使用golang解析yaml、json、xml文件

微信公众号:运维开发故事,作者::wanger

解析和生成yaml文件

YAML(YAML 不是标记语言)是一种人类可读的数据序列化语言。它通常用于配置文件,但也用于数据存储或传输。
YAML 本身支持三种基本数据类型:标量(例如字符串、整数和浮点数)、列表和映射(字典/哈希)。
我们使用 yaml.v3 包来解析yaml文件

go get gopkg.in/yaml.v3

解析yaml

func Unmarshal(in []byte, out interface{}) (err error)

我们使用 Unmarshal来解析yaml
yaml文件内容如下:

- name: wanger
  age: 24
  address: beijing
  hobby:
    - literature
    - social
- name: 冬哥
  age: 30
  address: chengdu
  hobby:
    - basketball
    - guitar
- name: 华子
  age: 27
  address: shenzhen
  hobby:
    - 王者荣耀
- name: 乔克
  age: 29
  address: chongqing
  hobby:
    - 阅读
    - 王者荣耀
- name: 夏老师
  age: 27
  address: chengdu
  hobby:
    - 吃吃喝喝
- name: 姜总
  age: 25
  address: shanghai
  hobby:
    - talkshow
- name: 郑哥
  age: 30
  address: beijing
  hobby:
    - 阅读
    - 复读机

读取test.yaml

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"gopkg.in/yaml.v2"
	"io/ioutil"
	"gopkg.in/yaml.v3"
	"log"
)



type Users struct {
	Name   string      `yaml:"name"`
	Age    int8        `yaml:"age"`
	Address  string `yaml:"address"`
	Hobby []string `yaml:"hobby"`
}


func main() {

	file, err := ioutil.ReadFile("test.yaml")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}
	var data [7]Users
	err2 := yaml.Unmarshal(file, &data)

	if err2 != nil {
		log.Fatal(err2)
	}
	for _, v := range data {
		fmt.Println(v)
	}
}

输出内容如下

{wanger 24 beijing [literature social]}
{冬哥 30 chengdu [basketball guitar]}
{华子 27 shenzhen [王者荣耀]}
{乔克 29 chongqing [阅读 王者荣耀]}
{夏老师 27 chengdu [吃吃喝喝]}
{姜总 25 shanghai [钓鱼  音乐 美食  酒talkshow]}
{郑哥 30 beijing [阅读 复读机]}

生成yaml

func Marshal(in interface{}) (out []byte, err error)

我们使用 Marshal来生成yaml,生成一个关于我们团队信息的yaml文件吧
可以通过定义结构体yaml标签来自定义输出的yaml文件的键名

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"gopkg.in/yaml.v3"
)



type Users struct {
	Name   string      `yaml:"name"`
	Age    int8        `yaml:"age"`
	Address  string `yaml:"address"`
	Hobby []string `yaml:"hobby"`
}


func main() {
	wanger := Users{
		Name: "wanger",
		Age:  24,
		Address: "beijing",
		Hobby: []string{"literature", "social"},
	}
	dongdong := Users{
		Name: "冬哥",
		Age:  30,
		Address: "chengdu",
		Hobby: []string{"basketball", "guitar"},
	}
	xialaoshi := Users{
		Name: "夏老师",
		Age:  29,
		Address: "chengdu",
		Hobby: []string{"吃吃喝喝"},
	}
	huazai := Users{
		Name: "华子",
		Age:  28,
		Address: "shenzhen",
		Hobby: []string{"王者荣耀"},
	}
	qiaoke := Users{
		Name: "乔克",
		Age:  30,
		Address: "chongqing",
		Hobby: []string{"阅读", "王者荣耀"},
	}
	jiangzong := Users{
		Name: "姜总",
		Age:  25,
		Address: "shanghai",
		Hobby: []string{"钓鱼","音乐","美食","酒"},
	}
	zhengge := Users{
		Name: "郑哥",
		Age:  30,
		Address: "beijing",
		Hobby: []string{"阅读", "复读机"},
	}
    userlist:=[7]Users{wanger,dongdong,huazai,qiaoke,xialaoshi,jiangzong,zhengge}

	yamlData, err := yaml.Marshal(&userlist)

	if err != nil {
		fmt.Printf("Error while Marshaling. %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Println(string(yamlData))
    fileName := "test.yaml"
    err = ioutil.WriteFile(fileName, yamlData, 0644)
    if err != nil {
        panic("Unable to write data into the file")
    }
}    

生成的yaml信息如下

- name: wanger
  age: 24
  address: beijing
  hobby:
    - literature
    - social
- name: 冬哥
  age: 30
  address: chengdu
  hobby:
    - basketball
    - guitar
- name: 华子
  age: 27
  address: shenzhen
  hobby:
    - 王者荣耀
- name: 乔克
  age: 29
  address: chongqing
  hobby:
    - 阅读
    - 王者荣耀
- name: 夏老师
  age: 27
  address: chengdu
  hobby:
    - 吃吃喝喝
- name: 姜总
  age: 25
  address: shanghai
  hobby:
    - 钓鱼  
    - 音乐
    - 美食 
    -- name: 郑哥
  age: 30
  address: beijing
  hobby:
    - 阅读
    - 复读机

解析和生成json文件

我们使用encoding/json标准库包来实现json文件的解析与生成

读取和解析json文件

func Unmarshal(data []byte, v interface{}) error

我这里定义了一个user.json文件

{
  "users": [
    {
      "name": "wanger",
      "address": "beijing",
      "age": 24,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "111111111",
        "email": "wanger@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "dongdong",
      "address": "chengdu",
      "age": 30,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "2222222222222222",
        "emial": "dongdong@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "夏老师",
      "address": "chengdu",
      "age": 29,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "2232222222222222",
        "emial": "xialaoshi@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "郑哥",
      "address": "beijing",
      "age": 30,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "12222211111",
        "email": "zhengge@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "姜总",
      "address": "shanghai",
      "age": 25,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "111122211",
        "email": "jaingzong@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "乔克",
      "address": "chongqing",
      "age": 30,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "11333331111111",
        "email": "qiaoke@163.com"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "华仔",
      "address": "shenzhen",
      "age": 28,
      "social": {
        "mobile": "113311111",
        "email": "huazai@163.com"
      }
    }
  ]
}

读取user.json文件

package main

import (
	"encoding/json"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"os"
	"strconv"
)
func main() {
	jsonFile,err:=os.Open("user.json")
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}
	fmt.Println("Successfully Opened users.json")
	defer jsonFile.Close()
	byteValue,_:=ioutil.ReadAll(jsonFile)
	var users Users
	json.Unmarshal(byteValue,&users)
	for i :=0;i<len(users.Users);i++ {
		fmt.Println("User Type: "+ users.Users[i].Address)
		fmt.Println("User Age: "+strconv.Itoa(users.Users[i].Age))
		fmt.Println("User Name: "+users.Users[i].Name)
		fmt.Println("User Email: "+users.Users[i].Social.Email)
	}
	var result Users
	json.Unmarshal(byteValue,&result)
}
type Users struct {
	Users []User `json:"users"`
}
type User struct {
	Name string `json:"name"`
	Address string `json:"address"`
	Age int `json:"Age"`
	Social Social `json:"social"`
}
type Social struct {
	Mobile string `json:"mobile"`
	Email string `json:"email"`
}

输出结果如下

Successfully Opened users.json
User Type: beijing
User Age: 24
User Name: wanger
User Email: wanger@163.com
User Type: chengdu
User Age: 30
User Name: dongdong
User Email: 
User Type: chengdu
User Age: 28
User Name: 夏老师
User Email: 
User Type: beijing
User Age: 30
User Name: 郑哥
User Email: zhengge@163.com
User Type: shanghai
User Age: 25
User Name: 姜总
User Email: jaingzong@163.com
User Type: chongqing
User Age: 29
User Name: 乔克
User Email: qiaoke@163.com
User Type: shenzhen
User Age: 28
User Name: 华仔
User Email: huazai@163.com

当然有时候我们可能不知道要读取的json数据结构,这就没办法预定义结构体,那么我们可以使用**map[string]interface{}**类型来解析json。

var result map[string]interface{}
err = json.Unmarshal(byteValue, &result)
fmt.Printf("%+v\n", result)

输出信息如下:

map[users:[map[address:beijing age:24 name:wanger social:map[email:wanger@163.com mobile:111111]] map[address:chengdu age:30 name:dongdong social:map[emial:dongdong@163.com mobil222222222222222]] map[address:chengdu age:28 name:夏老师 social:map[emial:xialaoshi@163.cmobile:2232222222222222]] map[address:beijing age:30 name:郑哥 social:map[email:zhengge@1com mobile:12222211111]] map[address:shanghai age:25 name:姜总 social:map[email:jaingzong3.com mobile:111122211]] map[address:chongqing age:29 name:乔克 social:map[email:qiaoke@1com mobile:11333331111111]] map[address:shenzhen age:28 name:华仔 social:map[email:huazai3.com mobile:113311111]]]]

生成json文件

func Marshal(v interface{}) ([]byte, error)
package main

import (
	"encoding/json"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
)

func main() {
	wanger:=User{Address:"beijing",Name:"wanger",Age:24,Social:Social{Email:"wanger@163.com",Mobile:"111111111111"}}
	huazi:=User{Address:"shenzhen",Name:"huazai",Age:28,Social:Social{Email:"huazai@163.com",Mobile:"111122211111"}}
	qiaoke:=User{Address:"chongqing",Name:"qiaoke",Age:30,Social:Social{Email:"qiaoke@163.com",Mobile:"13332211111"}}
	xialaoshi:=User{Address:"chengdu",Name:"夏老师",Age:29,Social:Social{Email:"xialaoshi@163.com",Mobile:"11144445411111"}}
	jiangzong:=User{Address:"shanghai",Name:"姜总",Age:25,Social:Social{Email:"jiangzong@163.com",Mobile:"111222445211111"}}
	dongdong:=User{Address:"chengdu",Name:"冬哥",Age:30,Social:Social{Email:"dongdong@163.com",Mobile:"1155555211111"}}
	zhengge:=User{Address:"beijing",Name:"郑哥",Age:24,Social:Social{Email:"zhengge@163.com",Mobile:"1112224566211111"}}
	result:=Users{Users: []User{wanger,huazi,jiangzong,xialaoshi,qiaoke,dongdong,zhengge}}
	bytearray,err:=json.Marshal(result)
	if err!=nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}
	fmt.Println(string(bytearray))
	fileName := "user.json"
	err = ioutil.WriteFile(fileName, bytearray, 0644)
	if err != nil {
		panic("Unable to write data into the file")
	}
}
type Users struct {
	Users []User `json:"users"`
}
type User struct {
	Name string `json:"name"`
	Address string `json:"address"`
	Age int `json:"Age"`
	Social Social `json:"social"`
}
type Social struct {
	Mobile string `json:"mobile"`
	Email string `json:"email"`
}

输出内容如下

{"users":[{"name":"wanger","address":"beijing","Age":24,"social":{"mobile":"111111111111","email":"wanger@163.com"}},{"name":"huazai","address":"shenzhen","Age":28,"social":{"mobile":"111122211111","email":"huazai@163.com"}},{"name":"姜总","address":"shanghai","Age":25,"social":{"mobile":"111222445211111","email":"jiangzong@163.com"}},{"name":"夏老师","address":"chengdu","Age":29,"social":{"mobile":"11144445411111","email":"xialaoshi@163.com"}},{"name":"qiaoke","address":"chongqing","Age":30,"social":{"mobile":"13332211111","email":"qiaoke@163.com"}},{"name":"冬哥","address":"chengdu","Age":30,"social":{"mobile":"1155555211111","email":"dongdong@163.com"}},{"name":"郑哥","address":"beijing","Age":24,"social":{"mobile":"1112224566211111","email":"zhengge@163.com"}}]}

可以看出上面输出的json并不是很美观,可以使用更易读的函数**json.MarshalIndent()**函数,MarshalIndent()可以定义输出的前缀和缩进

bytearray,err:=json.MarshalIndent(result,""," ")
if err!=nil {
	fmt.Println(err)
}
fmt.Println(string(bytearray))

输出内容如下,比之前看起来好多了

{
 "users": [
  {
   "name": "wanger",
   "address": "beijing",
   "Age": 24,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "111111111111",
    "email": "wanger@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "huazai",
   "address": "shenzhen",
   "Age": 28,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "111122211111",
    "email": "huazai@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "姜总",
   "address": "shanghai",
   "Age": 25,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "111222445211111",
    "email": "jiangzong@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "夏老师",
   "address": "chengdu",
   "Age": 29,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "11144445411111",
    "email": "xialaoshi@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "qiaoke",
   "address": "chongqing",
   "Age": 30,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "13332211111",
    "email": "qiaoke@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "冬哥",
   "address": "chengdu",
   "Age": 30,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "1155555211111",
    "email": "dongdong@163.com"
   }
  },
  {
   "name": "郑哥",
   "address": "beijing",
   "Age": 24,
   "social": {
    "mobile": "1112224566211111",
    "email": "zhengge@163.com"
   }
  }
 ]
}

解析和生成xml文件

解析xml文件

func Unmarshal(data []byte, v interface{}) error

定义一个user.xml文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<users>
    <user address="beijing">
        <name>wanger</name>
        <age>24</age>
        <social>
            <email>wanger@163.com</email>
            <mobile>1233455464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="chengdu">
        <name>冬哥</name>
        <age>30</age>
        <social>
            <email>dongge@163.com</email>
            <mobile>12245555464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="chengdu">
        <name>夏老师</name>
        <age>29</age>
        <social>
            <email>xialaoshi@163.com</email>
            <mobile>12335677464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="beijing">
        <name>郑哥</name>
        <age>30</age>
        <social>
            <email>zhengge@163.com</email>
            <mobile>12334355464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="shanghai">
        <name>姜总</name>
        <age>25</age>
        <social>
            <email>jiangzong@163.com</email>
            <mobile>123565455464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="chongqing">
        <name>乔克</name>
        <age>29</age>
        <social>
            <email>qiaoke@163.com</email>
            <mobile>124676755464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
    <user address="shenzhen">
        <name>华仔</name>
        <age>28</age>
        <social>
            <email>huazai@163.com</email>
            <mobile>1238655464</mobile>
        </social>
    </user>
</users>

解析xml文件
address,attr意味着该address字段是一个XML属性而不是一个嵌套元素。
如果结构体有一个名为 XMLName 的 Name 类型的字段,Unmarshal 在该字段中记录元素名称。

为了正确解析,go 语言的 xml 包要求 struct 定义中的所有字段必须是可导出的(即首字母大写)

package main

import (
	"encoding/xml"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"os"
)
func main() {

	xmlFile,err:=os.Open("users.xml")
	if err!=nil {
		fmt.Println(err)
	}
	fmt.Println("successfully opened users.xml")
	defer xmlFile.Close()
	byteValue,_:=ioutil.ReadAll(xmlFile)
	var users Users
	xml.Unmarshal(byteValue,&users)
	for i :=0;i<len(users.Users);i++ {
		fmt.Println("User Address: "+users.Users[i].Address)
		fmt.Println("User Name: "+users.Users[i].Name)
		fmt.Println("Facebook Url: "+users.Users[i].Social.Email)
	}
}
type Users struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"users"`
	Users []User `xml:"user"`
}

type User struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"user"`
	Address string `xml:"address,attr"`
	Name string `xml:"name"`
	Social Social `xml:"social"`
}
type Social struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"social"`
	Mobile string `xml:"mobile"`
	Email string `xml:"email"`
}

输出结果如下:

successfully opened users.xml
User Address: beijing
User Name: wanger
Facebook Url: wanger@163.com
User Address: chengdu
User Name: 冬哥
Facebook Url: dongge@163.com
User Address: chengdu
User Name: 夏老师
Facebook Url: xialaoshi@163.com
User Address: beijing
User Name: 郑哥
Facebook Url: zhengge@163.com
User Address: shanghai
User Name: 姜总
Facebook Url: jiangzong@163.com
User Address: chongqing
User Name: 乔克
Facebook Url: qiaoke@163.com
User Address: shenzhen
User Name: 华仔
Facebook Url: huazai@163.com

生成xml文件

func Marshal(v interface{}) ([]byte, error)
func MarshalIndent(v interface{}, prefix, indent string) ([]byte, error)

可以使用Marshal()函数和MarshalIndent()函数,之前的json和yaml包里也有用到,区别就是MarshalIndent()可以添加
前缀和缩进,看起来更美观一点,Marshal 和MarshalIndent通过编写一个或多个包含数据的 XML 元素来处理所有其他数据。

package main

import (
	"encoding/xml"
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
)
func main() {
	wanger:=User{Address:"beijing",Name:"wanger",Age:24,Social:Social{Email:"wanger@163.com",Mobile:"111111111111"}}
	huazi:=User{Address:"shenzhen",Name:"huazai",Age:28,Social:Social{Email:"huazai@163.com",Mobile:"111122211111"}}
	qiaoke:=User{Address:"chongqing",Name:"qiaoke",Age:30,Social:Social{Email:"qiaoke@163.com",Mobile:"13332211111"}}
	xialaoshi:=User{Address:"chengdu",Name:"夏老师",Age:29,Social:Social{Email:"xialaoshi@163.com",Mobile:"11144445411111"}}
	jiangzong:=User{Address:"shanghai",Name:"姜总",Age:25,Social:Social{Email:"jiangzong@163.com",Mobile:"111222445211111"}}
	dongdong:=User{Address:"chengdu",Name:"冬哥",Age:30,Social:Social{Email:"dongdong@163.com",Mobile:"1155555211111"}}
	zhengge:=User{Address:"beijing",Name:"郑哥",Age:24,Social:Social{Email:"zhengge@163.com",Mobile:"1112224566211111"}}
    v:=&Users{Users: []User{wanger,huazi,qiaoke,xialaoshi,zhengge,jiangzong,dongdong}}

	result, err := xml.MarshalIndent(v, "  ", "    ")
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Printf("error: %v\n", err)
	}
	fmt.Println(string(result))
	fileName := "users.xml"
	err = ioutil.WriteFile(fileName, result, 0644)
	if err != nil {
		panic("Unable to write data into the file")
	}
}
type Users struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"users"`
	Users []User `xml:"user"`
}

type User struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"user"`
	Age int64 `xml:"age"`
	Address string `xml:"address,attr"`
	Name string `xml:"name"`
	Social Social `xml:"social"`
}
type Social struct {
	XMLName xml.Name `xml:"social"`
	Mobile string `xml:"mobile"`
	Email string `xml:"email"`
}

输出信息如下

  <users>
      <user address="beijing">
          <age>24</age>
          <name>wanger</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>111111111111</mobile>
              <email>wanger@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="shenzhen">
          <age>28</age>
          <name>huazai</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>111122211111</mobile>
              <email>huazai@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="chongqing">
          <age>30</age>
          <name>qiaoke</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>13332211111</mobile>
              <email>qiaoke@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="chengdu">
          <age>29</age>
          <name>夏老师</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>11144445411111</mobile>
              <email>xialaoshi@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="beijing">
          <age>24</age>
          <name>郑哥</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>1112224566211111</mobile>
              <email>zhengge@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="shanghai">
          <age>25</age>
          <name>姜总</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>111222445211111</mobile>
              <email>jiangzong@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
      <user address="chengdu">
          <age>30</age>
          <name>冬哥</name>
          <social>
              <mobile>1155555211111</mobile>
              <email>dongdong@163.com</email>
          </social>
      </user>
  </users>

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