structure of this book：
Much of the power of C++ comes from its support for programming with abstrctions. ... our focus is on how to use the features in C++ to write programs that are safe, that can be built quickly, and
yet offer performance comparable to the sorts of low-level programs often written in C.
Modern C++ can be thought of as comprising three parts:
- The low-level language, largely inherited from C.
- More advanced language features that allow us to define our own data types and to organize large-scale programs and systems.
- The standard library, which uses these advanced features to provides a set of useful data structures and algorithms.
Parts I and II (1~2) cover the basic language and library facilities.
Parts III through V (3~5) focus on how we can write our own types.
A function definition specifies four elements: the return type, the function name, a (possible empty) parameter list enclosed ion parentheses, and the function body.
（ubuntu下安装g++编译器命令： sudo apt-get install build-essential ）
“endlis a special value, called a manipulator , that when written to an output stream has the effect ofwriting
a new line to the output and flushing the buffer associated with that device. By flushing the buffer, we ensure that the user will see the output written to the stream”
NOTE：Programmers often insert print statements during debugging. Such statements should always flush the stream.
养成在定义变量时，对其进行初始化的习惯：“When we define a variable, we should give it an initial value unless we are certain that the initial value will be
overwritten before the variable is used for any other purpose. If we cannot guarantee that the variable will be reset before being read, we should initialize it”
大段的注释最好明确的在每一行注释前加上标记确认其属于注释！“When a comment pair does span multiple
lines, it is often a good idea to indicate visually that the inner lines are part of a multi-line comment.”
介绍了如何 Reading an Unknown Number of Inputs：
“When we use an istream as a condition, the effect is to test the state of the stream. If the stream is valid that is, if it is still possible to read another input then the test succeeds.
An istream becomes invalid when we hit end-of-file or encounter an invalid input, such as reading a value that is not an integer. An istream that is in an invalid state will cause the condition to
“Operating systems use different values for end-of-file. On Windows systems we enter an end-of-file by typing a control-zsimultaneously type the "ctrl" key and a "z." On UNIX systems, including
Mac OS-X machines, it is usually
int sum = 0, value;
// read till end-of-file, calculating a running total of all values read
while (std::cin >> value)
sum += value; // equivalent to sum = sum + value
std::cout << "Sum is: " << sum << std::endl;
class是C++的重要特点，它的目的就是更加方便程序员创建自己的数据 type从而更好地表达自己想要的的数据结构。这本书里在这第一部分就引入了class的内容，一方面是先给一个overview of whole C++，另一方面是体现了class是一种很好的封装性的元素，我们完全可以在不知道它的实现细节的基础上高效的使用它让它为我们所用！（To use a class, we need
not know anything about how it is implemented. Instead, what we need to know is what operations the class provides.）
To use a class we need to know three things:
1.What is its name?
2.Where is it defined?
3.What operations does it support?
NOTE：Headers for the standard library are enclosed in angle brackets (< >). Nonstandard headers are enclosed in double quotes (" " ).