86 instruction set architecture proposed by Intel in July 2013, and scheduled to be supported in 2015 with Intel's Knights Landing processor.[1]

AVX-512 consists of multiple extensions not all meant to be supported by all processors implementing them. Only the core extension AVX-512F (AVX-512 Foundation) is required by all implementations.

The instruction set consists of the following:

• AVX-512 Foundation – expands most 32-bit and 64-bit based AVX instructions with EVEX coding scheme to support 512-bit registers, operation masks, parameter broadcasting, and embedded rounding and exception control
• AVX-512 Conflict Detection Instructions (CDI) – efficient conflict detection to allow more loops to be vectorized, supported by Knights Landing[1]
• AVX-512 Exponential and Reciprocal Instructions (ERI) – exponential and reciprocal operations designed to help implement transcendental operations, supported by Knights Landing[1]
• AVX-512 Prefetch Instructions (PFI) – new prefetch capabilities, supported by Knights Landing[1]

## References

1.  James Reinders (23 July 2013), AVX-512 InstructionsIntel, retrieved 20 August 2013
2.  Haswell New Instruction Descriptions Now Available, Software.intel.com, retrieved 2012-01-17
3. Jump up^ "i386 and x86-64 Options - Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)". Retrieved 2014-02-09.
4. Jump up^ "Linux RAID". LWN. 2013-02-17.
5. Jump up^
6. Jump up^ "Checssprograming AVX2". Retrieved March 2014.
7. Jump up^ "Intel Offers Peek at Nehalem and Larrabee". ExtremeTech. 2008-03-17.
8. Jump up^ "Intel Core i7-3960X Processor Extreme Edition". Retrieved 2012-01-17.
9. Jump up^ Dave Christie (2009-05-07), Striking a balance, AMD Developer blogs, retrieved 2012-01-17
10. Jump up^ New "Bulldozer" and "Piledriver" Instructions, AMD, October 2012
11. Jump up^ YASM 0.7.0 Release Notes http://yasm.tortall.net/releases/Release0.7.0.html
12. Jump up^ Twitter, retrieved 2010-06-23[unreliable source?]
13. Jump up^ x86: add linux kernel support for YMM state, retrieved 2009-07-13
14. Jump up^ Linux 2.6.30 - Linux Kernel Newbies, retrieved 2009-07-13
15. Jump up^ Floating-Point Support for 64-Bit Drivers, retrieved 2009-12-06
16. Jump up^ Add support for the extended FPU states on amd64, both for native 64bit and 32bit ABIs, svnweb.freebsd.org, 2012-01-21, retrieved 2012-01-22
17. Jump up^ "FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE Announcement". Retrieved 2013-05-20.
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